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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(38): 21329-21340, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531442

RESUMO

The interaction of a water molecule with ferric heme-iron protoporphyrin ([PP FeIII]+) has been investigated in the gas phase in an ion trap and studied theoretically by density functional theory. It is found that the interaction of water with ferric heme leads to a stable [PP-FeIII-H2O]+ complex in the intermediate spin state (S = 3/2), in the same state as its unligated [PP-FeIII]+ homologue, without spin crossing during water attachment. Using the Van't Hoff equation, the reaction enthalpy for the formation of a Fe-OH2 bond has been determined for [PP-FeIII-H2O]+ and [PP-FeIII-(H2O)2]+. The corrected binding energy for a single Fe-H2O bond is -12.2 ± 0.6 kcal mol-1, while DFT calculations at the OPBE level yield -11.7 kcal mol-1. The binding energy of the second ligation yielding a six coordinated FeIII atom is decreased with a bond energy of -9 ± 0.9 kcal mol-1, well reproduced by calculations as -7.1 kcal mol-1. However, calculations reveal features of a weaker bond type, such as a rather long Fe-O bond with 2.28 Å for the [PP-FeIII-H2O]+ complex and the absence of a spin change by complexation. Thus despite a strong bond with H2O, the FeIII atom does not show, through theoretical modelling, a strong acceptor character in its half filled 3dz2 orbital. It is also observed that the binding properties of H2O to hemes seem strikingly specific to ferric heme and we have shown, experimentally and theoretically, that the affinity of H2O for protonated heme [H PP-Fe]+, an intermediate between FeIII and FeII, is strongly reduced compared to that for ferric heme.

2.
Chem Rev ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424927

RESUMO

A detailed understanding of radiative and nonradiative processes in peptides containing an aromatic chromophore requires the knowledge of the nature and energy level of low-lying excited states that could be coupled to the bright 1ππ* excited state. Isolated aromatic amino acids and short peptides provide benchmark cases to study, at the molecular level, the photoinduced processes that govern their excited state dynamics. Recent advances in gas phase laser spectroscopy of conformer-selected peptides have paved the way to a better, yet not fully complete, understanding of the influence of intramolecular interactions on the properties of aromatic chromophores. This review aims at providing an overview of the photophysics and photochemistry at play in neutral and charged aromatic chromophore containing peptides, with a particular emphasis on the charge (electron, proton) and energy transfer processes. A significant impact is exerted by the experimental progress in energy- and time-resolved spectroscopy of protonated species, which leads to a growing demand for theoretical supports to accurately describe their excited state properties.

3.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(36): 7744-7750, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408342

RESUMO

The UV photofragmentation spectra of cold cytosine-M+ complexes (M+: Na+, K+, Ag+) were recorded and analyzed through comparison with geometry optimizations and frequency calculations of the ground and excited states at the SCS-CC2/Def2-SVPD level of theory. While in all complexes, the ground state minimum geometry is planar (Cs symmetry), the ππ* state minimum geometry has the NH2 group slightly twisted and an out-of-plane metal cation. This was confirmed by comparing the simulated ππ* Franck-Condon spectra with the vibrationally resolved photofragmentation spectra of CytNa+ and CytK+. Vertical excitation transitions were also calculated to evaluate the energies of the CT states involving the transfer of an electron from the Cyt moiety to M+. For both CytK+ and CytNa+ complexes, the first CT state corresponds to an electron transfer from the cytosine aromatic π ring to the antibonding σ* orbital centered on the alkali cation. This πσ* state is predicted to lie much higher in energy (>6 eV) than the band origin of the π-π* electronic transition (around 4.3 eV) unlike what is observed for the CytAg+ complex for which the first excited state has a nOσ* electronic configuration. This is the reason for the absence of the Cyt+ + M charge transfer fragmentation channel for CytK+ and CytNa+ complexes.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(4): 1750-1760, 2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623949

RESUMO

The binding energy of CO, O2 and NO to isolated ferric heme, [FeIIIP]+, was studied in the presence and absence of a σ donor (N-methylimidazole and histidine) as the trans axial ligand. This study combines the experimental determination of binding enthalpies by equilibrium measurements in a low temperature ion trap using the van't Hoff equation and high level DFT calculations. It was found that the presence of N-methylimidazole as the axial ligand on the [FeIIIP]+ porphyrin dramatically weakens the [FeIIIP-ligand]+ bond with an up to sevenfold decrease in binding energy owing to the σ donation by N-methylimidazole to the FeIII(3d) orbitals. This trans σ donor effect is characteristic of ligation to iron in hemes in both ferrous and ferric redox forms; however, to date, this has not been observed for ferric heme.


