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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546720

RESUMO

Slow heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is a predictor of overall mortality in individuals with and without cardiovascular or respiratory disorders. No data on adults with asthma are available. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of slow HRR in these individuals as compared with those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed a retrospective analysis of baseline characteristics and physiological response to the six-minute walking distance test of stable individuals with asthma or COPD. Slow HRR was defined as HRpeak - HR at 1 minute after end exercise <12 bpm. Individuals with asthma walked significantly longer (median (IQR): 455 (385-512) vs 427 (345-485) meters; p=0.005) with a lower prevalence of slow HRR (30.3% vs 49.0%, respectively: p<0.001) than those with COPD. Individuals with asthma and slow HRR were older and walked less than those with normal HRR, without any difference in airway obstruction or in disease severity. Multivariate analysis showed that only the difference HRpeak - baseline HR (∆HR), was a predictor of slow HRR in both groups. More than 30% of adult individuals with asthma may show slow HRR. Only exercise ∆HR but no baseline characteristic seems to predict the occurrence of slow HRR.

3.
J Bras Pneumol ; 48(2): e20220087, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475873

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to describe country-specific lockdown measures and tuberculosis indicators collected during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on lockdown/social restrictions (compulsory face masks and hand hygiene; international and local travel restrictions; restrictions to family visits, and school closures) were collected from 24 countries spanning five continents. The majority of the countries implemented multiple lockdowns with partial or full reopening. There was an overall decrease in active tuberculosis, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and latent tuberculosis cases. Although national lockdowns were effective in containing COVID-19 cases, several indicators of tuberculosis were affected during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Tuberculose , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 870738, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463027

RESUMO

Introduction: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect SARS-CoV-2 is time-consuming and sometimes not feasible in developing nations. Rapid antigen test (RAT) could decrease the load of diagnosis. However, the efficacy of RAT is yet to be investigated comprehensively. Thus, the current systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of RAT against RT-PCR methods as the reference standard. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE/Pubmed and Embase databases for the relevant records. The QUADAS-2 tool was used to assess the quality of the studies. Diagnostic accuracy measures [i.e., sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood ratios (NLR), and the area under the curve (AUC)] were pooled with a random-effects model. All statistical analyses were performed with Meta-DiSc (Version 1.4, Cochrane Colloquium, Barcelona, Spain). Results: After reviewing retrieved records, we identified 60 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the rapid antigen tests against the reference test (the real-time PCR) were 69% (95% CI: 68-70) and 99% (95% CI: 99-99). The PLR, NLR, DOR and the AUC estimates were found to be 72 (95% CI: 44-119), 0.30 (95% CI: 0.26-0.36), 316 (95% CI: 167-590) and 97%, respectively. Conclusion: The present study indicated that using RAT kits is primarily recommended for the early detection of patients suspected of having COVID-19, particularly in countries with limited resources and laboratory equipment. However, the negative RAT samples may need to be confirmed using molecular tests, mainly when the symptoms of COVID-19 are present.

5.
Respiration ; : 1-9, 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of endoscopic ultrasound with bronchoscope fine-needle aspiration (EUS-B-FNA) in the diagnosis of suspected malignant pulmonary lesions adjacent to the esophagus has been poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of EUS-B-FNA for the diagnosis and molecular profiling of paraesophageal pulmonary lesions, as well as its predictors of success. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent EUS-B-FNA for the diagnosis of paraesophageal lesions were consecutively enrolled in four Italian centers. Demographic, clinical, procedural, pathological, and molecular characteristics of the malignant samples were collected. The primary outcome was the diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary malignancies. Secondary outcomes were diagnostic yield and predictors of success for diagnosis and molecular profiling. RESULTS: 107 adult patients (60 [56.1%] males; median (interquartile range) age: 69 [60-70] years) were enrolled. The diagnostic accuracy of EUS-B-FNA was 95.3% in the overall cohort and 95.2% in the 99 patients with a final diagnosis of malignancy. Neither clinical nor procedural variables significantly affected the diagnostic accuracy, whereas rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE), performed by pathologists or trained pulmonologists, was a strong predictor for a complete molecular profiling (OR [95% CI]: 12.9 [1.2-137.4]; p value: 0.03). CONCLUSION: EUS-B-FNA is a safe and accurate method for the diagnosis of paraesophageal pulmonary lesions. The presence of ROSE is relevant for a complete molecular profiling in this selected cohort of patients with advanced lung cancer.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270321

