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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 884, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060277

RESUMO

Teff (Eragrostis tef) is a cornerstone of food security in the Horn of Africa, where it is prized for stress resilience, grain nutrition, and market value. Here, we report a chromosome-scale assembly of allotetraploid teff (variety Dabbi) and patterns of subgenome dynamics. The teff genome contains two complete sets of homoeologous chromosomes, with most genes maintaining as syntenic gene pairs. TE analysis allows us to estimate that the teff polyploidy event occurred ~1.1 million years ago (mya) and that the two subgenomes diverged ~5.0 mya. Despite this divergence, we detect no large-scale structural rearrangements, homoeologous exchanges, or biased gene loss, in contrast to many other allopolyploids. The two teff subgenomes have partitioned their ancestral functions based on divergent expression across a diverse expression atlas. Together, these genomic resources will be useful for accelerating breeding of this underutilized grain crop and for fundamental insights into polyploid genome evolution.


Assuntos
Eragrostis/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , África , Eragrostis/classificação , Filogenia , Tetraploidia
2.
Trends Plant Sci ; 25(5): 455-465, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959421

RESUMO

Crossovers (COs), that drive genetic exchange between homologous chromosomes, are strongly biased toward subtelomeric regions in plant species. Manipulating the rate and positions of COs to increase the genetic variation accessible to breeders is a longstanding goal. Use of genome editing reagents that induce double-stranded breaks (DSBs) or modify the epigenome at desired sites of recombination, and manipulation of CO factors, are increasingly applicable approaches for achieving this goal. These strategies for 'controlled recombination' have potential to reduce the time and expense associated with traditional breeding, reveal currently inaccessible genetic diversity, and increase control over the inheritance of preferred haplotypes. Considerable challenges to address include translating knowledge from models to crop species and determining the best stages of the breeding cycle at which to control recombination.

4.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 18(5): 1211-1222, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677224

RESUMO

Oat ranks sixth in world cereal production and has a higher content of health-promoting compounds compared with other cereals. However, there is neither a robust oat reference genome nor transcriptome. Using deeply sequenced full-length mRNA libraries of oat cultivar Ogle-C, a de novo high-quality and comprehensive oat seed transcriptome was assembled. With this reference transcriptome and QuantSeq 3' mRNA sequencing, gene expression was quantified during seed development from 22 diverse lines across six time points. Transcript expression showed higher correlations between adjacent time points. Based on differentially expressed genes, we identified 22 major temporal co-expression (TCoE) patterns of gene expression and revealed enriched gene ontology biological processes. Within each TCoE set, highly correlated transcripts, putatively commonly affected by genetic background, were clustered and termed genetic co-expression (GCoE) sets. Seventeen of the 22 TCoE sets had GCoE sets with median heritabilities higher than 0.50, and these heritability estimates were much higher than that estimated from permutation analysis, with no divergence observed in cluster sizes between permutation and non-permutation analyses. Linear regression between 634 metabolites from mature seeds and the PC1 score of each of the GCoE sets showed significantly lower p-values than permutation analysis. Temporal expression patterns of oat avenanthramides and lipid biosynthetic genes were concordant with previous studies of avenanthramide biosynthetic enzyme activity and lipid accumulation. This study expands our understanding of physiological processes that occur during oat seed maturation and provides plant breeders the means to change oat seed composition through targeted manipulation of key pathways.

5.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(9): 2963-2975, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296616