Assuntos
Hemina , Imidazóis , Sítios de Ligação , Hemina/química , Hemina/metabolismo , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Ferro/química , Ferro/metabolismo , Ligantes , Termodinâmica
5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(17): 11730-11739, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687125

RESUMO

A combined theoretical and experimental approach has been used to investigate the binding energy of a ruthenium metalloporphyrin ligated with CO, ruthenium tetraphenylporphyrin [RuII TPP], in the RuII oxidation degree. Measurements performed with VUV ionization using the DESIRS beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL led to adiabatic ionization energies of [RuII TPP] and its complex with CO, [RuII TPP-CO], of 6.48 ± 0.03 eV and 6.60 ± 0.03 eV, respectively, while the ion dissociation threshold of [RuII TPP-CO]+ is measured to be 8.36 ± 0.03 eV using the ground-state neutral complex. These experimental data are used to derive the binding energies of the CO ligand in neutral and cationic complexes (1.88 ± 0.06 eV and 1.76 ± 0.06 eV, respectively) using a Born-Haber cycle. Density functional theory calculations, in very satisfactory agreement with the experimental results, help to get insights into the metal-ligand bond. Notably, the high ligation energies can be rationalized in terms of the ruthenium orbital structure, which is singular compared to that of the iron atom. Thus, beyond indications of a strengthening of the Ru-CO bond due to the decrease in the CO vibrational frequency in the complex as compared to the Fe-CO bond, high-level calculations are essential to accurately describe the metal ligand (CO) bond and show that the Ru-CO bond energy is strongly affected by the splitting of triplet and singlet spin states in uncomplexed [Ru TPP].

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(9): 6134-6145, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451581

RESUMO

Experimental and theoretical investigations of the excited states of protonated 1- and 2-aminonaphthalene are presented. The electronic spectra are obtained by laser induced photofragmentation of the ions captured in a cold ion trap. Using ab initio calculations, the electronic spectra can be assigned to different tautomers which have the proton on the amino group or on the naphthalene moiety. It is shown that the tautomer distribution can be varied by changing the electrospray source conditions, favoring either the most stable form in solution (amino protonation) or that in the gas phase (aromatic ring protonation). Calculations for larger amino-polyaromatics predict that these systems should behave as "proton sponges" i.e. have a proton affinity larger than 11 eV.

7.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(34): 6429-6439, 2017 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28777573

RESUMO

Charge transfer reactions are ubiquitous in chemical reactivity and often viewed as ultrafast processes. For DNA, femtochemistry has undeniably revealed the primary stage of the deactivation dynamics of the locally excited state following electronic excitation. We here demonstrate that the full time scale excited state dynamics can be followed up to milliseconds through an original pump-probe photodissociation scheme applied to cryogenic ion spectroscopy. Protonated cytosine is chosen as a benchmark system in which the locally excited 1ππ* state decays in the femtosecond range toward long-lived charge transfer and triplet states with lifetimes ranging from microseconds to milliseconds, respectively. A three-step mechanism (1ππ* → 1CT → 3ππ*) is proposed where internal conversion from each state can occur leading ultimately to fragmentation in the ground electronic state.

8.
Chemistry ; 23(54): 13493-13500, 2017 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28744916

RESUMO

With a view to characterizing the influence of the electronic structure of the Fe atom on the nature of its bond with dioxygen (O2 ) in heme compounds, a study of the UV/Vis action spectra and binding energies of heme-O2 molecules has been undertaken in the gas phase. The binding reaction of protonated ferrous heme [FeII -hemeH]+ with O2 has been studied in the gas phase by determining the equilibrium of complexed [FeII -hemeH(O2 )]+ with uncomplexed protonated heme in an ion trap at controlled temperatures. The binding energy of O2 to the Fe atom of protonated ferrous heme was obtained from a van't Hoff plot. Surprisingly, this energy (1540±170 cm-1 , 18.4±2 kJ mol-1 ) is intermediate between those of ferric heme and ferrous heme. This result is interpreted in terms of a delocalization of the positive charge over the porphyrin cycle, such that the Fe atom bears a fractional positive charge. The resulting electron distribution on the Fe atom differs notably from that of a purely low-spin ferrous heme [FeII -heme(O2 )] complex, as deduced from its absorption spectrum. It also differs from that of ferric heme [FeIII -heme(O2 )]+ , as evidenced by the absorption spectra. Protonated heme creates a specific bond that cannot accommodate strong σ donation.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Gases/química , Heme/química , Oxigênio/química , Cinética , Prótons , Espectrofotometria , Temperatura Ambiente , Termodinâmica
9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(34): 23785-94, 2016 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27524459

