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1.
J Affect Disord ; 286: 123-133, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly prevalent and often comorbid psychiatric conditions, with abnormal processing of negative affect resulting from psychological stress. Characteristics of central processing of autonomic response to stress in each disorder are not clearly settled. METHODS: We obtained whole brain 3T fMRI with concurrent skin conductance, respiration rate, and heart rate variability measures in a cohort of MDD (N=19), BPD (N=19) patients, and healthy (N=20) individuals. Experiments were conducted in resting conditions, during a control mental arithmetic task, during highly stressful mental arithmetic, and in the period immediately following psychological stress. RESULTS: Widespread activation of central autonomic network (CAN) structures was observed during stress compared to a control task in the group of healthy participants, whereas CAN activation during stress was less intense in both BPD and MDD. Both patient groups displayed increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activation compared to healthy subjects, as previously reported. The relationship between peripheral sympathetic or parasympathetic activity and simultaneous regional brain BOLD activity was similar in BPD patients and healthy subjects, and markedly different from that seen in MDD patients. LIMITATIONS: The sample size, the fact it belonged to a single study site, and low grade affective symptomatology in both patient groups limit the generalizability of the present findings. CONCLUSIONS: The diverging neurobiological signature in the homeostatic response to stress in MDD and BPD possibly represents a heuristically valuable candidate biomarker to help discern MDD and BPD patients.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604877

RESUMO

In the last 20 years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been extensively used to investigate system-level abnormalities in the brain of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this chapter, we start by reviewing the studies assessing regional brain differences between patients with OCD and healthy controls in task-based fMRI. Specifically, we review studies on executive functioning and emotional processing, protocols in which these patients have been described to show alterations at the behavioral level, as well as research using symptom provocation protocols. Next, we review studies on brain connectivity alterations, focusing on resting-state studies evaluating disruptions in fronto-subcortical functional connectivity and in cortical networks. Likewise, we also review research on effective connectivity, which, different from functional connectivity, allows for ascertaining the directionality of inter-regional connectivity alterations. We conclude by reviewing the most significant findings on a topic of translational impact, such as the use of different fMRI measurements to predict response across a variety of treatment approaches. Overall, results suggest that there exists a pattern of regions, involving, but not limited to, different nodes of the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits, showing robust evidence of functional alteration across studies, although the nature of the alterations critically depends on the specific tasks and their particular demands. Moreover, such findings have been, to date, poorly translated into clinical practice. It is suggested that this may be partially accounted for by the difficulty to integrate into a common framework results obtained under a wide variety of analysis approaches.

3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 42, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances have been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, with heterogeneous results. The aim of our study was to assess sleep function in OCD and to investigate the relationship between sleep and the severity of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, depressive symptoms and trait anxiety. METHODS: Sleep quality was measured in 61 OCD patients and 100 healthy controls (HCs) using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Multiple linear regression was conducted to explore the association between sleep and psychopathological measures; a mediation analysis was also performed. RESULTS: OCD patients showed poor sleep quality and more sleep disturbances compared to HCs. The severity of depression, trait anxiety and OC symptomatology were correlated with poor sleep quality. Multiple linear regression analyses controlling for potential confounders revealed that the severity of depression and trait anxiety were independently related to poor sleep quality in OCD. A mediation analysis showed that both the severity of trait anxiety and depression mediate the relationship between the severity of OC symptoms and poor sleep quality among patients with OCD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the existence of sleep disturbances in OCD. Trait anxiety and depression play a key role in sleep quality among OCD patients.

4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 133: 191-196, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352399

