Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 107
Filtrar
1.
Aesthet Surg J ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduction mammoplasty effectively improves quality of life for women with macromastia. However, little is known whether surgical- or patient-related factors affect satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to investigate factors associated with altered patient satisfaction following reduction mammoplasty. METHODS: A cross-section study was performed by sending the BREAST-Q Reduction module to all patients who had undergone reduction mammoplasty between January 2009 and December 2018 at 2 tertiary Danish hospitals. Demographics and pre-, peri-, and postoperative details were gathered from electronic medical records. RESULTS: A total of 393 patients returned the questionnaire and were eligible for the study. Increasing age at the time of surgery was associated with higher satisfaction with breasts nipples, headache, psychosocial well-being, and outcome. Increased body mass index at the time of surgery negatively affected satisfaction with breasts and psychosocial well-being. Increase in body mass index after surgery was further associated with lower satisfaction with breasts, nipples, sexual well-being, and more pain in the breast area. Postoperative scar revision and wound infection was more common following inferior pedicle technique than superomedial technique and negatively affected satisfaction with outcome and pain in the breast area. CONCLUSIONS: Patients should be motivated to optimize their weight prior to reduction mammoplasty to achieve optimal satisfaction. Age was associated with improved patient satisfaction, which should considered when operating on younger patients. Postoperative complications affect patient satisfaction, and the superomedial technique seems to be a better choice than the inferior pedicle technique in medium-large breasts.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594819

RESUMO

Patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) have reduced quality of life and arm function. Current treatments are palliative, and treatments improving lymphedema are lacking. Preclinical studies have suggested that adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) can alleviate lymphedema. We, therefore, aimed to assess whether ADRCs can alleviate lymphedema in clinical reality with long-term follow-up. We treated 10 patients with BCRL using ADRCs and a scar-releasing lipotransfer to the axillary region, and all patients were followed 1, 3, 6, 12, and 48 months after treatment. The primary endpoint was change in arm volume. Secondary endpoints were safety, change in lymphedema symptoms, quality of life, lymphedema-associated cellulitis, and conservative treatment use. There was no significant decrease in BCRL volume after treatment. However, self-reported upper extremity disability and arm heaviness and tension improved. Six patients reduced their use of conservative BCRL treatment. Five patients felt that their BCRL had improved substantially, and four of these would redo the treatment. We did not observe any cases of locoregional breast cancer recurrence. In this phase I study with 4 years of follow-up, axillary delivered ADRCs and lipotransfer were safe and feasible and improved BCRL symptoms and upper extremity function. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the results of this study.

3.
Oral Oncol ; 114: 105169, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present an up to date systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of the most used imaging modalities in detection of histopathological extra nodal extension (ENE) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched on March 27th 2020. Screening, inclusion, quality assessment, and data extraction were done by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was conducted using the bivariate model approach after pooling the studies according to imaging modality. Heterogeneity was explored by meta-regression. Comparison was done by meta-regression and sub-group analyses. RESULTS: Out of 476 initial hits, 25 studies were included for analysis. Of these, 14 dealt with CT, nine with PET/CT, four with MRI, two with ultrasound, and none with PET/MRI. Meta-analysis based on a total sample size of 3391 showed that CT had a sensitivity of 76% [67-82%] and specificity of 77% [69-83%], MRI a sensitivity of 72% [64-79%] and specificity of 78% [57-90%], and PET/CT a sensitivity of 80% [76-84%] and specificity of 83% [74-90%] in the ability to predict ENE. No meta-analysis could be done on ultrasound. There were no significant differences between modalities in overall accuracy; however, PET/CT had significantly higher sensitivity than CT and MRI. CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in the ability of CT, MRI, and PET/CT to diagnose histopathological ENE, except that PET/CT had a significantly higher sensitivity than CT and MRI.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a relatively common side effect after an outbreak of herpes zoster (HZ), characterized by chronic neuropathic dermal pain. No effective treatment exists today. Fat grafting has shown promise in alleviating neuropathic pain, yet the exact mechanism of action, at a biological level, is not yet known. We report on the first human study using autologous fat grafting for treating PHN. Our hypothesis was that fat grafting can alleviate pain and improve the quality of life (QoL) in patients suffering from PHN. If successful, this could be a safe, cost-effective alternative to analgesics. This safety and feasibility study aimed to investigate the possible pain-relieving effect of autologous fat grafting on PHN. METHODS: Ten adult patients suffering from PHN underwent autologous fat grafting to a dermal area of neuralgia, with a 12-week follow up. The primary endpoint was patient-reported pain. Secondary endpoints were patient-reported changes in QoL, and the degree and quality of the neuropathic pain. RESULTS: The pain was measured by using a visual analog scale (range: 0-10). We observed improvements in both the average and maximum level of pain with a reduction of (-4.0 ± 3.1) and (-5.1 ± 3.9), respectively, (Δ mean ± SD), P<0.05. All parameters investigating neuropathic pain were significantly reduced. No improvement was seen in the QoL. The average amount of fat grafted was 208 ml. We observed no serious adverse effects. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that autologous fat grafting can relieve chronic pain resulting from HZ. The next step toward routine clinical translation is to perform a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial with a more extended follow-up period.

