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1.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 17(10): 1237-1243, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407702

RESUMO

Background: With hormonal agents quickly expanding as novel therapeutic options in nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC), the toxicity profile of enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide should be kept in mind.Methods: We performed an updated meta-analysis with the aim to analyze the risk of treatment-related cardiovascular (CV) events, any grade, and grade 3-4 (G3-4) hypertension in nmCRPC patients treated with enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus ADT plus placebo in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results were compared by calculating Relative Risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs); RRs were combined with Mantel-Haenszel method.Results: Three RCTs involving 4110 patients were available for the meta-analysis. According to our results, the addition of novel hormonal agents was associated with a significantly increased risk of CV events (RR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.29-2.27) and G3-4 hypertension (RR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.19-1.97). In addition, a trend toward a higher risk of any grade hypertension was reported in the experimental arm.Conclusions: The use of enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide in nmCRPC patients implies a careful benefit-risk assessment. Real-world, large-cohort studies are warranted to confirm the findings of our meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387593

RESUMO

Several novel androgen receptor (AR)-inhibitors have been introduced for nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) treatment, with the improvement of survival outcomes which need to be balanced against the risk of adverse events. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating enzalutamide, apalutamide and darolutamide in nmCRPC patients, to assess overall survival (OS), incidence and risk of adverse drug events, adverse-events-related death and adverse-events-related treatment discontinuation. We selected three RCTs (SPARTAN, PROSPER and ARAMIS). New hormonal agents administration resulted in better OS, despite the increased risk of several any grade and grade 3-4 adverse events. In the decision-making process, careful evaluation of expected adverse events, patients' comorbidities and maintenance of quality of life are mandatory.

3.
Transl Androl Urol ; 10(3): 1562-1568, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850790

RESUMO

Prostate cancer represents the most frequent tumor in men, accounting for the 21% of all diagnosed tumors, with 191,930 new cases and 33,330 deaths estimated in 2020. Advanced prostate cancer represents a heterogeneous disease, ranging from hormone naive or hormone sensitive to castration resistant. The therapeutic armamentarium for this disease has been implemented in the last years by novel hormonal therapies and chemotherapies. However, the percentage of patients who achieve complete responses still results negligible. On this scenario, the design of clinical trials investigating new therapeutic approaches represent a dramatic medical need. Predicting cancer incidence may be fundamental to design specific clinical trials, to optimize the allocation of economic resources, and to plan future cancer control programs. ERG, SPOP and DDR genes alterations can act as therapeutic targets in prostate cancer patients and can be tested to identify a gene-selected patient population to enrol in specific trials. According to our predictions, ERG gene fusions will be the most predominant molecular subtype, accounting for 69,050 new cases in 2030. Mutation in SPOP gene will be diagnosed in 16,512 tumors, corresponding to the number of cases associated with alterations in DDR genes (including 7,956 BRCA2 mutated tumors). In this article, we analyzed and discussed the future molecular and clinical profiles of prostate cancer in the United States, aimed to describe a series of distinct subpopulations and to quantify potential clinical trial candidates in the next years.

4.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 647015, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776746

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in the growing population of elderly people, is still lacking minimally-invasive circulating biomarkers that could facilitate the diagnosis and the monitoring of disease progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as tissue-specific and/or circulating biomarkers of several age-related diseases, but evidence on AD is still not conclusive. Since a systemic pro-inflammatory status was associated with an increased risk of AD development and progression, we focused our investigation on a subset of miRNAs modulating the inflammatory process, namely inflamma-miRNAs. The expression of inflamma-miR-17-5p, -21-5p, -126-3p, and -146a-5p was analyzed in plasma samples from 116 patients with AD compared with 41 age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. MiR-17-5p, miR-21-5p, and miR-126-3p plasma levels were significantly increased in AD patients compared to HC. Importantly, a strong inverse relationship was observed between miR-21-5p and miR-126-3p, and the cognitive impairment, assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Notably, miR-126-3p was able to discriminate between mild and severe cognitive impairment. Overall, our results reinforce the hypothesis that circulating inflamma-miRNAs could be assessed as minimally invasive tools associated with the development and progression of cognitive impairment in AD.