RESUMO

Previous studies in non-clinical populations suggest that obsessive-compulsive symptoms are associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis measures and that there are sex differences in these associations. We aimed to replicate these findings in a sample of 57 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 98 healthy subjects. Current and lifetime OCD symptom dimensions were assessed with the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS). Depressive symptoms and state and trait anxiety were also assessed. The following HPA axis measures were analysed in saliva: the diurnal cortisol slope (calculated using two formulas: [1] awakening to 11 p.m. [AWE diurnal slope] and [2] considering fixed time points [FTP diurnal slope] from 10 a.m. to 11 p.m.) and the dexamethasone suppression test ratio (DSTR) after 0.25 mg of dexamethasone. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the contribution of OCD symptom dimensions to each HPA axis measure while adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. A sex-specific association between current ordering/symmetry symptoms and AWE diurnal cortisol slope (positive association [flattened slope] in men, inverse association [stepper slope] in women) was found. Two similar sex by OCD dimensions interactions were found for lifetime aggressive and ordering/symmetry symptoms and both (FTP, AWE) diurnal cortisol slopes. Current and lifetime hoarding symptoms were associated to a more flattened FTP diurnal cortisol slope in women. The DSTR was not associated with OCD symptoms. The lifetime interference in functionality was associated with a more flattened AWE diurnal cortisol slope. In conclusion, our study suggests that there are sex differences in the association between OCD subtypes and specific HPA axis measures.

5.
Neuroimage Clin ; 28: 102482, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371943

RESUMO

The Locus Coeruleus (LC) is the major source of noradrenergic neurotransmission. Structural alterations in the LC have been observed in neurodegenerative disorders and at-risk individuals, although functional connectivity studies between the LC and other brain areas have not been yet performed in these populations. Patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD) are indeed at increased risk for neurodegenerative disorders, and here we investigated LC connectivity in late-life MDD in comparison to individuals with amnestic type mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy controls (HCs). We assessed 20 patients with late-life MDD, 16 patients with aMCI, and 26 HCs, who underwent a functional magnetic resonance scan while performing a visual oddball task. We assessed task-related modulations of LC connectivity (i.e., Psychophysiological Interactions, PPI) with other brain areas. A T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence for LC localization was also obtained. Patients with late-life MDD showed lower global connectivity during target detection in a cluster encompassing the right caudal LC. Specifically, we observed lower LC connectivity with the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right fusiform gyrus, and different cerebellar clusters. Moreover, alterations in LC-ACC connectivity correlated negatively with depression severity (i.e., Geriatric Depression Scale and number of recurrences). Reduced connectivity of the LC during oddball performance seems to specifically characterize patients with late-life MDD, but not other populations of aged individuals with cognitive alterations. Such alteration is associated with different measures of disease severity, such as the current presence of symptoms and the burden of disease (number of recurrences).

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered the most effective treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). In recent years, the pursuit of the neurobiological mechanisms of ECT action has generated a significant amount of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we integrated all fMRI research in patients with MDD receiving ECT and, importantly, evaluated the level of convergence and replicability across multiple fMRI metrics. RESULTS: While according to most studies changes in patients with MDD after ECT appear to be widely distributed across the brain, our multimetric review revealed specific changes involving functional connectivity increases in the superior and middle frontal gyri as the most replicated and across-modality convergent findings. Although this modulation of prefrontal connectivity was associated to ECT outcome, we also identified fMRI measurements of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex as the fMRI signals most significantly linked to clinical response. CONCLUSION: We identified specific prefrontal and cingulate territories which activity and connectivity with other brain regions is modulated by ECT, critically accounting for its mechanism of action.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The commonly observed Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive (OC) symptoms in healthy children may predispose to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Therefore, investigating the underlying neurobiology may be relevant to identify alterations in specific brain circuits potentially accounting for clinical heterogeneity in OCD without the confounding effects of clinical samples. Herein, we analyzed the brain correlates of different OC symptoms in a large group of healthy children using functional connectivity measures. METHOD: We evaluated 227 healthy children (52% girls, mean age±SD=9.71±0.86 years, range 8-12.1). Participants underwent clinical assessment with the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging examination. Total and symptom-specific severity were correlated with voxel-wise global functional connectivity degree values. Significant clusters were then used as seeds of interest in seed-to-voxel analyses. Modulating effects of age and sex were also assessed. RESULTS: Global functional connectivity of the left ventral putamen and medial-dorsal thalamus correlated negatively with total OC severity. Seed-to-voxel analyses revealed specific negative correlations from these clusters with limbic, sensorimotor and insular regions in association with obsessing, ordering and doubt-checking symptoms, respectively. Hoarding symptoms were associated with negative correlations between the left medial-dorsal thalamus and a widespread pattern of regions, being such associations modulated by sex and age. CONCLUSION: Our findings concur with prevailing neurobiological models of OCD on the importance of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) dysfunction to account for symptom severity. Notably, we showed that changes in CSTC connectivity are present at subclinical stages, which may result in an increased vulnerability for OCD. Moreover, we mapped different symptom dimensions onto specific CSTC circuit attributes.