5.
Head Neck Pathol ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918710

RESUMO

Extranodal extension (ENE) is a very strong prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, significant variance in reported incidence of ENE suggests discordance in perception of ENE among pathologists. This study aims to map the different definitions of histopathological ENE used in the literature. A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement. Guided by the research question: "How is histopathological ENE defined?" the databases Medline, Embase, and Cochrane were systematically searched. All retrieved studies were reviewed and qualitatively analyzed. Three categories of existing definitions were formed. The systematic literature search yielded 1786 studies after removal of duplicates. Nine hundred and thirty-four full text articles were assessed for inclusion and 44 unique ENE definitions were identified and categorized 1-3; (1) simple definitions only describing a breach in the capsule (48%), (2) definitions also including a description of the perinodal tissue (43%), and (3) definitions adding a description of a specific reaction in the perinodal structure (9%). No consensus definition of ENE exists, but based on the level of details in the identified definitions, three overall categories of ENE definitions were established.

7.
Dan Med J ; 67(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741441

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Symptoms of the shoulder syndrome (SS) and spinal accessory nerve (SAN) impairments are well-known complications to any neck dissections (NDs). Even so, their prevalence is reported with large variations in the literature. Furthermore, marginal mandibular nerve (MMN) injuries are claimed to be underreported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SS, SAN and MMN injuries after different types of ND. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis included studies reporting SAN and MMN injuries following the three main types of ND. Pooled estimates of the prevalence were made by the main types of ND with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Nineteen studies reported a total of 457 SAN injuries. The estimated prevalence of SS or SAN injuries following radical neck dissection, modified radical neck dissection and selective neck dissection was 94.8% (95% CI: 88.5-98.9%), 33.0% (95% CI: 19.4-48.3%) and 27.9% (95% CI: 7.1-54.5%), respectively. Five studies reported a total of 64 MMN injuries. The estimated prevalence following modified radical neck dissection and selective neck dissection was 13.1% (95% CI: 0-37.6%) and 12.7% (95% CI: 4.3-24.1%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis estimated a high prevalence of SS, SAN and MMN injuries following the three main types of ND. If oncological considerations allow it, the less morbid ND should be considered. MMN injuries have only been reported in a limited number of small studies. The results may be used to compare future research and as guidance for quality evaluation within departments.

8.
JPRAS Open ; 25: 52-61, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642534

RESUMO

Background: The pedicled anterolateral thigh flap is a versatile flap that offers many advantages. These include a long and reliable pedicle that enables a wide arch of rotation, the possibility to harvest a large skin area, raising the flap with underlying fascia and muscle and minimal donor site morbidity. Methods: From 2009 to 2018 nine patients were reconstructed with a pedicled anterolateral thigh flap. The flap was applied for coverage of knee infections, trochanteric defects, an abdominal defect, a gluteal defect, and a defect of the inguinal region. The patient group consisted of five males and four females. The age range was 30-90 years with a mean age of 61 years. Results: Flap size ranged from 10 x 5 cm (50 cm2) to 15 x 30 cm (450 cm2) with a mean size of 222 cm2. We experienced no flap loss. The donor site was closed directly in seven out of nine patients, and the remaining two patients were closed by split-thickness skin grafting. Satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcome was achieved in all patients. Conclusion: Our experience illustrates the versatility in the clinical application of the pedicled anterolateral thigh flap. The many advantages of the flap, such as the long and reliable pedicle, a large area of skin that can be harvested, the potential to supercharge the flap and the minimal donor site morbidity highlights the diversity of defects that can be reconstructed using this flap.