RESUMO

Oat (Avena sativa L.) has a high concentration of oils, comprised primarily of healthful unsaturated oleic and linoleic fatty acids. To accelerate oat plant breeding efforts, we sought to identify loci associated with variation in fatty acid composition, defined as the types and quantities of fatty acids. We genotyped a panel of 500 oat cultivars with genotyping-by-sequencing and measured the concentrations of ten fatty acids in these oat cultivars grown in two environments. Measurements of individual fatty acids were highly correlated across samples, consistent with fatty acids participating in shared biosynthetic pathways. We leveraged these phenotypic correlations in two multivariate genome-wide association study (GWAS) approaches. In the first analysis, we fitted a multivariate linear mixed model for all ten fatty acids simultaneously while accounting for population structure and relatedness among cultivars. In the second, we performed a univariate association test for each principal component (PC) derived from a singular value decomposition of the phenotypic data matrix. To aid interpretation of results from the multivariate analyses, we also conducted univariate association tests for each trait. The multivariate mixed model approach yielded 148 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at a 10% false-discovery rate, compared to 129 and 73 significant SNPs in the PC and univariate analyses, respectively. Thus, explicit modeling of the correlation structure between fatty acids in a multivariate framework enabled identification of loci associated with variation in seed fatty acid concentration that were not detected in the univariate analyses. Ultimately, a detailed characterization of the loci underlying fatty acid variation can be used to enhance the nutritional profile of oats through breeding.


Assuntos
Avena/genética , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Avena/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(6): 1705-1720, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778634

RESUMO

Genomic selection (GS) models have been validated for many quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding. However, those models are mostly constrained within the same growing cycle and the extension of GS to the case of across cycles has been a challenge, mainly due to the low predictive accuracy resulting from two factors: reduced genetic relationships between different families and augmented environmental variances between cycles. Using the data collected from diverse field conditions at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center, we evaluated GS for grain yield in three elite yield trials across three wheat growing cycles. The objective of this project was to employ the secondary traits, canopy temperature, and green normalized difference vegetation index, which are closely associated with grain yield from high-throughput phenotyping platforms, to improve prediction accuracy for grain yield. The ability to predict grain yield was evaluated reciprocally across three cycles with or without secondary traits. Our results indicate that prediction accuracy increased by an average of 146% for grain yield across cycles with secondary traits. In addition, our results suggest that secondary traits phenotyped during wheat heading and early grain filling stages were optimal for enhancing the prediction accuracy for grain yield.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Seleção Genética , Triticum/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Fenótipo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(4): 1231-1247, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796086

RESUMO

Hyperspectral reflectance phenotyping and genomic selection are two emerging technologies that have the potential to increase plant breeding efficiency by improving prediction accuracy for grain yield. Hyperspectral cameras quantify canopy reflectance across a wide range of wavelengths that are associated with numerous biophysical and biochemical processes in plants. Genomic selection models utilize genome-wide marker or pedigree information to predict the genetic values of breeding lines. In this study, we propose a multi-kernel GBLUP approach to genomic selection that uses genomic marker-, pedigree-, and hyperspectral reflectance-derived relationship matrices to model the genetic main effects and genotype × environment (G × E) interactions across environments within a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding program. We utilized an airplane equipped with a hyperspectral camera to phenotype five differentially managed treatments of the yield trials conducted by the Bread Wheat Improvement Program of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) at Ciudad Obregón, México over four breeding cycles. We observed that single-kernel models using hyperspectral reflectance-derived relationship matrices performed similarly or superior to marker- and pedigree-based genomic selection models when predicting within and across environments. Multi-kernel models combining marker/pedigree information with hyperspectral reflectance phentoypes had the highest prediction accuracies; however, improvements in accuracy over marker- and pedigree-based models were marginal when correcting for days to heading. Our results demonstrate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging to predict grain yield within a multi-environment context and also support further studies on the integration of hyperspectral reflectance phenotyping into breeding programs.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Triticum/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , México , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Genetics ; 211(3): 1105-1122, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679260