5.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477676

RESUMO

We analyzed the clinical and pathological features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients treated with cabozantinib stratified by body mass index (BMI). We retrospectively collected data from 16 worldwide centers involved in the treatment of RCC. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used at univariate and multivariate analyses. We collected data from 224 patients with advanced RCC receiving cabozantinib as second- (113, 5%) or third-line (111, 5%) therapy. The median PFS was significantly higher in patients with BMI ≥ 25 (9.9 vs. 7.6 months, p < 0.001). The median OS was higher in the BMI ≥ 25 subgroup (30.7 vs. 11.0 months, p = 0.003). As third-line therapy, both median PFS (9.2 months vs. 3.9 months, p = 0.029) and OS (39.4 months vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.039) were longer in patients with BMI ≥ 25. BMI was a significant predictor for both PFS and OS at multivariate analysis. We showed that a BMI ≥ 25 correlates with longer survival in patients receiving cabozantinib. BMI can be easily assessed and should be included in current prognostic criteria for advanced RCC.

6.
Front Genet ; 11: 349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351542

RESUMO

About 75% of all breast cancers are hormone receptor-positive (HR+). However, the efficacy of endocrine therapy is limited due to the high rate of either pre-existing or acquired resistance. In this work we reconstructed the pathways around estrogen receptor (ER), mTOR, and cyclin D in order to compare the effects of CDK4/6 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors. A positive feedback loop links mTOR and ER that support each other. We subsequently considered whether a combined or sequential inhibition of CDK4/6 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR could ensure better results. Studies indicate that inhibition of CDK4/6 activates mTOR as an escape mechanism to ensure cell proliferation. In literature, the little evidence dealing with this topic suggests that pre-treatment with mTOR pathway inhibitors could prevent or delay the onset of CDK4/6 inhibitor resistance. Additional studies are needed in order to find biomarkers that can identify patients who will develop this resistance and in whom the sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibitors can be restored.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766196

RESUMO

Obesity is a well-known risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development. However, the RCC-obesity link has not been fully addressed when considering a comprehensive scenario starting from pathogenetic aspects through pathological issues up to the outcome of medical treatment. We therefore conducted an electronic PubMed search using keywords "obesity", "body mass index", "overweight", "renal cell carcinoma/kidney cancer", "medical treatment", "targeted therapy", and "immunotherapy/immune checkpoint inhibitors". The selected data supported a crosstalk between adipose tissue (adipocytes and other white adipose tissue cells) and cancer cells inducing several signaling pathways that finally stimulated angiogenesis, survival, and cellular proliferation. Accurate sampling of renal sinus fat correlated with a prognostic value. Retrospective clinical evidence in metastatic RCC patients with higher body mass index (BMI) and treated with targeted therapies and/or immune checkpoint inhibitors showed advantageous survival outcomes. Therefore, obesity may influence the course of RCC patients, although the interplay between obesity/BMI and RCC warrants a large prospective confirmation. We are therefore still far from determining a clear role of obesity as a prognostic/predictive factor in metastatic RCC patients undergoing targeted therapy and immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/complicações , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Obesidade/patologia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(1)2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905816

RESUMO

Cabozantinib is approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, prognostic factors are still lacking in this context. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors in RCC patients treated with second- or third-line cabozantinib. A multicenter retrospective real-world study was conducted, involving 32 worldwide centers. A total of 237 patients with histologically confirmed clear-cell and non-clear-cell RCC who received cabozantinib as second- or third-line therapy for metastatic disease were included. We analyzed overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and time-to-strategy failure (TTSF) using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used at univariate and multivariate analyses.The median PFS and OS of cabozantinib were 7.76 months (95% CI 6.51-10.88) and 11.57 months (95% CI 10.90-not reached (NR)) as second-line and 11.38 months (95% CI 5.79-NR) and NR (95% CI 11.51-NR) as third-line therapy. The median TTSF and OS were 11.57 and 15.52 months with the sequence of cabozantinib-nivolumab and 25.64 months and NR with nivolumab-cabozantinib, respectively. The difference between these two sequences was statistically significant only in good-risk patients. In the second-line setting, hemoglobin (Hb) levels (HR= 2.39; 95% CI 1.24-4.60, p = 0.009) and IMDC (International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium) group (HR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.87, p = 0.037) were associated with PFS while ECOG-PS (HR = 2.33; 95%CI, 1.16-4.69, p = 0.018) and Hb levels (HR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.18-8.26, p = 0.023) correlated with OS at multivariate analysis, while in the third-line setting, only Hb levels (HR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.04-7.09, p = 0.042) were associated with OS. Results are limited by the retrospective nature of the study.This real-world study provides evidence on the presence of prognostic factors in RCC patients receiving cabozantinib.

