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1.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2204120, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698263

RESUMO

Thermoelectric polyelectrolytes are emerging as ideal material platform for self-powered bio-compatible electronic devices and sensors. However, despite the nanoscale nature of the ionic thermodiffusion processes underlying thermoelectric efficiency boost in polyelectrolytes, to date no evidence for direct probing of ionic diffusion on its relevant length and time scale has been reported. This gap is bridged by developing heat-driven hybrid nanotransistors based on InAs nanowires embedded in thermally biased Na+ -functionalized (poly)ethyleneoxide, where the semiconducting nanostructure acts as a nanoscale probe sensitive to the local arrangement of the ionic species. The impact of ionic thermoelectric gating on the nanodevice electrical response is addressed, investigating the effect of device architecture, bias configuration and frequency of the heat stimulus, and inferring optimal conditions for the heat-driven nanotransistor operation. Microscopic quantities of the polyelectrolyte such as the ionic diffusion coefficient are extracted from the analysis of hysteretic behaviors rising in the nanodevices. The reported experimental platform enables simultaneously the ionic thermodiffusion and nanoscale resolution, providing a framework for direct estimation of polyelectrolytes microscopic parameters. This may open new routes for heat-driven nanoelectronic applications and boost the rational design of next-generation polymer-based thermoelectric materials.

2.
Nature ; 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424409

RESUMO

Correlations are fundamental in describing many-body systems. However, in experiments, correlations are notoriously difficult to assess on a microscopic scale, especially for electron spins. Even though it is firmly established theoretically that the electrons in a Cooper pair1 of a superconductor form maximally spin-entangled singlet states with opposite spin projections2-4, no spin correlation experiments have been demonstrated so far. Here we report the direct measurement of the spin cross-correlations between the currents of a Cooper pair splitter5-13, an electronic device that emits electrons originating from Cooper pairs. We use ferromagnetic split-gates14,15, compatible with nearby superconducting structures, to individually spin polarize the transmissions of the quantum dots in the two electronic paths, which act as tunable spin filters. The signals are detected in standard transport and in highly sensitive transconductance experiments. We find that the spin cross-correlation is negative, consistent with spin singlet emission, and deviates from the ideal value mostly due to the overlap of the Zeeman split quantum dot states. Our results demonstrate a new route to perform spin correlation experiments in nano-electronic devices, especially suitable for those relying on magnetic field sensitive superconducting elements, like triplet or topologically non-trivial superconductors16-18, or to perform Bell tests with massive particles19,20.

3.
Nano Lett ; 22(21): 8502-8508, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36285780

RESUMO

We report nonreciprocal dissipation-less transport in single ballistic InSb nanoflag Josephson junctions. Applying an in-plane magnetic field, we observe an inequality in supercurrent for the two opposite current propagation directions. Thus, these devices can work as Josephson diodes, with dissipation-less current flowing in only one direction. For small fields, the supercurrent asymmetry increases linearly with external field, and then it saturates as the Zeeman energy becomes relevant, before it finally decreases to zero at higher fields. The effect is maximum when the in-plane field is perpendicular to the current vector, which identifies Rashba spin-orbit coupling as the main symmetry-breaking mechanism. While a variation in carrier concentration in these high-quality InSb nanoflags does not significantly influence the supercurrent asymmetry, it is instead strongly suppressed by an increase in temperature. Our experimental findings are consistent with a model for ballistic short junctions and show that the diode effect is intrinsic to this material.