RESUMO

Hybridization between related species results in the formation of an allopolyploid with multiple subgenomes. These subgenomes will each contain complete, yet evolutionarily divergent, sets of genes. Like a diploid hybrid, allopolyploids will have two versions, or homeoalleles, for every gene. Partial functional redundancy between homeologous genes should result in a deviation from additivity. These epistatic interactions between homeoalleles are analogous to dominance effects, but are fixed across subgenomes through self pollination. An allopolyploid can be viewed as an immortalized hybrid, with the opportunity to select and fix favorable homeoallelic interactions within inbred varieties. We present a subfunctionalization epistasis model to estimate the degree of functional redundancy between homeoallelic loci and a statistical framework to determine their importance within a population. We provide an example using the homeologous dwarfing genes of allohexaploid wheat, Rht-1, and search for genome-wide patterns indicative of homeoallelic subfunctionalization in a breeding population. Using the IWGSC RefSeq v1.0 sequence, 23,796 homeoallelic gene sets were identified and anchored to the nearest DNA marker to form 10,172 homeologous marker sets. Interaction predictors constructed from products of marker scores were used to fit the homeologous main and interaction effects, as well as estimate whole genome genetic values. Some traits displayed a pattern indicative of homeoallelic subfunctionalization, while other traits showed a less clear pattern or were not affected. Using genomic prediction accuracy to evaluate importance of marker interactions, we show that homeologous interactions explain a portion of the nonadditive genetic signal, but are less important than other epistatic interactions.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Triticum/genética , Vigor Híbrido , Hibridização Genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(3): 675-684, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455184

RESUMO

Epistasis is an important contributor to genetic variance. In inbred populations, pairwise epistasis is present as additive by additive interactions. Testing for epistasis presents a multiple testing problem as the pairwise search space for modest numbers of markers is large. Single markers do not necessarily track functional units of interacting chromatin as well as haplotype based methods do. To harness the power of multiple markers while minimizing the number of tests conducted, we present a low resolution test for epistatic interactions across whole chromosome arms. Epistasis covariance matrices were constructed from the additive covariances of individual chromosome arms. These covariances were subsequently used to estimate an epistatic variance parameter while correcting for background additive and epistatic effects. We find significant epistasis for 2% of the interactions tested for four agronomic traits in a winter wheat breeding population. Interactions across homeologous chromosome arms were identified, but were less abundant than other chromosome arm pair interactions. The homeologous chromosome arm pair 4BL/4DL showed a strong negative relationship between additive and interaction effects that may be indicative of functional redundancy. Several chromosome arms appeared to act as hubs in an interaction network, suggesting that they may contain important regulatory factors. The differential patterns of epistasis across different traits demonstrate that detection of epistatic interactions is robust when correcting for background additive and epistatic effects in the population. The low resolution epistasis mapping method presented here identifies important epistatic interactions with a limited number of statistical tests at the cost of low precision.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/metabolismo , Epistasia Genética , Genômica/métodos , Poliploidia , Triticum/genética
11.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(3): 685-698, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455185

RESUMO

Whole genome duplications have played an important role in the evolution of angiosperms. These events often occur through hybridization between closely related species, resulting in an allopolyploid with multiple subgenomes. With the availability of affordable genotyping and a reference genome to locate markers, breeders of allopolyploids now have the opportunity to manipulate subgenomes independently. This also presents a unique opportunity to investigate epistatic interactions between homeologous orthologs across subgenomes. We present a statistical framework for partitioning genetic variance to the subgenomes of an allopolyploid, predicting breeding values for each subgenome, and determining the importance of inter-genomic epistasis. We demonstrate using an allohexaploid wheat breeding population evaluated in Ithaca, NY and an important wheat dataset from CIMMYT previously shown to demonstrate non-additive genetic variance. Subgenome covariance matrices were constructed and used to calculate subgenome interaction covariance matrices for variance component estimation and genomic prediction. We propose a method to extract population structure from all subgenomes at once before covariances are calculated to reduce collinearity between subgenome estimates. Variance parameter estimation was shown to be reliable for additive subgenome effects, but was less reliable for subgenome interaction components. Predictive ability was equivalent to current genomic prediction methods. Including only inter-genomic interactions resulted in the same increase in accuracy as modeling all pairwise marker interactions. Thus, we provide a new tool for breeders of allopolyploid crops to characterize the genetic architecture of existing populations, determine breeding goals, and develop new strategies for selection of additive effects and fixation of inter-genomic epistasis.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos , Poliploidia , Software , Triticum/genética
12.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(9)2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208600