8.
Cereb Cortex ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960214

RESUMO

The cognitive reappraisal of emotion is hypothesized to involve frontal regions modulating the activity of subcortical regions such as the amygdala. However, the pathways by which structurally disparate frontal regions interact with the amygdala remains unclear. In this study, 104 healthy young people completed a cognitive reappraisal task. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) was used to map functional interactions within a frontoamygdalar network engaged during emotion regulation. Five regions were identified to form the network: the amygdala, the presupplementary motor area (preSMA), the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Bayesian Model Selection was used to compare 256 candidate models, with our winning model featuring modulations of vmPFC-to-amygdala and amygdala-to-preSMA pathways during reappraisal. Moreover, the strength of amygdala-to-preSMA modulation was associated with the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support the vmPFC serving as the primary conduit through which prefrontal regions directly modulate amygdala activity, with amygdala-to-preSMA connectivity potentially acting to shape ongoing affective motor responses. We propose that these two frontoamygdalar pathways constitute a recursive feedback loop, which computes the effectiveness of emotion-regulatory actions and drives model-based behavior.

9.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 118: 504-513, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866526

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been associated with a wide range of biological and neurocognitive findings, which could assist in the search for biomarkers. We conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to assess and grade the strength of the evidence of the association between OCD and several potential diagnostic biomarkers while controlling for several potential biases. Twenty-four systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included, comprising 352 individual studies, more than 10,000 individuals with OCD, and covering 73 potential biomarkers. OCD was significantly associated with several neurocognitive biomarkers, with varying degrees of evidence, ranging from weak to convincing. A number of biochemical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging biomarkers also showed statistically significant, albeit weak, associations with OCD. Analyses in unmedicated samples (123 studies) weakened the strength of the evidence for most biomarkers or rendered them non-significant. None of the biomarkers seem to have sufficient sensitivity and specificity to become a diagnostic biomarker. A more promising avenue for future biomarker research in OCD might be the prediction of clinical outcomes rather than diagnosis.

10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although deficits in affective processing are a core component of anorexia nervosa (AN), we lack a detailed characterization of the neurobiological underpinnings of emotion regulation impairment in AN. Moreover, it remains unclear whether these neural correlates scale with clinical outcomes. METHODS: We investigated the neural correlates of negative emotion regulation in a sample of young women receiving day-hospital treatment for AN (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 21). We aimed to determine whether aberrant brain activation patterns during emotion regulation predicted weight gain following treatment in AN patients and were linked to AN severity. To achieve this, participants completed a cognitive reappraisal paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Skin conductance response, as well as subjective distress ratings, were recorded to corroborate task engagement. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients with AN showed reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during cognitive reappraisal [pFWE<0.05, threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) corrected]. Importantly, psycho-physiological interaction analysis revealed reduced functional connectivity between the dlPFC and the amygdala in AN patients during emotion regulation (pFWE<0.05, TFCE corrected), and dlPFC-amygdala uncoupling was associated with emotion regulation deficits (r = -0.511, p = 0.018) and eating disorder severity (r = -0.565, p = .008) in the AN group. Finally, dlPFC activity positively correlated with increases in body mass index (r = 0.471, p = 0.042) and in body fat mass percentage (r = 0.605, p = 0.008) following 12 weeks of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings indicate that individuals with AN present altered fronto-amygdalar response during cognitive reappraisal and that this response may serve as a predictor of response to treatment and be linked to clinical severity.

