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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(37): 12927-12930, 2017 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28846421

RESUMO

Transition metal phosphides exhibit high catalytic activity toward the electrochemical hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER) and resist chemical corrosion in acidic solutions. For example, an electrodeposited CoP catalyst exhibited an overpotential, η, of -η < 100 mV at a current density of -10 mA cm-2 in 0.500 M H2SO4(aq). To obtain a chemical description of the material as-prepared and also while effecting the HER in acidic media, such electrocatalyst films were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy both ex situ as well as under in situ and operando conditions in 0.500 M H2SO4(aq). Ex situ analysis using the tandem spectroscopies indicated the presence of multiple ordered and disordered phases that contained both near-zerovalent and oxidized Co species, in addition to reduced and oxygenated P species. Operando analysis indicated that the active electrocatalyst was primarily amorphous and predominantly consisted of near-zerovalent Co as well as reduced P.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Hidrogênio/química , Fósforo/química , Catálise , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(23): 5918-5923, 2017 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28533377

RESUMO

In this study we control the surface structure of Cu thin-film catalysts to probe the relationship between active sites and catalytic activity for the electroreduction of CO2 to fuels and chemicals. Here, we report physical vapor deposition of Cu thin films on large-format (∼6 cm2) single-crystal substrates, and confirm epitaxial growth in the <100>, <111>, and <751> orientations using X-ray pole figures. To understand the relationship between the bulk and surface structures, in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy was conducted on Cu(100), (111), and (751) thin films. The studies revealed that Cu(100) and (111) have surface adlattices that are identical to the bulk structure, and that Cu(751) has a heterogeneous kinked surface with (110) terraces that is closely related to the bulk structure. Electrochemical CO2 reduction testing showed that whereas both Cu(100) and (751) thin films are more active and selective for C-C coupling than Cu(111), Cu(751) is the most selective for >2e- oxygenate formation at low overpotentials. Our results demonstrate that epitaxy can be used to grow single-crystal analogous materials as large-format electrodes that provide insights on controlling electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for this reaction.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(28): 9006-14, 2015 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26154680

RESUMO

Atomically flat, terraced H-Ge(111) was prepared by annealing in H2(g) at 850 °C. The formation of monohydride Ge-H bonds oriented normal to the surface was indicated by angle-dependent Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Subsequent reaction in CCl3Br(l) formed Br-terminated Ge(111), as shown by the disappearance of the Ge-H absorption in the FTIR spectra concomitant with the appearance of Br photoelectron peaks in X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectra. The Br-Ge(111) surface was methylated by reaction with (CH3)2Mg. These surfaces exhibited a peak at 568 cm(-1) in the high-resolution electron energy loss spectrum, consistent with the formation of a Ge-C bond. The absorption peaks in the FTIR spectra assigned to methyl "umbrella" and rocking modes were dependent on the angle of the incident light, indicating that the methyl groups were bonded directly atop surface Ge atoms. Atomic-force micrographs of CH3-Ge(111) surfaces indicated that the surface remained atomically flat after methylation. Electrochemical scanning-tunneling microscopy showed well-ordered methyl groups that covered nearly all of the surface. Low-energy electron diffraction images showed sharp, bright diffraction spots with a 3-fold symmetry, indicating a high degree of order with no evidence of surface reconstruction. A C 1s peak at 284.1 eV was observed in the XP spectra, consistent with the formation of a C-Ge bond. Annealing in ultrahigh vacuum revealed a thermal stability limit of ∼400 °C of the surficial CH3-Ge(111) groups. CH3-Ge(111) surfaces showed significantly greater resistance to oxidation in air than H-Ge(111) surfaces.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(20): 6692-8, 2015 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25941943

RESUMO

We report density functional theory (M06L) calculations including Poisson-Boltzmann solvation to determine the reaction pathways and barriers for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on MoS2, using both a periodic two-dimensional slab and a Mo10S21 cluster model. We find that the HER mechanism involves protonation of the electron rich molybdenum hydride site (Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism), leading to a calculated free energy barrier of 17.9 kcal/mol, in good agreement with the barrier of 19.9 kcal/mol estimated from the experimental turnover frequency. Hydronium protonation of the hydride on the Mo site is 21.3 kcal/mol more favorable than protonation of the hydrogen on the S site because the electrons localized on the Mo-H bond are readily transferred to form dihydrogen with hydronium. We predict the Volmer-Tafel mechanism in which hydrogen atoms bound to molybdenum and sulfur sites recombine to form H2 has a barrier of 22.6 kcal/mol. Starting with hydrogen atoms on adjacent sulfur atoms, the Volmer-Tafel mechanism goes instead through the M-H + S-H pathway. In discussions of metal chalcogenide HER catalysis, the S-H bond energy has been proposed as the critical parameter. However, we find that the sulfur-hydrogen species is not an important intermediate since the free energy of this species does not play a direct role in determining the effective activation barrier. Rather we suggest that the kinetic barrier should be used as a descriptor for reactivity, rather than the equilibrium thermodynamics. This is supported by the agreement between the calculated barrier and the experimental turnover frequency. These results suggest that to design a more reactive catalyst from edge exposed MoS2, one should focus on lowering the reaction barrier between the metal hydride and a proton from the hydronium in solution.