4.
Nanoscale ; 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903972

RESUMO

Nanowire geometry allows semiconductor heterostructures to be obtained that are not achievable in planar systems, as in, for example, axial superlattices made of large lattice mismatched materials. This provides a great opportunity to explore new optical transitions and vibrational properties resulting from the superstructure. Moreover, superlattice nanowires are expected to show improved thermoelectric properties, owing to the dominant role of surfaces and interfaces that can scatter phonons more effectively, reducing the lattice thermal conductivity. Here, we show the growth of long (up to 100 repetitions) GaAs/GaP superlattice nanowires with different periodicities, uniform layer thicknesses, and sharp interfaces, realized by means of Au-assisted chemical beam epitaxy. By optimizing the growth conditions, we obtained great control of the nanowire diameter, growth rate, and superlattice periodicity, offering a valuable degree of freedom for engineering photonic and phononic properties at the nanoscale. As a proof of concept, we analyzed a single type of superlattice nanowire with a well-defined periodicity and we observed room temperature optical emission and new phonon modes. Our results prove that high-quality GaAs/GaP superlattice nanowires have great potential for phononic and optoelectronic studies and applications.

5.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35407207

RESUMO

InSb nanoflags are grown by chemical beam epitaxy in regular arrays on top of Au-catalyzed InP nanowires synthesized on patterned SiO2/InP(111)B substrates. Two-dimensional geometry of the nanoflags is achieved by stopping the substrate rotation in the step of the InSb growth. Evolution of the nanoflag length, thickness and width with the growth time is studied for different pitches (distances in one of the two directions of the substrate plane). A model is presented which explains the observed non-linear time dependence of the nanoflag length, saturation of their thickness and gradual increase in the width by the shadowing effect for re-emitted Sb flux. These results might be useful for morphological control of InSb and other III-V nanoflags grown in regular arrays.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(7)2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35407877

RESUMO

In order to use III-V compound semiconductors as active channel materials in advanced electronic and quantum devices, it is important to achieve a good epitaxial growth on silicon substrates. As a first step toward this, we report on the selective-area growth of GaP/InGaP/InP/InAsP buffer layer nanotemplates on GaP substrates which are closely lattice-matched to silicon, suitable for the integration of in-plane InAs nanowires. Scanning electron microscopy reveals a perfect surface selectivity and uniform layer growth inside 150 and 200 nm large SiO2 mask openings. Compositional and structural characterization of the optimized structure performed by transmission electron microscopy shows the evolution of the major facet planes and allows a strain distribution analysis. Chemically uniform layers with well-defined heterointerfaces are obtained, and the topmost InAs layer is free from any dislocation. Our study demonstrates that a growth sequence of thin layers with progressively increasing lattice parameters is effective to efficiently relax the strain and eventually obtain high quality in-plane InAs nanowires on large lattice-mismatched substrates.

7.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34947727

RESUMO

Engineering detection dynamics in nanoscale receivers that operate in the far infrared (frequencies in the range 0.1-10 THz) is a challenging task that, however, can open intriguing perspectives for targeted applications in quantum science, biomedicine, space science, tomography, security, process and quality control. Here, we exploited InAs nanowires (NWs) to engineer antenna-coupled THz photodetectors that operated as efficient bolometers or photo thermoelectric receivers at room temperature. We controlled the core detection mechanism by design, through the different architectures of an on-chip resonant antenna, or dynamically, by varying the NW carrier density through electrostatic gating. Noise equivalent powers as low as 670 pWHz-1/2 with 1 µs response time at 2.8 THz were reached.

8.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443910

RESUMO

Ordered arrays of vertically aligned semiconductor nanowires are regarded as promising candidates for the realization of all-dielectric metamaterials, artificial electromagnetic materials, whose properties can be engineered to enable new functions and enhanced device performances with respect to naturally existing materials. In this review we account for the recent progresses in substrate nanopatterning methods, strategies and approaches that overall constitute the preliminary step towards the bottom-up growth of arrays of vertically aligned semiconductor nanowires with a controlled location, size and morphology of each nanowire. While we focus specifically on III-V semiconductor nanowires, several concepts, mechanisms and conclusions reported in the manuscript can be invoked and are valid also for different nanowire materials.