9.
J Plast Surg Hand Surg ; 54(5): 302-311, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520635

RESUMO

Background: Lymphedema is one of the most common complications following breast cancer. Axillary lymph node dissection and radiotherapy are two well-known risk factors resulting in either removal or damage to the lymph nodes. As stem cells are known for their regenerative capabilities, they could theoretically repair/restore the damaged lymph vessels leading to a decrease in lymphedema.Methods: We evaluated the treatment of SVF and ASC on a mouse lymphedema model. Forty-five mice were allocated into three groups containing 15 mice each. The SVF group was injected with 100 µl containing 1 × 106 SVF, the ASC group with 100 µl ml containing 1 × 106 ASC and the NS with 100 µl ml of NS. Volumes of the mice were assessed weekly by µCT hindlimb volumetry for a total of 8 weeks. Lymph vessel morphometry was assessed by cross-sections of both hindlimbs stained for anti-LYVE1. Lymphatic function was assessed by lymphatic clearance.Results: The volume change between the groups was non-significant throughout all 8 weeks. The immunohistochemistry showed a statistically significant difference between the hindlimbs in ASC vs. NS group p = 0.032, 95% CI [-2121, -103].Conclusion: The volume of the hindlimbs showed that treatment with SVF or ASC yielded very similar results compared to the control group when assessed after 8 weeks. In week two the biggest difference between ASC and NS was seen but the difference diminished during the 8 weeks. The secondary outcomes showed that the lymph vessel lumen decreased when treated with ASC compared to the control group. Lymphoscintigraphy yielded non-significant results.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8297, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427873

RESUMO

When studying illnesses that cause disturbance in volume such as lymphedema, reliable quantification of tissue volume is important. Lymphedema results in swelling and enlargement of extremities and can be both physically and psychologically stressful to the patient. Experiments in rodent models provide a cost-effective research platform and are important for preclinical research on lymphedema. When performing such research, it can be crucial to measure the changes in tissue volume. Researchers must ensure that the risk of measurement error, when measuring the tissue volume, is as low as possible. The main goal of this article was to perform a comprehensive examination of the intra- and interrater agreement and hereby assess the risk of measurement error when using microcomputed tomography (µCT) images to measure hindlimb volume. We examined the agreement between four raters with different levels of prior experience and found that the risk of measurement error is extremely low when using this method. The main limitation of this method is that it is relatively expensive and time-consuming. The main advantages of this method are that it is easily learned and that it has a high intra- and interrater agreement, even for raters with no prior measuring experience.

12.
Int Wound J ; 17(4): 1052-1061, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320141

RESUMO

Traditional quality measures for chronic wounds have focused on objective outcomes that are challenging to risk adjust, lack patient input, and have limited ability to inform quality improvement interventions. Patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) provide information from the patient perspective regarding health care quality and have potential to improve patient-centredness, increase care efficiency, and generate actionable data for quality improvement. The purpose of this study was to understand patient experiences and health care processes that impact quality of care among patients with chronic wounds. Sixty patients at least 18 years of age with various wound aetiologies were recruited from Canada, Denmark, The Netherlands, and the United States as part of a larger phase 1 qualitative study to develop a patient-reported outcome measure for chronic wounds (WOUND-Q). All patients had a chronic wound for at least 3 months, were fluent in their native speaking language, and able to participate in a one-on-one semi-structured interview. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Interpretive description was used to identify recurrent themes relating to patient experience and quality of care. We identified five domains (care coordination, establishing/obtaining care, information delivery, patient-provider interaction, and treatment delivery) and 21 sub-domains (access to patient information, interdisciplinary communication, encounter efficiency, provider availability, specialist referral, staff professionalism, travel/convenience, modality, reciprocity, understandability/consistency, accountability, continuity, credentials, rapport, appropriateness, complication management, continuity, environment/setting, equipment and supply needs, expectation, and patient-centred) as potential opportunities to measure and improve quality of care in the chronic wound population. PREMs for chronic wounds represent an important opportunity to engage patients and longitudinally assess quality across clinical settings and providers. Future research should focus on developing PREMs to complement traditional objective and patient-reported outcome measures for chronic wounds.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e032332, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217558