RESUMO

The excited state dynamics of protonated ortho (2-) and para (4-) dimethyl aminopyridine molecules (DMAPH(+)) has been studied through pump-probe photofragmentation spectroscopy and excited state coupled-cluster CC2 calculations. Multiscale temporal dynamics has been recorded over 9 orders of magnitude from subpicosecond to millisecond. The initially locally excited ππ* state rapidly decays within about 100 fs into a charge transfer state following 90° twist motion of the dimethyl amino group. While this twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state does not trigger any fragmentation, it selectively leads to specific two-color photofragments through absorption of the probe photon at 355 nm. Besides, the optically dark TICT state provides an efficient deactivation path with high intersystem probability to non-dissociative long-lived triplet states. Such a multiscale pump-probe photodissociation scheme paves the way to systematic studies of charge transfer reactions in the excited state of cold ionic systems stored in a cryogenic cooled ion trap and probed continuously up to the millisecond time scale.

10.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(21): 3797-809, 2016 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27171787

RESUMO

The excited state properties of protonated ortho (2-), meta (3-), and para (4-) aminopyridine molecules have been investigated through UV photofragmentation spectroscopy and excited state coupled-cluster CC2 calculations. Cryogenic ion spectroscopy allows recording well-resolved vibronic spectroscopy that can be reproduced through Franck-Condon simulations of the ππ* local minimum of the excited state potential energy surface. The excited state lifetimes have also been measured through a pump-probe excitation scheme and compared to the estimated radiative lifetimes. Although protonated aminopyridines are rather simple aromatic molecules, their deactivation mechanisms are indeed quite complex with unexpected results. In protonated 3- and 4-aminopyridine, the fragmentation yield is negligible around the band origin, which implies the absence of internal conversion to the ground state. Besides, a twisted intramolecular charge transfer reaction is evidenced in protonated 4-aminopyridine around the band origin, while excited state proton transfer from the pyridinic nitrogen to the adjacent carbon atom opens with roughly 500 cm(-1) of excess energy.

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(30): 20126-34, 2016 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27110833

RESUMO

The excited state lifetimes of DNA bases are often very short due to very efficient non-radiative processes assigned to the ππ*-nπ* coupling. A set of protonated aromatic diazine molecules (pyridazine, pyrimidine and pyrazine C4H5N2(+)) and protonated pyrimidine DNA bases (cytosine, uracil and thymine), as well as the protonated pyridine (C5H6N(+)), have been investigated. For all these molecules except one tautomer of protonated uracil (enol-keto), electronic spectroscopy exhibits vibrational line broadening. Excited state geometry optimization at the CC2 level has been conducted to find out whether the excited state lifetimes measured from line broadening can be correlated to the calculated ordering of the ππ* and nπ* states and the ππ*-nπ* energy gap. The short lifetimes, observed when one nitrogen atom of the ring is not protonated, can be rationalized by relaxation of the ππ* state to the nπ* state or directly to the electronic ground state through ring puckering.

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(11): 2070-4, 2015 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26266504

RESUMO

The fragmentation times corresponding to the loss of the chromophore (Cα-Cß bond dissociation channel) after photoexcitation at 263 nm have been investigated for several small peptides containing tryptophan or tyrosine. For tryptophan-containing peptides, the aromatic chromophore is lost as an ionic fragment (m/z 130), and the fragmentation time increases with the mass of the neutral fragment. In contrast, for tyrosine-containing peptides the aromatic chromophore is always lost as a neutral fragment (mass = 107 amu) and the fragmentation time is found to be fast (<20 ns). These different behaviors are explained by the role of the postfragmentation interaction in the complex formed after the Cα-Cß bond cleavage.