11.
Genes Brain Behav ; 19(8): e12683, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573093

RESUMO

Seasonal changes in mood and diurnal preference are two well-characterized chronobiological phenotypes in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The biological mechanisms regulating physiological changes related to seasonality and chronotype involve several genes known as "clock" or circadian genes. Our goal was to study the relationship between the polygenic risk score (PRS) obtained from a set of clock genes and chronobiological traits in patients with mood disorders. The sample included 445 patients with mood disorders (256 MDD; 189 BD). Seasonality was assessed using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), and chronotype was assessed using the Horne and Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. We selected 248 single nucleotide polymorphisms located within 19 genes. PRS for both MDD and BD was calculated using the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium latest datasets as discovery samples. Another PRS was calculated using results from a genome-wide association study focusing on chronotype. SPAQ results were significantly associated with MDD-PRS (p = 0.037) and chronotype-PRS (p = 0.019), which also showed a significant interaction with age (p = 0.039). No significant association was observed between the measured PRS and chronotype. Our results reflect that small effect variants associated with MDD and chronotype within clock genes are associated with seasonality traits in patients with mood disorders, further explaining the mechanism through which the circadian system might influence mood disorder clinical presentation. Future studies measuring PRS from specific gene sets and focusing on biological endophenotypes will help to elucidate the pathways from genetic variations to clinical outcome.

12.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 54(7): 719-731, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Research Domain Criteria seeks to bridge knowledge from neuroscience with clinical practice by promoting research into valid neurocognitive phenotypes and dimensions, irrespective of symptoms and diagnoses as currently conceptualized. While the Research Domain Criteria offers a vision of future research and practice, its 39 functional constructs need refinement to better target new phenotyping efforts. This study aimed to determine which Research Domain Criteria constructs are most relevant to understanding obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, based on a consensus between experts in the field of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. METHODS: Based on a modified Delphi method, 46 experts were recruited from Australia, Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas. Over three rounds, experts had the opportunity to review their opinion in light of feedback from the previous round, which included how their response compared to other experts and a summary of comments given. RESULTS: Thirty-four experts completed round one, of whom 28 (82%) completed round two and 24 (71%) completed round three. At the final round, four constructs were endorsed by ⩾75% of experts as 'primary constructs' and therefore central to understanding obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Of these constructs, one came from the Positive Valence System (Habit), two from the Cognitive Control System (Response Selection/Inhibition and Performance Monitoring) and the final construct was an additional item suggested by experts (Compulsivity). CONCLUSION: This study identified four Research Domain Criteria constructs that, according to experts, cut across different obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. These constructs represent key areas for future investigation, and may have potential implications for clinical practice in terms of diagnostic processes and therapeutic management of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

13.
Nutr Res ; 78: 27-35, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438221

RESUMO

Functional foods may contribute to establish healthy eating habits and reduce obesity and related comorbidities. Differences in the brain mechanisms underpinning the valuation of functional foods in individuals with excess weight may inform the development of attractive functional foods. We aimed to compare brain function during the Willingness to Pay task for functional vs standard foods between individuals with healthy weight (HW), overweight (OW), and obesity (OB). We hypothesized that, in participants with OB, willingness to pay for functional foods would evoke greater activation/connectivity in brain regions previously associated with subjective value. Thirty-six HW, 19 OW, and 20 OB adults performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging-Willingness to Pay task that requires them to decide how much they would pay for presented standard and functional food images tasted in a previous buffet. Whole-brain analyses compared task-related activation and connectivity between participants with OB, OW, and HW. Individuals with OB, relative to HW, showed more similar willingness to pay for functional and standard food. At the brain level, they also showed hyperactivation in the ventral posterior cingulate cortex and the right angular gyrus, as well as an increased functional connectivity between the ventral posterior cingulate cortex and the intraparietal cortices to the valuation of the functional vs the standard foods. Increased willingness to pay for functional foods in people with excessive weight may be driven by recruitment of brain regions that direct attention to internal goals.

14.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154629

RESUMO

Neuroimaging has played an important part in advancing our understanding of the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). At the same time, neuroimaging studies of OCD have had notable limitations, including reliance on relatively small samples. International collaborative efforts to increase statistical power by combining samples from across sites have been bolstered by the ENIGMA consortium; this provides specific technical expertise for conducting multi-site analyses, as well as access to a collaborative community of neuroimaging scientists. In this article, we outline the background to, development of, and initial findings from ENIGMA's OCD working group, which currently consists of 47 samples from 34 institutes in 15 countries on 5 continents, with a total sample of 2,323 OCD patients and 2,325 healthy controls. Initial work has focused on studies of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes, structural connectivity, and brain lateralization in children, adolescents and adults with OCD, also including the study on the commonalities and distinctions across different neurodevelopment disorders. Additional work is ongoing, employing machine learning techniques. Findings to date have contributed to the development of neurobiological models of OCD, have provided an important model of global scientific collaboration, and have had a number of clinical implications. Importantly, our work has shed new light on questions about whether structural and functional alterations found in OCD reflect neurodevelopmental changes, effects of the disease process, or medication impacts. We conclude with a summary of ongoing work by ENIGMA-OCD, and a consideration of future directions for neuroimaging research on OCD within and beyond ENIGMA.