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Most patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) for chronic wounds are specific to a single wound type (eg, pressure ulcer) or part of the body. A barrier to outcome assessment in wound care and research is the lack of a rigorously designed PROM that can be used across wound types and locations. This mixed method study describes the protocol for an international collaboration to develop and validate a new PROM called the WOUND-Q for adults with chronic wounds. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In phase I, the qualitative approach of interpretive description is used to elicit concepts important to people with wounds regarding outcome. Participants from Canada, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the USA are aged 18 years and older and have a wound that has lasted 3 months or longer. Interviews are digitally recorded, transcribed and coded. A conceptual framework and preliminary item pool are developed from the qualitative dataset. Draft scales are formed to cover important themes in the conceptual framework. These scales are refined using feedback from people with chronic wounds and wound care experts. After refinement, the scales are translated into Danish and Dutch, following rigorous methods, to prepare for an international field-test study. In phase II, data are collected in Canada, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the USA. An international sample of people with a large variety of chronic wounds complete the WOUND-Q. Rasch Measurement Theory analysis is used to identify the best subset of items to retain for each scale and to examine reliability and validity. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is coordinated at Brigham and Women's Hospital (Boston, USA). Ethics board approval was received at each participating site for both study phases. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences and meetings.

14.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 73(2): 278-285, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Breast reconstruction following mastectomy can increase the quality of life of patients. Reconstruction methods can broadly be divided into implant-based and autologous tissue reconstruction. Patient-reported outcomes following breast reconstruction are one of the most important success parameters. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to compare the two methods using the recognized Breast-Q questionnaire. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE databases. Meta-analysis was performed on the five most commonly reported Breast-Q modules. RevMan 5.3 was used for statistical analysis. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Form for Cohort Studies. RESULTS: The search strategy resulted in 219 studies of which nine studies were included in the analysis, yielding 2129 implant-based and 825 autologous breast reconstructions. Overall satisfaction with outcome as well as breast was significantly higher among patients with autologous breast reconstructions (mean Breast-Q difference between the two groups was 9.82 [3.09, 16.54], p = 0.004, and 10.33 [95% CI 5.93, 14.74], p<0.00001, respectively). Sexual and psychosocial well-being was higher among autologous breast reconstructions. There was no difference in the physical well-being. CONCLUSION: This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to compare patient-reported outcomes of implant-based and autologous breast reconstruction. We found that autologous reconstruction yields a higher satisfaction with overall outcome and breast. These findings can aid clinicians when discussing breast reconstruction options with patients.


Assuntos
Implante Mamário , Mamoplastia/métodos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Feminino , Humanos , Transplante Autólogo
15.
Gland Surg ; 8(Suppl 4): S262-S270, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709165

RESUMO

Thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP) flaps are versatile flaps that provide a consistent and aesthetically pleasing breast reconstruction. We prefer the TAP flap to the latissimus dorsi (LD) flap due to the morbidity associated with the LD flap. In this paper we aim to show how we perform bilateral TAP flap breast reconstruction and present our preliminary results from 32 bilateral reconstructions in 16 patients. The TAP flap breast reconstruction can be performed as a direct-to-implant or a delayed procedure depending on patient factors. Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) is used in the preoperative planning which promotes the safety and reliability of the flap by mapping perforators thus enabling faster dissection. The bilateral TAP flap breast reconstruction is usually performed in three steps: (I) raising the flaps at the recipient site; (II) rotating the TAP flaps and (III) completion of the breast reconstruction.

16.
Gland Surg ; 8(Suppl 4): S271-S275, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709166

RESUMO

The number of patients in need of a mastopexy with autologous augmentation after massive weight loss (MWL) increases along with the increasing number of bariatric surgeries. The primary aim of this paper was to visualize how we utilize the lateral excess of the breast for auto augmentation. The secondary aim was to assess the outcome using the LOPOSAM technique in a larger study population. This retrospective study included 72 MWL patients aged 40±9 years undergoing a bilateral LOPOSAM procedure, between March 2015 and April 2018. All patients had undergone a weight loss of more than 15 BMI units, had a BMI of less than 30 kg/m2 at the time of surgery and functional problems due to excess or lax skin. Patient demographics, comorbidities, cause of MWL, operative time and complications were recorded. The mean weight loss was 58±18 kg or 21±6 BMI units. The mean operative time was 97±39 minutes. The surgical goal was achieved in all patients. Three patients (4%) experienced hematomas requiring surgical intervention. The utilization of the lateral excess of the breast for auto augmentation in MWL patients is visualized. The long term results using the LOPOSAM mastopexy technique shows that the technique is quick, safe and with a low rate of complications.