Assuntos
Íons/química , Peptídeos/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Triptofano/química , Tirosina/química
13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(39): 25693-9, 2015 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26059068

RESUMO

While ferrous heme (Fe(II)) within hemoproteins binds dioxygen efficiently, it has not yet been possible to observe the analog complex with ferric heme (Fe(III)). We present the first observation and characterization of the latter complex in a cooled ion trap. The bond formation enthalpy of ferric heme-O2 has been derived from the Van't Hoff equation by means of temperature dependent measurements. The binding energy of the [heme Fe(III)-O2](+) ionic complex is rather strong as compared to that of [heme Fe(III)-N2](+), showing the formation of an incipient Fe-O bond, which is confirmed by the electronic absorption spectra of the two complexes. This first observation of the [heme Fe(III)-O2](+) complex lays the basis for the precise description of its electronic states.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Heme/química , Ferro/química , Oxigênio/química , Sítios de Ligação , Hemeproteínas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Termodinâmica
14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(39): 25854-62, 2015 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25971335

RESUMO

We present a comprehensive experimental study of protonated tyramine ions in a cold 3D quadrupole ion trap coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Multiple UV photodissociation techniques have been developed, including single and double resonance spectroscopy along with time-resolved excited state lifetime measurements through a picosecond pump-probe scheme. An original UV-UV hole burning method is presented which can be used without modification of the quadrupole ion trap. The electronic spectrum of the cold protonated tyramine exhibits well-defined vibronic transitions, allowing the firm assignment of its two low-lying energy conformations by comparison with CC2 ab initio excited state calculations.

15.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(23): 5914-24, 2015 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25248102

RESUMO

The electronic spectroscopy and the electronic excited state properties of cold protonated phenylalanine and protonated tyrosine have been revisited on a large spectral domain and interpreted by comparison with ab initio calculations. The protonated species are stored in a cryogenically cooled Paul trap, maintained at ∼10 K, and the parent and all the photofragment ions are mass-analyzed in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, which allows detecting the ionic species with an improved mass resolution compared to what is routinely achieved with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. These new results emphasize the competition around the band origin between two proton transfer reactions from the ammonium group toward either the aromatic chromophore or the carboxylic acid group. These reactions are initiated by the coupling of the locally excited ππ* state with higher charge transfer states, the positions and coupling of which depend on the conformation of the protonated molecules. Each of these reaction processes gives rise to specific fragmentation channels that supports the conformer selectivity observed in the photofragmentation spectra of protonated tyrosine and phenylalanine.


Assuntos
Luz , Fenilalanina/química , Teoria Quântica , Tirosina/química , Eletrônica , Modelos Moleculares
16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(11): 5250-9, 2014 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24492247

RESUMO

The electronic spectra of cold protonated aromatic amines: anilineH(+) C6H5-NH3(+), benzylamineH(+) C6H5-CH2-NH3(+) and phenylethylamineH(+) C6H5-(CH2)2-NH3(+) have been investigated experimentally in a large spectral domain and are compared to those of their hydroxyl homologues. In the low energy region, the electronic spectra are similar to their neutral analogues, which reveals the ππ* character of their first excited state. A second transition is observed from 0.4 to 1 eV above the origin band, which is assigned to the excitation of the πσ* state. In these protonated amine molecules, there is a competition between different fragmentation channels, some being specific to UV excitation i.e., not observed in low-energy collision induced dissociation experiments. Besides, for one amine a drastic change in the fragmentation branching ratio is observed within a very short energy range that reveals the complex excited state dynamics and fragmentation processes. The experimental observations can be rationalized using a simple qualitative model, the ππ*-πσ* model [A. L. Sobolewski, W. Domcke, C. Dedonder-Lardeux and C. Jouvet, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2002, 4, 1093-1100], which predicts that the excited state dynamics is controlled by the crossing between the ππ* excited state and a πσ* state repulsive along the XH (X being O or N) coordinate.