15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 123: 81-88, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044590

RESUMO

Prevention and early treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are hampered by the lack of research biomarkers. Neuropathological changes in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) are detected early in AD, and noradrenaline plays a neuroprotective role in LC projecting areas. We assessed functional connectivity (FC) of the brainstem in asymptomatic individuals at familial risk for AD hypothesizing that FC of the LC will be decreased in relation to not-at-risk individuals. Thirty-one offspring of patients with late-onset AD (O-LOAD) (22 females; mean age ± SD = 50.36 ± 8.32) and 28 healthy controls (HC) (20 females; mean age ± SD = 53.90 ± 8.44) underwent a neurocognitive evaluation and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisition. In FC analyses we evaluated whole-brain global connectivity of the brainstem area, and subsequently assessed seed-to-voxel FC patterns from regions showing between-group differences. O-LOAD individuals scored worse in neurocognitive measures of memory and overall functioning (pFDR<0.05). In imaging analyses, we observed that O-LOAD individuals showed decreased global connectivity in a cluster encompassing the left LC (peak = -4, -34, -32, pTFCE<0.05). Seed-to-voxel analyses revealed that this finding was largely explained by decreased connectivity between the LC and the cerebellar cortex. Moreover, FC between the LC and the left cerebellum correlated positively with delayed recall scores. FC between the LC and the cerebellar cortex is decreased in the healthy offspring of patients with LOAD, such connectivity measurements being associated with delayed memory scores. The assessment of FC between the LC and the cerebellum may serve as a biomarker of AD vulnerability.

16.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 112: 83-94, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006553

RESUMO

Neuroimaging research has shown that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may present brain structural and functional alterations, but the results across imaging modalities and task paradigms are difficult to reconcile. Are the same brain systems that are structurally different in OCD patients also involved in executive function and emotional processing? To answer this, we conducted separate meta-analyses of voxel-based morphometry studies, executive function functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, and emotional processing fMRI studies. Next, with a multimodal approach (conjunction analysis), we identified the common alterations across meta-analyses. Patients presented increased gray matter volume and hyperactivation in the putamen, but the putamen subregions affected differed depending on the psychological process. Left posterior/dorsal putamen showed hyperactivation during executive processing tasks, while predominantly right anterior/ventral putamen showed hyperactivation during emotional processing tasks. Interestingly, age was significantly associated with increased right putamen volume. Finally, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was hyperactive in both functional domains. Our findings highlight task-specific correlates of brain structure and function in OCD and help integrate a growing literature.

17.
J Clin Med ; 9(2)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019063

RESUMO

This study explored the brain structural correlates of psychological flexibility (PF) as measured with the Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 47 FM patients were used to identify Gray Matter Volume (GMV) alterations related to PIPS scores. Brain GMV clusters related to PIPS were then correlated with clinical and cognitive variables to further explore how emerged brain clusters were intertwined with FM symptomatology. Longitudinal changes in PIPS-related brain clusters values were assessed by studying pre-post data from 30 patients (15 allocated to a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program and 15 to treatment-as-usual). Changes in PIPS-related brain clusters were also explored in participants showing greater/lower longitudinal changes in PIPS scores. PIPS scores were positively associated with GMV in a bilateral cluster in the ventral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Significant associations between BNST cluster with functional impairment, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress and the nonjudging mindfulness facet were observed. Participants reporting greater pre-post increases in PIPS scores showed greater increases in BNST cluster values. These findings contribute to the understanding on the neurobiological bases of PF in FM and encourage further explorations of the role of the BNST in chronic pain.