9.
ACS Appl Nano Mater ; 4(6): 5825-5833, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308268

RESUMO

High-quality heteroepitaxial two-dimensional (2D) InSb layers are very difficult to realize because of the large lattice mismatch with other widespread semiconductor substrates. A way around this problem is to grow free-standing 2D InSb nanostructures on nanowire (NW) stems, thanks to the capability of NWs to efficiently relax elastic strain along the sidewalls when lattice-mismatched semiconductor systems are integrated. In this work, we optimize the morphology of free-standing 2D InSb nanoflags (NFs). In particular, robust NW stems, optimized growth parameters, and the use of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) to precisely orient the substrate for preferential growth are implemented to increase the lateral size of the 2D InSb NFs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of these NFs reveals defect-free zinc blend crystal structure, stoichiometric composition, and relaxed lattice parameters. The resulting NFs are large enough to fabricate Hall-bar contacts with suitable length-to-width ratio enabling precise electrical characterization. An electron mobility of ∼29 500 cm2/(V s) is measured, which is the highest value reported for free-standing 2D InSb nanostructures in literature. We envision the use of 2D InSb NFs for fabrication of advanced quantum devices.

10.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450840

RESUMO

The nanowire platform offers great opportunities for improving the quality and range of applications of semiconductor quantum wells and dots. Here, we present the self-catalyzed growth of InAs/InSb/InAs axial heterostructured nanowires with a single defect-free InSb quantum dot, on Si substrates, by chemical beam epitaxy. A systematic variation of the growth parameters for the InAs top segment has been investigated and the resulting nanowire morphology analyzed. We found that the growth temperature strongly influences the axial and radial growth rates of the top InAs segment. As a consequence, we can reduce the InAs shell thickness around the InSb quantum dot by increasing the InAs growth temperature. Moreover, we observed that both axial and radial growth rates are enhanced by the As line pressure as long as the In droplet on the top of the nanowire is preserved. Finally, the time evolution of the diameter along the entire length of the nanowires allowed us to understand that there are two In diffusion paths contributing to the radial InAs growth and that the interplay of these two mechanisms together with the total length of the nanowires determine the final shape of the nanowires. This study provides insights in understanding the growth mechanisms of self-catalyzed InSb/InAs quantum dot nanowires, and our results can be extended also to the growth of other self-catalyzed heterostructured nanowires, providing useful guidelines for the realization of quantum structures with the desired morphology and properties.

11.
Nanotechnology ; 32(7): 075001, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096537

RESUMO

We have studied the effects of optical-frequency light on proximitized InAs/Al Josephson junctions based on highly n-doped InAs nanowires at varying incident photon flux and at three different photon wavelengths. The experimentally obtained IV curves were modeled using a resistively shunted junction model which takes scattering at the contact interfaces into account. Despite the fact that the InAs weak link is photosensitive, the Josephson junctions were found to be surprisingly robust, interacting with the incident radiation only through heating, whereas above the critical current our devices showed non-thermal effects resulting from photon exposure. Our work indicates that Josephson junctions based on highly-doped InAs nanowires can be integrated in close proximity to photonic circuits. The results also suggest that such junctions can be used for optical-frequency photon detection through thermal processes by measuring a shift in critical current.

12.
Nanotechnology ; 32(14): 145204, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361570

RESUMO

We fabricate dual-gated electric double layer (EDL) field effect transistors based on InAs nanowires gated with an ionic liquid, and we perform electrical transport measurements in the temperature range from room temperature to 4.2 K. By adjusting the spatial distribution of ions inside the ionic liquid employed as gate dielectric, we electrostatically induce doping in the nanostructures under analysis. We extract low-temperature carrier concentration and mobility in very different doping regimes from the analysis of current-voltage characteristics and transconductances measured exploiting global back-gating. In the liquid gate voltage interval from -2 to 2 V, carrier concentration can be enhanced up to two orders of magnitude. Meanwhile, the effect of the ionic accumulation on the nanowire surface turns out to be detrimental to the electron mobility of the semiconductor nanostructure: the electron mobility is quenched irrespectively to the sign of the accumulated ionic species. The reported results shine light on the effective impact on crucial transport parameters of EDL gating in semiconductor nanodevices and they should be considered when designing experiments in which electrostatic doping of semiconductor nanostructures via electrolyte gating is involved.