17.
J Chem Phys ; 140(2): 024302, 2014 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24437872

RESUMO

The electronic spectra of cold benzylium (C6H5-CH2 (+)) and 1-phenylethyl (C6H5-CH-CH3 (+)) cations have been recorded via photofragment spectroscopy. Benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations produced from electrosprayed benzylamine and phenylethylamine solutions, respectively, were stored in a cryogenically cooled quadrupole ion trap and photodissociated by an OPO laser, scanned in parts of the UV and visible regions (600-225 nm). The electronic states and active vibrational modes of the benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations as well as those of their tropylium or methyl tropylium isomers have been calculated with ab initio methods for comparison with the spectra observed. Sharp vibrational progressions are observed in the visible region while the absorption features are much broader in the UV. The visible spectrum of the benzylium cation is similar to that obtained in an argon tagging experiment [V. Dryza, N. Chalyavi, J. A. Sanelli, and E. J. Bieske, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 204304 (2012)], with an additional splitting assigned to Fermi resonances. The visible spectrum of the 1-phenylethyl cation also shows vibrational progressions. For both cations, the second electronic transition is observed in the UV, around 33,000 cm(-1) (4.1 eV) and shows a broadened vibrational progression. In both cases the S2 optimized geometry is non-planar. The third electronic transition observed around 40,000 cm(-1) (5.0 eV) is even broader with no apparent vibrational structures, which is indicative of either a fast non-radiative process or a very large change in geometry between the excited and the ground states. The oscillator strengths calculated for tropylium and methyl tropylium are weak. Therefore, these isomeric structures are most likely not responsible for these absorption features. Finally, the fragmentation pattern changes in the second and third electronic states: C2H2 loss becomes predominant at higher excitation energies, for both cations.

18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(24): 4349-55, 2014 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26273986

RESUMO

The excited state lifetimes of conformer- and mode-selected cold protonated tyrosine have been measured for the first time through a picosecond pump-probe photodissociation scheme. Whereas the photofragmentation mechanism of protonated tyrosine ions strongly depends upon the interaction of the carboxylic acid group with the phenol ring, their excited state lifetimes are quite similar and decrease as the excess energy increases from 1.5 ns at the band origin to 900 ps and less than 500 ps for the 10(1) and 10(2) bands, respectively. Surprisingly, the excited state lifetime of the conformer with the anti orientation of the hydroxyl oxygen lone pair with respect to the ammonium group dramatically increases as compared to the others conformers up to 10 ns at the band origin and by more than a factor of 2 for the 10(1) band. The present experimental results clearly emphasize the subtle effect of the structural conformation on the excited state properties of molecular ions.

19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(7): 1110-6, 2014 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26274457

RESUMO

Disulfide bonds (S-S) play a central role in stabilizing the native structure of proteins against denaturation. Experimentally, identification of these linkages in peptide and protein structure characterization remains challenging. UV photodissociation (UVPD) can be a valuable tool in identifying disulfide linkages. Here, the S-S bond acts as a UV chromophore and absorption of one UV photon corresponds to a σ-σ* transition. We have investigated the photodissociation dynamics of protonated cystine, which is a dimer of two cysteines linked by a disulfide bridge, at 263 nm (4.7 eV) using a multicoincidence technique in which fragments coming from the same fragmentation event are detected. Two types of bond cleavages are observed corresponding to the disulfide (S-S) and adjacent C-S bond ruptures. We show that the S-S cleavage leads to three different fragment ions via three different fragmentation mechanisms. The UVPD results are compared to collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-induced dissociation (EID) studies.

20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(22): 8779-88, 2013 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23636167

RESUMO

The photofragmentation pathways at 263 nm of several small peptides containing tyrosine as the UV chromophore have been characterized using a multi-coincidence technique. A detailed study of the fragmentation dynamics of protonated Glycine-Tyrosine (GYH(+)), Tyrosine-Glycine (YGH(+)), Glycine-Tyrosine-Glycine (GYGH(+)), Alanine-Tyrosine (AYH(+)) and Tyrosine-Alanine (YAH(+)) is presented in this paper. Fragmentations occurring or initiated in an excited state are distinguished from those occurring after internal conversion to the ground electronic state by their rapid fragmentation times and binary nature. For the studied systems, it is shown that fragmentations occurring after internal conversion to the ground state are the dominant processes compared to fragmentations occurring in the excited state. The low abundances associated with the observed UV photospecific channels, i.e. Cα-Cß bond breakage in YGH(+) and YAH(+) and direct z-type bond breakage in GYGH(+), respectively, can be rationalized upon consideration of charge transfer states accessible after absorption of one UV photon. Indeed, excited state calculations performed at the RI-CC2 level of theory indicate that charge transfer on the active CO group is a prerequisite for photospecific bond ruptures. The fragmentation mechanisms and the localization of the charge on the side chain after fragmentation are discussed in terms of ionization energies of the fragments.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/química , Peptídeos/química , Tirosina/química , Processos Fotoquímicos
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