5.
Langmuir ; 30(50): 15053-6, 2014 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25489793

RESUMO

A study based on operando electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM) has shown that a polycrystalline Cu electrode held at a fixed negative potential, -0.9 V (vs SHE), in the vicinity of CO2 reduction reactions (CO2RR) in 0.1 M KOH, undergoes stepwise surface reconstruction, first to Cu(111) within 30 min, and then to Cu(100) after another 30 min; no further surface transformations occurred after establishment of the Cu(100) surface. The results may help explain the Cu(100)-like behavior of Cu(pc) in terms of CO2RR product selectivity. They likewise suggest that products exclusive to Cu(100) single-crystal electrodes may be generated through the use of readily available inexpensive polycrystalline Cu electrodes. The study highlights the dynamic nature of heterogeneous electrocatalyst surfaces and also underscores the importance of operando interrogations when structure-composition-reactivity correlations are intended.

6.
Dalton Trans ; 43(39): 14798-805, 2014 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25162298

RESUMO

Previous studies, based on thin-layer electrochemistry (TLE), in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and density functional theory (DFT) computations, on the chemical adsorption of hydroquinone from aqueous solutions onto atomically smooth Pd (and Pt) electrode surfaces indicated two modes of attachment that depended upon the solution concentration. At low activities, the diphenol was oxidatively chemisorbed as benzoquinone in a flat orientation, suggestive of a Pd(2,3,5,6-η-C6H4O2) surface complex; at higher concentrations, vertical chemisorption was effected via two C-H bond activations (or metalations) at the 2 and 3 ring positions, evocative of an o-phenylene organopalladium compound. We have extended the work to 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-dihydroxybenzene on Pd(pc) and Pd(111) electrodes to probe the effect of two methyl substituents on only one side of the diphenol ring. Surface coverage and adsorbed-molecule cross section data from TLE and HREELS measurements revealed non-random concentration-dependent adsorbate orientations similar to the oxidative chemisorption of hydroquinone: flat at low concentrations and edgewise at elevated concentrations. The DFT results suggested that, for the flat structure, surface coordination is via the two double bonds of the quinone ring as in [Pd(2,3,5,6-η)-2,3-dimethyl-p-quinone]. For the edge-vertical orientation, a structure analogous to an o-phenylene compound is generated in which C-H bonds at the 5 and 6 ring positions are activated and then metalated. DFT-simulated HREELS spectra helped identify the observed peaks that distinguish the surface-coordinated quinone from the surface-metalated diphenol.

7.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 23(12): 1874-82, 2010 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21067130

RESUMO

The risk of potential human exposure to mixed nanomaterials in consumer, occupational, and medicinal settings is increasing as nanomaterials enter both the workplace and the marketplace. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of mixed engineered carbon black (ECB) and maghemite iron oxide (Fe(2)O(3)) nanoparticles in a cellular system to understand the mechanism of toxicity and potential methods of toxicity mitigation. Lung epithelial cells (A549) were exposed to mixed Fe(2)O(3) and ECB nanoparticles, mixed Fe(2)O(3) and ECB nanoparticles with the addition of L-ascorbic acid, and mixed Fe(2)O(3) and surface-oxidized engineered carbon black (ox-ECB) nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption surface area measurement (BET), X-ray diffraction, and surface charge measurement. The carbon black nanoparticles were also characterized with a reductive capacity assay and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The cellular uptake of nanoparticles was analyzed via transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy; the cellular uptake of iron was quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Both the MTT assay and the ethidium homodimer and calcein AM live/dead assay were used to measure cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity, respectively. The dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay was used to measure the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species. Results show that both Fe(2)O(3) and ECB (or Fe(2)O(3) and ox-ECB) were co-internalized in intracellular vesicles. Additionally, after exposure to the mixture of nanoparticles, the amount of acidified lysosomes increased over time. The cellular uptake of Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles was unaffected by mixing with ECB. Significant oxidant production occurred in cells exposed to mixed Fe(2)O(3) and ECB, but not in cells exposed to mixed Fe(2)O(3) and ox-ECB or in cells exposed to Fe(2)O(3) and ECB with the addition of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, exposure to mixed Fe2O3 and ECB nanoparticles yielded a dose-dependent decrease in the level of cellular proliferation (MTT assay) and a decrease in cellular viability (ethidium homodimer and calcein AM live/dead assay) that were not seen in the Fe(2)O(3) and ox-ECB scenario. The results support the hypothesis that exposure to mixed Fe(2)O(3) and ECB nanoparticles produces oxidants that are mediated by the surface reductive capability of ECB when both particle types are colocalized in acidic cellular compartments. This oxidant production mechanism may lead to oxidative stress, but it can be mitigated by an antioxidant such as ascorbic acid or by surface treatment of the ECB to decrease its surface reductive capacity.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Férricos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Fuligem/toxicidade , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Langmuir ; 22(25): 10762-5, 2006 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17129057