10.
JAMA Dermatol ; 154(10): 1184-1190, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140888

RESUMO

Importance: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a disease of the terminal hair follicle in apocrine gland-enriched skin areas, where immunobiology dysregulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may have a key role. Objective: To investigate the MSC profile in patients with HS and in healthy controls. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective case-control study, patients with HS were recruited from the Dermatological Clinic at the Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy. Biopsy specimens were analyzed at the Histology Section of the Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences. Participants included 11 patients with HS and 9 healthy controls, who were recruited into the study between January 20, 2015, and September 20, 2016, and underwent punch biopsy from axillary skin. None of the participants had received any antibiotics (systemic or topical therapy) within almost 12 weeks before the study. Main Outcomes and Measures: The immunophenotypic profile of MSCs was characterized following the minimal criteria established by the International Society for Cellular Therapy for the identification of MSCs. Levels of 12 cytokines belonging to helper T-cell subtypes 1, 2, and 17 pathways were examined on the secretome of isolated cells by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Results: Skin MSCs were characterized in 11 patients with HS (8 women and 3 men; mean [SD] age, 35.8 [7.9] years) and 9 healthy controls (7 women and 2 men; mean [SD] age, 36.7 [6.9] years). The healthy controls were matched with patients with HS for body mass index. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from patients with HS (HS-MSCs) and from healthy controls (C-MSCs) met the International Society for Cellular Therapy minimal criteria. Compared with C-MSCs, cytokine analyses of HS-MSCs revealed statistically significant overexpression of interleukin (IL) 6 (median [interquartile range {IQR}], 8765.00 [7659.00-9123.00] vs 2849.00 [2609.00-3001.00] pg/mL; P = .008), IL-10 (median [IQR], 29.46 [26.35-35.79] vs 21.36 [19.89-23.33] pg/mL; P = .004), IL-12 (median [IQR], 15.25 [13.27-16.25] vs 11.89 [10.73-12.33] pg/mL; P = .03), IL-17A (median [IQR], 15.24 [13.23-17.24] vs 11.24 [10.28-11.95] pg/mL; P = .008), tumor necrosis factor (median [IQR], 42.54 [42.20-43.94] vs 32.55 [31.78-33.28] pg/mL; P = .004), transforming growth factor ß1 (median [IQR], 1728.00 [1535.00-1979.00] vs 500.80 [465.00-634.50] pg/mL; P = .004), and interferon γ (median [IQR], 11.49 [10.71-12.35] vs 9.45 [9.29-10.01] pg/mL; P = .005). Conclusions and Relevance: Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the skin of patients with HS seem to be activated toward an inflammatory status. The imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities of MSCs favors the hypothesis of their pathogenic involvement in HS.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Hidradenite Supurativa/patologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Adulto , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Pele/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 17(4): 286-292, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation and tumor are now an inseparable binomial. Inflammation may also derive by the use of breast implants followed by the formation of a periprosthetic capsule. It is known that tumor cells, in an inflamed microenvironment, can profit by the paracrine effect exerted also by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here we evaluated the role of inflammation on the immunobiology of MSCs before and after cocultures with cells derived from breast adenocarcinoma. METHODS: MSCs derived from both inflamed (I-MSCs) and control (C-MSCs) tissues were isolated and cocultured with MCF7 cells derived from breast adenocarcinoma. Before and after cocultures, the proliferation rate of MCF7 cells and the expression/secretion of cytokines related to inflammation were tested. RESULTS: Before cocultures, higher levels of cytokine related to chronic inflammation were detected in I-MSCs than in C-MSCs. After cocultures with MCF7, C- and I-MSCs show a variation in cytokine production. In detail, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, TGF-ß and G-CSF were decreased, whereas IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-17 were oversecreted. Proliferation of MCF7 was significantly increased after cocultures with I-MSCs. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammation at the site of origin of MSCs affects their immunobiology. Even if tumor cells increased their proliferation rate after cocultures with I-MSCs, the analysis of the cytokines, known to play a role in the interference of tumor cells with the host immune system, absolves completely the breast implants from the insult to enforce the risk of adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Implantes de Mama/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/cirurgia , Células MCF-7 , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia
12.
Psoriasis (Auckl) ; 7: 73-85, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387610