17.
Arch Plast Surg ; 46(6): 535-543, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high incidence of breast animation deformity (BAD) has been reported following immediate breast reconstruction with subpectorally placed implants. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the incidence of BAD in women who underwent either subpectoral or prepectoral immediate breast reconstruction. Therefore, we developed a grading tool and tested its reproducibility in a clinical setting. METHODS: Video recordings of 37 women who had undergone unilateral or bilateral immediate breast reconstruction were evaluated by two consultant plastic surgeons. The degree of BAD was assessed by our grading tool, named the Nipple, Surrounding Skin, Entire Breast (NSE) grading scale, which evaluates the degree of tissue distortion in three areas of the breast. Blinded assessments were performed twice by each observer. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were reconstructed with subpectoral implant placement and 19 with prepectoral implant placement. Using the NSE grading scale, we found a significant difference in the degree of BAD between the groups, in favor of patients who underwent prepectoral immediate breast reconstruction (0.2 vs. 4, P=0.000). Inter- and intraobserver agreement was moderate (74%) to strong (88%). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and severity of BAD was significantly lower in women reconstructed with a prepectorally placed implant than in those who underwent subpectoral immediate breast reconstruction. All patients reconstructed using the subpectoral technique had some degree of BAD. The inter- and intraobserver agreements were high when using the NSE grading scale, suggesting it is an easy-to-use, reproducible scale for assessing BAD in women who undergo immediate breast reconstruction.

18.
Br J Pain ; 13(4): 239-243, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656630

RESUMO

A 60-year-old woman suffering from severe chronic post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) was treated with simple autologous fat grafting to the affected area of skin. Post-operatively, she reported a great improvement in her symptoms. The effect was stable throughout the 3-month follow-up period. This case report presents a first-in-the-world case of using fat grafting to treat chronic post-herpetic neuralgia and discusses the future potential of this as a primary treatment of this syndrome. This report presents partial data of a pilot study registered at clinicaltrials.org (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03584061).

19.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 181(41)2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610834

RESUMO

This review summarises the knowledge of hospital-acquired pressure injuries (PI), which are underestimated and very painful adverse events giving an increased risk of infections and scarring and may lead to the need for reconstructive surgery. The majority of PI in the paediatric population are medical device-related, and according to international studies it is possible to reduce the extent through a systematic intervention. The staff must have knowledge and focus on principles for the prevention of PI, and a systematic risk assessment supplemented with the implementation of "bundles" is recommended to reduce PI among children.


Assuntos
Doença Iatrogênica , Ferimentos e Lesões , Criança , Humanos , Pressão , Medição de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
20.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 161(6): 946-953, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Complex soft tissue reconstruction of the head and neck requires a viable, versatile, and dependable flap. Free flaps, such as the radial forearm and anterolateral thigh flap, have been the mainstay of complex head and neck reconstruction. However, a local pedicled flap, such as the submental island flap (SIF), could be a more effective and less demanding alternative. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to compare free tissue transfer (FTT) with the SIF for head and neck reconstruction. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE databases. Meta-analysis was performed on outcomes reported in ≥3 studies. REVIEW METHODS: Candidate articles were assessed for eligibility by 2 authors. Three authors performed data extraction and methodological quality of the included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Form for Cohort Studies. RESULTS: The search strategy resulted in 450 studies, of which 7 were included in the analysis, yielding 155 SIF and 198 FTT cases. Operating time and length of stay were significantly lower for the SIF than for FTT (P = .05 and P = .0008). There was no significant difference between the groups for complete flap loss, debulking revisions, and oncologic recurrence. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the SIF reduces length of stay and operating time as compared with FTT in head and neck reconstruction. These findings suggest that the SIF can be considered an alternative reconstructive option to FTT when evaluating intraoral, lateral facial, skull base, and parotidectomy defects, given comparable defect size and tumor biology.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Cabeça , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pescoço , Duração da Cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...