18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 208: 107854, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emotion regulation is important for cocaine addiction treatment success, particularly during early abstinence. In addition, the neural underpinnings of emotion processing overlap with those of motivation and goal-directed behavior. We examined if the neural underpinnings of emotion maintenance and its regulation correlate with cocaine treatment motivation. METHODS: Forty-five cocaine dependent individuals (CDIs) starting outpatient treatment in a public specialized addiction treatment clinic in Granada (Spain) underwent fMRI scans while performing a Reappraisal task, and completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale (URICA), to measure treatment motivation. We conducted correlation analyses to examine the association between emotion maintenance and regulation related brain activation and URICA's Readiness to Change scores. We also explored links between Emotional reports during the fMRI reappraisal task, duration of abstinence, and anxiety and depression symptoms. RESULTS: Readiness to Change scores were positively correlated with activations in the right dorsolateral prefrontal and right parietal cortices, the midbrain (p ≤ 0.001, cluster extents ≥109 voxels), and basolateral amygdala (PFWE-SVC<0.05), while negatively with emotion maintenance related activation in the same cortical areas and activations in the dorsomedial frontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens and the left fusiform gyrus. Emotional reactivity negatively correlated with right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reappraisal related activation (r= -0.40, p = 0.007), and the Regulate score positively correlated with the left fusiform gyrus emotion maintenance related activation (r = 0.31, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Emotional related activation in frontoparietal, accumbens, fusiform, amygdala and midbrain regions engaged during emotion regulation and its maintenance correlate with early treatment motivation in CDIs.

19.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(5): 451-461, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with volumetric enlargements of corticolimbic brain regions. However, the pattern of whole-brain structural alterations following ECT remains unresolved. Here, we examined the longitudinal effects of ECT on global and local variations in gray matter, white matter, and ventricle volumes in patients with major depressive disorder as well as predictors of ECT-related clinical response. METHODS: Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data from the Global ECT-MRI Research Collaboration (GEMRIC) were used to investigate changes in white matter, gray matter, and ventricle volumes before and after ECT in 328 patients experiencing a major depressive episode. In addition, 95 nondepressed control subjects were scanned twice. We performed a mega-analysis of single subject data from 14 independent GEMRIC sites. RESULTS: Volumetric increases occurred in 79 of 84 gray matter regions of interest. In total, the cortical volume increased by mean ± SD of 1.04 ± 1.03% (Cohen's d = 1.01, p < .001) and the subcortical gray matter volume increased by 1.47 ± 1.05% (d = 1.40, p < .001) in patients. The subcortical gray matter increase was negatively associated with total ventricle volume (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = -.44, p < .001), while total white matter volume remained unchanged (d = -0.05, p = .41). The changes were modulated by number of ECTs and mode of electrode placements. However, the gray matter volumetric enlargements were not associated with clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that ECT induces gray matter volumetric increases that are broadly distributed. However, gross volumetric increases of specific anatomically defined regions may not serve as feasible biomarkers of clinical response.

20.
Psychol Med ; 50(4): 666-673, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggests that hoarding disorder (HD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may show distinct patterns of brain activation during executive performance, although results have been inconclusive regarding the specific neural correlates of their differential executive dysfunction. In the current study, we aim to evaluate differences in brain activation between patients with HD, OCD and healthy controls (HCs) during response inhibition, response switching and error processing. METHODS: We assessed 17 patients with HD, 18 patients with OCD and 19 HCs. Executive processing was assessed inside a magnetic resonance scanner by means of two variants of a cognitive control protocol (i.e. stop- and switch-signal tasks), which allowed for the assessment of the aforementioned executive domains. RESULTS: OCD patients performed similar to the HCs, differing only in the number of successful go trials in the switch-signal task. However, they showed an anomalous hyperactivation of the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex during error processing in the switch-signal task. Conversely, HD patients performed worse than OCD and HC participants in both tasks, showing an impulsive-like pattern of response (i.e. shorter reaction time and more commission errors). They also exhibited hyperactivation of the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex during successful response switching and abnormal deactivation of frontal regions during error processing in both tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that patients with HD and OCD present dissimilar cognitive profiles, supported by distinct neural mechanisms. Specifically, while alterations in HD resemble an impulsive pattern of response, patients with OCD present increased error processing during response conflict protocols.

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