RESUMO

This project was initiated with the goal of investigating the malt quality of winter rye cultivars and hybrids grown in the United States in 2014 and 2015, but high levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) were subsequently found in many of the malt samples. DON levels in 75% of the investigated rye samples (n = 117) were actually below 1.0 mg/kg, as quantified by a gas chromatography combined with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). However, 83% of the samples had DON in excess of 1.0 mg/kg following malting, and the average DON level in malted rye was 10.6 mg/kg. In addition, relatively high levels of 3-acetate DON (3-ADON), 15-acetate DON (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and DON-3-glucoside (D3G) were observed in some rye malts. Our results show that rye grain DON is likely a poor predicator of type B trichothecenes in malt in practice, because high levels of malt DON, 15-ADONm and D3G were produced, even when the rye samples with DON levels below 0.50 mg/kg were processed. Fusarium Tri5 DNA content in rye was highly associated with malt DON levels (r = 0.83) in a small subset of samples (n = 55). The impact of Fusarium infection on malt quality was demonstrated by the significant correlations between malt DON levels and wort viscosity, ß-glucan content, wort color, wort p-coumaric acid content, and total phenolic content. Additional correlations of rye Fusarium Tri5 DNA contents with malt diastatic power (DP), wort free amino nitrogen (FAN) content, and arabinoxylan content were observed.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fusarium , Secale/química , Tricotecenos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas , Secale/microbiologia
13.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 45(Pt B): 205-211, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685733

RESUMO

Development of climate resilient crops with accelerating genetic gains in crops will require integration of different disciplines/technologies, to see the impact in the farmer's field. In this review, we summarize how we are utilizing our germplasm collections to identify superior alleles/haplotypes through NGS based sequencing approaches and how genomics-enabled technologies together with precise phenotyping are being used in crop breeding. Pre-breeding and genomics-assisted breeding approaches are contributing to the more efficient development of climate-resilient crops. It is anticipated that the integration of several disciplines/technologies will result in the delivery of climate change ready crops in less time.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genômica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Mudança Climática , Genoma de Planta/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
14.
Theor Appl Genet ; 131(7): 1405-1422, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589041

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genome-wide association mapping in conjunction with population sequencing map and Ensembl plants was used to identify markers/candidate genes linked to leaf rust, stripe rust and tan spot resistance in wheat. Leaf rust (LR), stripe rust (YR) and tan spot (TS) are some of the important foliar diseases in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To identify candidate resistance genes for these diseases in CIMMYT's (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) International bread wheat screening nurseries, we used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in conjunction with information from the population sequencing map and Ensembl plants. Wheat entries were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotyped in replicated trials. Using a mixed linear model, we observed that seedling resistance to LR was associated with 12 markers on chromosomes 1DS, 2AS, 2BL, 3B, 4AL, 6AS and 6AL, and seedling resistance to TS was associated with 14 markers on chromosomes 1AS, 2AL, 2BL, 3AS, 3AL, 3B, 6AS and 6AL. Seedling and adult plant resistance (APR) to YR were associated with several markers at the distal end of chromosome 2AS. In addition, YR APR was also associated with markers on chromosomes 2DL, 3B and 7DS. The potential candidate genes for these diseases included several resistance genes, receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinases and defense-related enzymes. However, extensive LD in wheat that decays at about 5 × 107 bps, poses a huge challenge for delineating candidate gene intervals and candidates should be further mapped, functionally characterized and validated. We also explored a segment on chromosome 2AS associated with multiple disease resistance and identified seventeen disease resistance linked genes. We conclude that identifying candidate genes linked to significant markers in GWAS is feasible in wheat, thus creating opportunities for accelerating molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Basidiomycota , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Modelos Lineares , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia
15.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 80, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29472936