13.
Nano Lett ; 21(20): 8587-8594, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618458

RESUMO

Low-dimensional nanosystems are promising candidates for manipulating, controlling, and capturing photons with large sensitivities and low noise. If quantum engineered to tailor the energy of the localized electrons across the desired frequency range, they can allow devising of efficient quantum sensors across any frequency domain. Here, we exploit the rich few-electron physics to develop millimeter-wave nanodetectors employing as a sensing element an InAs/InAs0.3P0.7 quantum-dot nanowire, embedded in a single-electron transistor. Once irradiated with light, the deeply localized quantum element exhibits an extra electromotive force driven by the photothermoelectric effect, which is exploited to efficiently sense radiation at 0.6 THz with a noise equivalent power <8 pWHz-1/2 and almost zero dark current. The achieved results open intriguing perspectives for quantum key distributions, quantum communications, and quantum cryptography at terahertz frequencies.

14.
Light Sci Appl ; 9(1): 189, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298850

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors represent a promising platform for the development of room-temperature (RT) terahertz (THz) frequency light detectors due to the strong nonlinearity of their transfer characteristics and their remarkable combination of low noise-equivalent powers (<1 nW Hz-1/2) and high responsivities (>100 V/W). Nano-engineering an NW photodetector combining high sensitivity with high speed (sub-ns) in the THz regime at RT is highly desirable for many frontier applications in quantum optics and nanophotonics, but this requires a clear understanding of the origin of the photo-response. Conventional electrical and optical measurements, however, cannot unambiguously determine the dominant detection mechanism due to inherent device asymmetry that allows different processes to be simultaneously activated. Here, we innovatively capture snapshots of the photo-response of individual InAs nanowires via high spatial resolution (35 nm) THz photocurrent nanoscopy. By coupling a THz quantum cascade laser to scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) and monitoring both electrical and optical readouts, we simultaneously measure transport and scattering properties. The spatially resolved electric response provides unambiguous signatures of photo-thermoelectric and bolometric currents whose interplay is discussed as a function of photon density and material doping, therefore providing a route to engineer photo-responses by design.

15.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 12621-12628, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822153

RESUMO

Under standard conditions, the electrostatic field-effect is negligible in conventional metals and was expected to be completely ineffective also in superconducting metals. This common belief was recently put under question by a family of experiments that displayed full gate-voltage-induced suppression of critical current in superconducting all-metallic gated nanotransistors. To date, the microscopic origin of this phenomenon is under debate, and trivial explanations based on heating effects given by the negligible electron leakage from the gates should be excluded. Here, we demonstrate the control of the supercurrent in fully suspended superconducting nanobridges. Our advanced nanofabrication methods allow us to build suspended superconducting Ti-based supercurrent transistors which show ambipolar and monotonic full suppression of the critical current for gate voltages of VGC ≃ 18 V and for temperatures up to ∼80% of the critical temperature. The suspended device architecture minimizes the electron-phonon interaction between the superconducting nanobridge and the substrate, and therefore, it rules out any possible contribution stemming from charge injection into the insulating substrate. Besides, our finite element method simulations of vacuum electron tunneling from the gate to the bridge and thermal considerations rule out the cold-electron field emission as a possible driving mechanism for the observed phenomenology. Our findings promise a better understanding of the field effect in superconducting metals.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(7): 076802, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857585

RESUMO

Fractional conductance is measured by partitioning a ν=1 edge state using gate-tunable fractional quantum Hall (FQH) liquids of filling 1/3 or 2/3 for current injection and detection. We observe two sets of FQH plateaus 1/9, 2/9, 4/9 and 1/6, 1/3, 2/3 at low and high magnetic field ends of the ν=1 plateau, respectively. The findings are explained by magnetic field dependent equilibration of three FQH edge modes with conductance e^{2}/3h arising from edge reconstruction. The results reveal a remarkable enhancement of the equilibration lengths of the FQH edge modes with increasing magnetic field.