RESUMO

The interaction of hydroquinone (H2Q) with well-defined Pd(111) surfaces at preselected potentials in dilute H2SO4 has been studied by molecule-resolved electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM). H2Q spontaneously undergoes oxidative chemisorption to benzoquinone (Q), which adopts a slightly tilted parallel orientation. Evidently, the surface coordination is through the quinone pi-electron system. At potentials within the double-layer region, a close-packed well-ordered Pd(111)-(3 x 3)-Q adlattice was formed. A potential excursion to 0.7 V, a potential at which the solution-phase Q/H2Q redox reaction takes place, introduced disorder into the organic adlayer; this positive-potential-induced order-to-disorder phase transition is reversible because the ordered (3 x 3)-Q adlattice was regenerated when the potential reverted to 0.4 V. When the potential was poised at 0.2 V, a potential at which hydrogen evolution was initiated, an appreciable fraction of Q was (hydrogenatively) desorbed; the remnant Q molecules were agglomerated in small islands that retained the (3 x 3) symmetry of the full adlayer. Two possible structural models of the Pd(111)-(3 x 3)-Q adlattice are described.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 126(38): 12004-14, 2004 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15382935

RESUMO

As functional biomimics of the hydrogen-producing capability of the dinuclear active site in [Fe]H(2)ase, the Fe(I)Fe(I) organometallic complexes, (mu-pdt)[Fe(CO)(2)PTA](2), 1-PTA(2), (pdt = SCH(2)CH(2)CH(2)S; PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane), and (mu-pdt)[Fe(CO)(3)][Fe(CO)(2)PTA], 1-PTA, were synthesized and fully characterized. For comparison to the hydrophobic (mu-pdt)[Fe(CO)(2)(PMe(3))](2) and [(mu-H)(mu-pdt)[Fe(CO)(2)(PMe(3))](2)](+) analogues, electrochemical responses of 1-PTA(2) and 1-(PTA.H(+))(2) were recorded in acetonitrile and in acetonitrile/water mixtures in the absence and presence of acetic acid. The production of H(2) and the dependence of current on acid concentration indicated that the complexes were solution electrocatalysts that decreased over-voltage for H(+) reduction from HOAc in CH(3)CN by up to 600 mV. The most effective electrocatalyst is the asymmetric 1-PTA species, which promotes H(2) formation from HOAc (pK(a) in CH(3)CN = 22.6) at -1.4 V in CH(3)CN/H(2)O mixtures at the Fe(0)Fe(I) redox level. Functionalization of the PTA ligand via N-protonation or N-methylation, generating (mu-pdt)[Fe(CO)(2)(PTA-H(+))](2), 1-(PTA.H(+))(2), and (mu-pdt)[Fe(CO)(2)(PTA-CH(3)(+))](2), 1-(PTA-Me(+))(2), provided no obvious advantages for the electrocatalysis because in both cases the parent complex is reclaimed during one cycle under the electrochemical conditions and H(2) production catalysis develops from the neutral species. The order of proton/electron addition to the catalyst, i.e., the electrochemical mechanism, is dependent on the extent of P-donor ligand substitution and on the acid strength. Cyclic voltammetric curve-crossing phenomena was observed and analyzed in terms of the possible presence of an eta(2)-H(2)-Fe(II)Fe(I) species, derived from reduction of the Fe(I)Fe(I) parent complex to Fe(0)Fe(I) followed by uptake of two protons in an ECCE mechanism.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hidrogenase/química , Compostos de Ferro/química , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/química , Adamantano/química , Adamantano/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/metabolismo , Catálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Eletroquímica , Hidrogenase/metabolismo , Compostos de Ferro/metabolismo , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução
10.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 236(1): 197-199, 2001 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11254346

RESUMO

The benzoquinone/hydroquinone (Q/H(2)Q) redox reaction has been studied by electrochemical-scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM) at a Pd(111)-(square3xsquare3)R30 degrees -I electrode surface in a solution that contained 10(-4) M H(2)Q in 0.05 M H(2)SO(4); iodine-pretreatment of the Pd(111) surface was to prevent chemisorption of organic-derived species. The molecule-resolved EC-STM images indicated that: (i) at a potential where only H(2)Q is present in solution, a self-assembled (square21xsquare21)R10.9 degrees -eta(6)-H(2)Q monolayer is produced in which the H(2)Q molecules are oriented parallel to the surface; (ii) at a potential where partial oxidation (to Q) occurs, a self-assembled (square21xsquare21)R10.9 degrees -eta(6)-QH adlayer is generated, where QH represents quinhydrone, an equimolar mixture of Q and H(2)Q; in this structure, the Q and H(2)Q molecules are oriented vertically, face-to-face, and arranged alternately along a given row, reminiscent of the crystal structure of quinhydrone. The partial oxidation-induced molecular reorientation, which is reversible, most likely arises from favorable Q-H(2)Q face-to-face interactions; that is, complete oxidation would yield only flat-oriented Q species. Unfortunately, at potentials where only Q would be present in solution, I-catalyzed corrosion of the Pd starts to occur, which leads to noise-laden EC-STM images. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

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