RESUMO

Genetic diversity of durum wheat landraces is a powerful tool for the introgression of new alleles of commercial interest in breeding programs. In a previous study, our team structured a collection of 172 durum wheat landraces from 21 Mediterranean countries in four genetic populations related to their geographical origin: east Mediterranean (17), east Balkan and Turkey (23), west Balkan and Egypt (25), and West Mediterranean (73), leaving 34 genotypes as admixed, and association mapping was carried out for important agronomic traits. Using a subset of this collection, the current study identified 23 marker alleles with a differential frequency in landraces from east and west regions of the Mediterranean Basin, which affected important agronomic traits. Eastern landraces had higher frequencies than the western ones of alleles increasing the number of spikes (wPt-5385 on chromosome 1B), grains per m2 (wPt-0841 on chromosome 7B), and grain filling duration (7 significant marker trait associations). Eastern landraces had higher frequencies of marker alleles located on chromosomes 4A, 5B, and 6B associated with reduced cycle length, and lighter grains than the western ones. Also for lower kernel weight, four marker alleles were located on chromosome 1A. Breeders may use the molecular markers identified in the current study for improving yield under specific Mediterranean environments.

16.
Plant Genome ; 10(2)2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724067

RESUMO

High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms can be used to measure traits that are genetically correlated with wheat ( L.) grain yield across time. Incorporating such secondary traits in the multivariate pedigree and genomic prediction models would be desirable to improve indirect selection for grain yield. In this study, we evaluated three statistical models, simple repeatability (SR), multitrait (MT), and random regression (RR), for the longitudinal data of secondary traits and compared the impact of the proposed models for secondary traits on their predictive abilities for grain yield. Grain yield and secondary traits, canopy temperature (CT) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were collected in five diverse environments for 557 wheat lines with available pedigree and genomic information. A two-stage analysis was applied for pedigree and genomic selection (GS). First, secondary traits were fitted by SR, MT, or RR models, separately, within each environment. Then, best linear unbiased predictions (BLUPs) of secondary traits from the above models were used in the multivariate prediction models to compare predictive abilities for grain yield. Predictive ability was substantially improved by 70%, on average, from multivariate pedigree and genomic models when including secondary traits in both training and test populations. Additionally, (i) predictive abilities slightly varied for MT, RR, or SR models in this data set, (ii) results indicated that including BLUPs of secondary traits from the MT model was the best in severe drought, and (iii) the RR model was slightly better than SR and MT models under drought environment.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Modelos Genéticos , Triticum/genética , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Plant Genome ; 10(2)2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724084

RESUMO

The leaf spotting diseases in wheat that include Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by , Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) caused by , and tan spot (TS) caused by pose challenges to breeding programs in selecting for resistance. A promising approach that could enable selection prior to phenotyping is genomic selection that uses genome-wide markers to estimate breeding values (BVs) for quantitative traits. To evaluate this approach for seedling and/or adult plant resistance (APR) to STB, SNB, and TS, we compared the predictive ability of least-squares (LS) approach with genomic-enabled prediction models including genomic best linear unbiased predictor (GBLUP), Bayesian ridge regression (BRR), Bayes A (BA), Bayes B (BB), Bayes Cπ (BC), Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (BL), and reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces markers (RKHS-M), a pedigree-based model (RKHS-P) and RKHS markers and pedigree (RKHS-MP). We observed that LS gave the lowest prediction accuracies and RKHS-MP, the highest. The genomic-enabled prediction models and RKHS-P gave similar accuracies. The increase in accuracy using genomic prediction models over LS was 48%. The mean genomic prediction accuracies were 0.45 for STB (APR), 0.55 for SNB (seedling), 0.66 for TS (seedling) and 0.48 for TS (APR). We also compared markers from two whole-genome profiling approaches: genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and diversity arrays technology sequencing (DArTseq) for prediction. While, GBS markers performed slightly better than DArTseq, combining markers from the two approaches did not improve accuracies. We conclude that implementing GS in breeding for these diseases would help to achieve higher accuracies and rapid gains from selection.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Modelos Genéticos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética
18.
Theor Appl Genet ; 130(9): 1867-1884, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28624908