17.
Nanotechnology ; 31(38): 384002, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516756

RESUMO

Research interest in indium antimonide (InSb) has increased significantly in recent years owing to its intrinsic properties and the consequent opportunities to implement next-generation quantum devices. Hence, the precise, reproducible control over morphology and crystalline quality becomes of paramount importance for a practical quantum-device technology. Here, we investigate the growth of InSb nanostructures with different morphologies on InAs stems without pre-growth efforts (patterning). InSb nanostructures such as nanowires (1D), nanoflags (2D) and nanocubes (3D) have been realized by means of Au-assisted chemical beam epitaxy by tailoring the growth parameters like growth temperature, precursor fluxes, sample rotation and substrate orientation. Through morphological and crystallographic characterization, all the as-grown InSb 2D nanostructures are found to be single-crystalline with zinc blende structure, free from any defects such as stacking faults and twin planes. The existence of two families of 2D nanostructures, characterised by an aperture angle at the base of 145° and 160°, is observed and modelled. This study provides useful guidelines for the controlled growth of high-quality InSb nanostructures with different shape.

18.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(8): 656-660, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541945

RESUMO

A classical battery converts chemical energy into a persistent voltage bias that can power electronic circuits. Similarly, a phase battery is a quantum device that provides a persistent phase bias to the wave function of a quantum circuit. It represents a key element for quantum technologies based on phase coherence. Here we demonstrate a phase battery in a hybrid superconducting circuit. It consists of an n-doped InAs nanowire with unpaired-spin surface states, that is proximitized by Al superconducting leads. We find that the ferromagnetic polarization of the unpaired-spin states is efficiently converted into a persistent phase bias φ0 across the wire, leading to the anomalous Josephson effect1,2. We apply an external in-plane magnetic field and, thereby, achieve continuous tuning of φ0. Hence, we can charge and discharge the quantum phase battery. The observed symmetries of the anomalous Josephson effect in the vectorial magnetic field are in agreement with our theoretical model. Our results demonstrate how the combined action of spin-orbit coupling and exchange interaction induces a strong coupling between charge, spin and superconducting phase, able to break the phase rigidity of the system.

19.
Nanotechnology ; 31(32): 324004, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325444

RESUMO

We analyze the benefits and shortcomings of a thermal control in nanoscale electronic conductors by means of the contact heating scheme. Ideally, this straightforward approach allows one to apply a known thermal bias across nanostructures directly through metallic leads, avoiding conventional substrate intermediation. We show, by using the average noise thermometry and local noise sensing technique in InAs nanowire-based devices, that a nanoscale metallic constriction on a SiO2 substrate acts like a diffusive conductor with negligible electron-phonon relaxation and non-ideal leads. The non-universal impact of the leads on the achieved thermal bias-which depends on their dimensions, shape and material composition-is hard to minimize, but is possible to accurately calibrate in a properly designed nano-device. Our results allow to reduce the issue of the thermal bias calibration to the knowledge of the heater resistance and pave the way for accurate thermoelectric or similar measurements at the nanoscale.

20.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(3)2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164178

RESUMO

The growth mechanisms of self-catalyzed InAs/InSb axial nanowire heterostructures are thoroughly investigated as a function of the In and Sb line pressures and growth time. Some interesting phenomena are observed and analyzed. In particular, the presence of In droplet on top of InSb segment is shown to be essential for forming axial heterostructures in the self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid mode. Axial versus radial growth rates of InSb segment are investigated under different growth conditions and described within a dedicated model containing no free parameters. It is shown that widening of InSb segment with respect to InAs stem is controlled by the vapor-solid growth on the nanowire sidewalls rather than by the droplet swelling. The In droplet can even shrink smaller than the nanowire facet under Sb-rich conditions. These results shed more light on the growth mechanisms of self-catalyzed heterostructures and give clear route for engineering the morphology of InAs/InSb axial nanowire heterostructures for different applications.

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