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1.
Dalton Trans ; 51(9): 3604-3615, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147619

RESUMO

To reach commercial viability for fuel cells, one needs to develop active and robust Pt-free electrocatalysts. Silver has great potential to replace Pt as the catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media due to its low cost and superior stability. However, its catalytic activity needs to be improved. One possible solution is to fabricate bimetallic nanostructures, which demonstrate a bifunctional enhancement in the electrochemical performance. Here, two types of bimetallic silver-nickel nanocatalysts, core-shells (Ag@NiO) and heterostructures (Ag/Ni), are fabricated using γ-radiation induced synthesis. The Ag@NiO nanoparticles consist of an amorphous, NiO layer as a shell and a facetted crystalline Ag particle as a core. Meanwhile, the Ag/Ni heterostructures comprise Ag particles decorated with Ni/Ni(oxy-hydro)-oxide clusters. Both materials demonstrate similar and increased alkaline ORR activity as compared to monometallic catalysts. It was revealed that the enhanced catalytic activity of the core-shells is mainly attributed to the electronic ligand effect. While in the Ag/Ni heterostructures, a lattice mismatch between the Ni-based clusters and Ag implies a significant lattice strain, which, in turn, is responsible for the increased activity of the catalyst. Also, the Ag/Ni samples exhibit good stability under operating conditions due to the existence of stable Ni3+ compounds on the surface.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(6): e202112204, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860450

RESUMO

The role of intermediate phases in CeO2 mesocrystal formation from aqueous CeIII solutions subjected to γ-radiation was studied. Radiolytically formed hydroxyl radicals convert soluble CeIII into less soluble CeIV . Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction studies of samples from different stages of the process allowed the identification of several stages in CeO2 mesocrystal evolution following the oxidation to CeIV : (1) formation of hydrated CeIV hydroxides, serving as intermediates in the liquid-to-solid phase transformation; (2) CeO2 primary particle growth inside the intermediate phase; (3) alignment of the primary particles into "pre-mesocrystals" and subsequently to mesocrystals, guided by confinement of the amorphous intermediate phase and accompanied by the formation of "mineral bridges". Further alignment of the obtained mesocrystals into supracrystals occurs upon slow drying, making it possible to form complex hierarchical architectures.

3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 583: 71-79, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979712

RESUMO

A γ-radiation induced synthesis method is used to fabricate manganese oxide catalysts through both reduction and oxidation routes. It is shown that the morphology, composition and electrochemical performance of the produced manganese oxide particles can be tuned by altering the redox conditions. The catalysts prepared via radiolytic oxidation have a hollow spherical morphology, possess γ-MnO2 structure and show high catalytic activity for the complete four-electron reaction pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline electrolyte. Meanwhile, the catalysts synthesized via radiolytic reduction possess a rod-like morphology with a Mn3O4 bulk structure and favour the incomplete two-electron reaction pathway for ORR. The high catalytic activity of the manganese oxide synthesized via the oxidation route can be attributed to high electrochemical surface area and increased amount of Mn3+ on the surface as compared to those in the sample obtained via the reduction route.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 47(45): 16139-16144, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378612

RESUMO

In this work we have optimized the γ-radiation induced synthesis of Cu-Cu2O particles from aqueous CuSO4 solution by investigating the effect of pH. The obtained precipitate was analyzed by XRD and SEM techniques. The results indicated that at solution pH lower than 3.75, quasi-spherical Cu agglomerates can be formed while at pH higher than 4.40 only octahedron-shaped Cu2O particles are produced. At solution pH in the range from 3.75 to 4.40, a Cu-Cu2O mixture is produced. It was found that the relative amount of Cu2O in the Cu-Cu2O precipitate increases with pH in the studied range. The influence of solution pH on the Cu/Cu2O ratios in the product can be explained on the basis of pH-dependent competition kinetics between the reactions leading to either Cu or Cu2O formation. As a consequence, the composition and morphology of the Cu-Cu2O precipitate can be tuned by controlling pH of the aqueous CuSO4 solution during the γ-radiation induced synthesis.