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Greenbug and Hessian fly are important pests that decrease wheat production worldwide. We developed and validated breeder-friendly KASP markers for marker-assisted breeding to increase selection efficiency. Greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) and Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] are two major destructive insect pests of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout wheat production regions in the USA and worldwide. Greenbug and Hessian fly infestation can significantly reduce grain yield and quality. Breeding for resistance to these two pests using marker-assisted selection (MAS) is the most economical strategy to minimize losses. In this study, doubled haploid lines from the Synthetic W7984 × Opata M85 wheat reference population were used to construct linkage maps for the greenbug resistance gene Gb7 and the Hessian fly resistance gene H32 with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and 90K array-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker data. Flanking markers were closely linked to Gb7 and H32 and were located on chromosome 7DL and 3DL, respectively. Gb7-linked markers (synopGBS773 and synopGBS1141) and H32-linked markers (synopGBS901 and IWB65911) were converted into Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assays for MAS in wheat breeding. In addition, comparative mapping identified syntenic regions in Brachypodium distachyon, rice (Oryza sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) for Gb7 and H32 that can be used for fine mapping and map-based cloning of the genes. The KASP markers developed in this study are the first set of SNPs tightly linked to Gb7 and H32 and will be very useful for MAS in wheat breeding programs and future genetic studies of greenbug and Hessian fly resistance.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Dípteros , Marcadores Genéticos , Triticum/genética , Animais , Brachypodium/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ligação Genética , Herbivoria , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sorghum/genética , Sintenia
19.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0178290, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542488

RESUMO

Association mapping was used to identify genome regions affecting yield formation, crop phenology and crop biomass in a collection of 172 durum wheat landraces representative of the genetic diversity of ancient local durum varieties from the Mediterranean Basin. The collection was genotyped with 1,149 DArT markers and phenotyped in Spanish northern and southern locations during three years. A total of 245 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (P<0.01) were detected. Some of these associations confirmed previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) and/or candidate genes, and others are reported for the first time here. Eighty-six MTAs corresponded with yield and yield component traits, 70 to phenology and 89 to biomass production. Twelve genomic regions harbouring stable MTAs (significant in three or more environments) were identified, while five and two regions showed specific MTAs for northern and southern environments, respectively. Sixty per cent of MTAs were located on the B genome and 29% on the A genome. The marker wPt-9859 was detected in 12 MTAs, associated with six traits in four environments and the mean across years. To refine QTL positions, a meta-analysis was performed. A total of 477 unique QTLs were projected onto a durum wheat consensus map and were condensed to 71 meta-QTLs and left 13 QTLs as singletons. Sixty-one percent of QTLs explained less than 10% of the phenotypic variance confirming the high genetic complexity of the traits analysed.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Biomassa , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Produção Agrícola , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Theor Appl Genet ; 130(7): 1415-1430, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393303

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genomic prediction for seedling and adult plant resistance to wheat rusts was compared to prediction using few markers as fixed effects in a least-squares approach and pedigree-based prediction. The unceasing plant-pathogen arms race and ephemeral nature of some rust resistance genes have been challenging for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs and farmers. Hence, it is important to devise strategies for effective evaluation and exploitation of quantitative rust resistance. One promising approach that could accelerate gain from selection for rust resistance is 'genomic selection' which utilizes dense genome-wide markers to estimate the breeding values (BVs) for quantitative traits. Our objective was to compare three genomic prediction models including genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), GBLUP A that was GBLUP with selected loci as fixed effects and reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces-markers (RKHS-M) with least-squares (LS) approach, RKHS-pedigree (RKHS-P), and RKHS markers and pedigree (RKHS-MP) to determine the BVs for seedling and/or adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust (LR), stem rust (SR), and stripe rust (YR). The 333 lines in the 45th IBWSN and the 313 lines in the 46th IBWSN were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotyped in replicated trials. The mean prediction accuracies ranged from 0.31-0.74 for LR seedling, 0.12-0.56 for LR APR, 0.31-0.65 for SR APR, 0.70-0.78 for YR seedling, and 0.34-0.71 for YR APR. For most datasets, the RKHS-MP model gave the highest accuracies, while LS gave the lowest. GBLUP, GBLUP A, RKHS-M, and RKHS-P models gave similar accuracies. Using genome-wide marker-based models resulted in an average of 42% increase in accuracy over LS. We conclude that GS is a promising approach for improvement of quantitative rust resistance and can be implemented in the breeding pipeline.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Basidiomycota , Marcadores Genéticos , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/microbiologia
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