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent nonhematopoietic stromal cells studied for their properties and importance in management of several skin diseases. This review collects and analyzes the emerging published data, which describe the function of MSCs in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

13.
Exp Dermatol ; 26(4): 319-324, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27376466

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a disease characterized by an imbalance between Th1 and Th17 and Th2 inflammatory axes, in which cutaneous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are early involved, as they show a greater relative expression of several genes encoding for Th1 and Th17 cytokines. Therapeutic implications of TNF-α inhibitors on differentiated skin cells have been largely described in psoriasis; however, their effects on MSCs derived from patients with psoriasis have been only partially described. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of TNF-α inhibitors on cytokine milieu expressed by MSCs isolated from the skin of patients with psoriasis. Resident MSCs from skin of patients with psoriasis and healthy subjects have been isolated, characterized and profiled by PCR and ELISA for the expression of 22 cytokines involved in Th1 , Th2 and Th17 pathways, both before and after 12 weeks therapy with TNF-α inhibitors. The administration of TNF-α inhibitors for 12-weeks acts on MSCs as follows: it reduces the expression of several Th1 -Th17 cytokines whose levels are elevated at baseline (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-23A, IFN-γ, TNF-α, CCL2, CCL20, CXCL2, CXCL5, IL-17A, IL-17C, IL-17F, IL-21, G-CSF). Similarly, it enhances the expression of several Th2 cytokines which are underexpressed at baseline (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5), reducing the expression of those overexpressed at baseline (TGF-ß and IL-13). TNF-α inhibitors could contribute to reduce the pathological imbalance between the Th1 -Th17 vs Th2 axis in MSCs of patients with psoriasis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/fisiopatologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanercepte/uso terapêutico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Pituitary ; 20(2): 251-260, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796709

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Progenitor mesenchymal cells (PMCs) have been found also in epithelial tumors and may derive from cancer stem cells (CSCs) by EMT mechanism. In this scenario, the effects of traditionally drugs on PMCs become of primary concern for therapeutic approaches. Previously, we isolated PMCs from acromegalic (GHomas) and not-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Here we evaluate: (1) the role of EMT on their origin; (2) the presence of the somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-5); (3) the effects of somatostatin (SST) and its analogues (SSAs) on PMCs proliferation, apoptosis and SSTR1-5 expression. METHODS: PMCs were isolated from GHomas and NFPAs; the expression of E-CADHERIN and TGFßRII (referred to EMT), the expression of the SSTR1-5 as well as the proliferation and apoptosis were tested before and after drugs administration. RESULTS: Results show a decrease of E-CADHERIN and an increase of TGFßRII, confirming an EMT involvement; SSTR1-5 are more expressed by PMCs from GHomas than from NFPAs. SST and SSAs administration does not affect cell proliferation and SSTR1-5 expression on PMCs from NFPAs while in PMCs from GHomas, cell proliferation showed a marked decrease and a corresponding increase in the expression of SSTR1-2. Apoptosis rate and EMT were not affected by drugs administration. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate as EMT may be related to the presence of PMCs on pituitary tumors; SSAs, currently used in the management of human GHomas, exert anti-proliferative effect also in PMCs that, because of their derivation from CSCs, may be a new meaningful target for drugs treatment.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Somatostatina/farmacologia , Acromegalia/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos
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