5.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 106(7): 2673-2680, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424962

RESUMO

The extent of metal release from implant materials that are irradiated during radiotherapy may be influenced by irradiation-formed radicals. The influence of gamma irradiation, with a total dose of relevance for radiotherapy (e.g., for cancer treatments) on the extent of metal release from biomedical stainless steel AISI 316L and a cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCrMo) was investigated in physiological relevant solutions (phosphate buffered saline with and without 10 g/L bovine serum albumin) at pH 7.3. Directly after irradiation, the released amounts of metals were significantly higher for irradiated CoCrMo as compared to nonirradiated CoCrMo, resulting in an increased surface passivation (enhanced passive conditions) that hindered further release. A similar effect was observed for 316L showing lower nickel release after 1 h of initially irradiated samples as compared to nonirradiated samples. However, the effect of irradiation (total dose of 16.5 Gy) on metal release and surface oxide composition and thickness was generally small. Most metals were released initially (within seconds) upon immersion from CoCrMo but not from 316L. Albumin induced an increased amount of released metals from AISI 316L but not from CoCrMo. Albumin was not found to aggregate to any greater extent either upon gamma irradiation or in the presence of trace metal ions, as determined using different light scattering techniques. Further studies should elucidate the effect of repeated friction and fractionated low irradiation doses on the short- and long term metal release process of biomedical materials. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 2673-2680, 2018.


Assuntos
Raios gama , Radioterapia , Vitálio/química , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
6.
Dalton Trans ; 46(30): 9995-10002, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726886

RESUMO

A facile synthesis of 3d-metal based electro-catalysts directly incorporated into a carbon support was carried out by γ-radiation. Transition metals of period 4, i.e. Ni and Co, were precipitated and reduced from their respective salt solutions. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, SQUID and the BET methods. Thereafter, the electrodes for fuel cells were fabricated out of synthesized material and their electrochemical performance for the oxygen reduction reaction in 6 M KOH was measured. Although the concentrations of Co and Ni in the electrode material were low (3.4% Co and 0.4% Ni) after reduction by irradiation, both the Ni and Co-based gas diffusion electrodes showed high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction both at room temperature and at 60 °C.

7.
Dalton Trans ; 46(20): 6533-6543, 2017 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379275

RESUMO

The most common synthesis methods for copper hydride (CuH) employ hard ligands that lead to the formation of considerable amounts of metallic Cu as side-product. Here we explore a synthesis method for CuH(s) through the reaction of CuCO3·Cu(OH)2(s) with hypophosphorous acid (H3PO2) in solution, via the formation of the intermediate Cu(H2PO2)2(aq) complex. The reaction products were characterized with XRD, FTIR and SEM at different reaction times, and the kinetics of the transformation of Cu(H2PO2)2(aq) to CuH(s) were followed with NMR and are discussed. We show that our synthesis method provides a simple way for obtaining large amounts of CuH(s) even when the synthesis is performed in air. Compared to the classic Würtz method, where CuSO4 is used as an initial source of Cu2+, our synthesis produces CuH particles with less metallic Cu side-product. We attribute this to the fact that our reaction medium is free from the hard SO42- ligand that can disproportionate Cu(i). We discuss a mechanism for the reaction based on the known reactivity of the reagents and intermediates involved. We explored the possibility of using CuH(s) for making electrically conductive films. Tests that employed water-dispersed CuH particles show that this compound can be reduced with H3PO2 leading to electrically conductive thin films of Cu. These films were made on regular office paper and were found to be Ohmic conductors even after several weeks of exposure to ambient conditions. The fact that the synthesis reported here produces large amounts of CuH particles in aqueous media, with very little impurities, and the fact that these can then be converted to a stable electrically conductive film can open up new applications for CuH such as for printing electrically conductive films or manufacturing surface coatings.

8.
Sci Rep ; 6: 24234, 2016 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27086752

RESUMO

One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories.

9.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 15(5): 3445-67, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26504965

RESUMO

Controlled synthesis of nanoscalar and nanostructured materials enables the development of novel functional materials with fine-tuned optical, mechanical, electronic, magnetic, conductive and catalytic properties that are of use in numerous applications. These materials have also found their potential use in medicine as vehicles for drug delivery, in diagnostics or in combinations thereof. In principle, nanoparticles can be divided into two broad categories, organic and inorganic nanoparticles. For both types of nanoparticles there are numerous possible synthetic routes. Considering the large difference in nature of these materials and the elementary reactions involved in the synthetic routes, most manufacturing techniques are complex and only suitable for one type of particle. Interestingly, radiation chemistry, i.e., the use of ionizing radiation from radioisotopes and accelerators to induce nanomaterials or chemical changes in materials, has proven to be a versatile tool for controlled manufacturing of both organic and inorganic nanoparticles. The advantages of using radiation chemistry for this purpose are many, such as low energy consumption, minimal use of potentially harmful chemicals and simple production schemes. For medical applications one more advantage is that the material can be sterile as manufactured. Radiation-induced synthesis can be carried out in aqueous systems, which minimizes the use of organic solvents and the need for separation and purification of the final product. The radiation chemistry of water is well known, as are the various ways of fine-tuning the reactivity of the system towards a desired target by adding different solutes. This, in combination with the controllable and adjustable irradiation process parameters, makes the technique superior to most other chemical methods. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of radiation chemistry and radiation-induced synthesis of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. The impact of dose and dose rate as well as of controlled addition of various solutes on the final particle composition, size and size distribution are described in detail and discussed in terms of reaction mechanism and kinetics.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 54(18): 8969-77, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26335828

RESUMO

Using density functional theory (DFT) and a graph theory based approach, we investigated the topology of bond network in CuOH(s) (cuprice) considering only symmetry-distinct structures. In parallel, we conducted the synthesis and X-ray diffraction characterization of the compound and used the combined theoretical-experimental effort to validate the lowest energy structure obtained with DFT. The ground-state structure of CuOH(s) consists of compact trilayers of CuOH connected to each other via hydrogen bonds, where the inner layer of each trilayer is composed entirely of Cu atoms. Each trilayer is a dense fabric made of two interlocked arrays of polymer [CuOH]n chains. This structure corresponds to an antiferroelectric configuration where the dipole moments of CuOH molecules belonging to adjacent arrays are antiparallel and are arranged in the same way as the water molecules in ice-VIII. It is shown that a collective electrostatic interaction is the main driving force for the cation ordering while the local atomic configuration is maintained. These findings and the possibility of synthesizing exfoliated two-dimensional cuprice are important for some technological applications.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 42(26): 9585-94, 2013 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23673918

RESUMO

Experimental studies have been performed to obtain the unknown cuprous hydroxide compound, which has recently been predicted theoretically (P. A. Korzhavyi et. al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2012, 109, 686-689) to be metastable in a solid form. The reduction of Cu(2+) with ferrous ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) results in the formation of a yellow powder precipitate whose composition corresponds to CuOH × H2O as probed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and cryogenic X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). A similar compound has been found on the surface of Cu-CuH powder stored in water, as detected by XPS. The reduction of Cu(2+) to Cu(+) with free radicals in aqueous solutions results in a Cu2O precipitate as the final product, while the formation of the yellow cuprous hydroxide colloids may be an intermediate step. Our studies reveal that cuprous hydroxide does exist in a solid form and most likely has a hydrated form, CuOH × H2O.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Hidróxidos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(3): 686-9, 2012 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22219370

RESUMO

New important applications of copper metal, e.g., in the areas of hydrogen production, fuel cell operation, and spent nuclear fuel disposal, require accurate knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of stable and metastable copper compounds. Among the copper(I) compounds with oxygen and hydrogen, cuprous oxide Cu(2)O is the only one stable and the best studied. Other such compounds are less known (CuH) or totally unknown (CuOH) due to their instability relative to the oxide. Here we combine quantum-mechanical calculations with experimental studies to search for possible compounds of monovalent copper. Cuprous hydride (CuH) and cuprous hydroxide (CuOH) are proved to exist in solid form. We establish the chemical and physical properties of these compounds, thereby filling the existing gaps in our understanding of hydrogen- and oxygen-related phenomena in Cu metal.

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