RESUMO

Background: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) is endemic globally, causing severe infections in hospitalized patients. Surveillance programs help monitor and promptly identify the emergence of new clones. We reported the rapid spread of a novel clone of K. pneumoniae co-harbouring class A and D carbapenemases in colonized patients, and the potential risk factors involved in the development of infections. Methods: Rectal swabs were used for microbiological analyses and detection of the most common carbapenemase encoding genes by real-time PCR (i.e., blaKPC, blaOXA-48, blaNDM, blaVIM, and blaIMP). All strains co-harbouring KPC and OXA-48 genes were evaluated. For each patient, the following variables were collected: age, sex, length and ward of stay, device use, and outcome. Clonality of CR-Kp was assessed by preliminary pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), followed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analyses. Results: A total of 127 isolates of K. pneumoniae co-harbouring KPC and OXA-48 were collected between September 2019 and December 2020. The median age (IQR) of patients was 70 (61-77). More than 40% of patients were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Around 25% of patients developed an invasive infection, the majority of which were respiratory tract infections (17/31; 54.8%). ICU stay and invasive infection increased the risk of mortality (OR: 5.39, 95% CI: 2.42-12.00; OR 6.12, 95% CI: 2.55-14.69, respectively; p-value ≤ 0.001). The antibiotic susceptibility test showed a resistance profile for almost all antibiotics considered. Monoclonal origin was confirmed by PFGE and MLST showing a similar restriction pattern and belonging to ST-512. Conclusions: We report the spread and the marked antibiotic resistance profiles of K. pneumoniae strains co-producing KPC and OXA-48. Further study could clarify the roles of clinical and microbiological variables in the development of invasive infection and increasing risk of mortality, in colonized patients.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos , Infecções por Klebsiella , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/genética , Células Clonais , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , beta-Lactamases/genética
7.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(1)2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350277

RESUMO

Background: The reported prevalence of immunodeficiencies in bronchiectasis patients is variable depending on the frequency and extent of immunological tests performed. European Respiratory Society guidelines recommend a minimum bundle of tests. Broadening the spectrum of immunological tests could increase the number of patients diagnosed with an immunodeficiency and those who could receive specific therapy. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the performance of different sets of immunological tests in diagnosing any, primary, secondary or treatable immunodeficiencies in adults with bronchiectasis. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Bronchiectasis Program of the Policlinico University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from September 2016 to June 2019. Adult outpatients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of bronchiectasis underwent the same immunological screening during the first visit when clinically stable consisting of: complete blood count; immunoglobulin (Ig) subclass tests for IgA, IgG, IgM and IgG; total IgE; lymphocyte subsets; and HIV antibodies. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of patients with any immunodeficiencies using five different sets of immunological tests. Results: A total of 401 bronchiectasis patients underwent the immunological screening. A significantly different prevalence of bronchiectasis patients diagnosed with any, primary or secondary immunodeficiencies was found across different bundles. 44.6% of bronchiectasis patients had a diagnosis of immunodeficiency when IgG subclasses and lymphocyte subsets were added to the minimum bundle suggested by the guidelines. Conclusion: A four-fold increase in the diagnosis of immunodeficiencies can be found in adults with bronchiectasis when IgG subclasses and lymphocyte subsets are added to the bundle of tests recommended by guidelines.

8.
Front Surg ; 9: 829976, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35310436

RESUMO

Background: According to the international guidelines, patients affected by interstitial lung disease with unusual clinical presentation and radiological findings that are not classic for usual interstitial pneumonia end up meeting criteria for surgical lung biopsy, preferably performed with video-assisted thoracic surgery. The growing appeal of non-intubated thoracic surgery has shown the benefits in several different procedures, but the strict selection criteria of candidates are often considered a limitation to this approach. Although several authors define obesity as a contraindication for non-intubated thoracoscopic surgery, the assessment of obesity as a dominant risk factor represents a topic of debate when minor tubeless procedures such as lung biopsy are considered. Our study aims to investigate the impact of obesity on morbidity and mortality in non-intubated lung biopsy patients with interstitial lung disease, analyzing the efficacy and safeness of this procedure. Materials and Methods: The study group of 40 obese patients consecutively collected from 202 patients who underwent non-intubated lung biopsy was compared with overweight and normal-weight patients, according to their body mass index. Post-operative complications were identified as the primary endpoint. The other outcomes explored were the early 30-day mortality rate and intraoperative complications, length of surgery, post-operative hospitalization, patient's pain feedback, and diagnostic yield. Results: The overall median age of the patients was 67.4 years (60, 73.5). No 30-day mortality or significant differences in terms of post-operative complications (P = 0.93) were noted between the groups. The length of the surgery was moderately longer in the group of obese patients (P = 0.02). The post-operative pain rating scale was comparable among the three groups (P = 0.45), as well as the post-operative length of stay (P = 0.96). The diagnosis was achieved in 99% of patients without significant difference between groups (P = 0.38). Conclusion: Our analysis showed the safety and efficacy of surgical lung biopsy with a non-intubated approach in patients affected by lung interstitiopathy. In the context of perioperative risk stratification, obesity would not seem to affect the morbidity compared to normal-weight and overweight patients undergoing this kind of diagnostic surgical procedure.

9.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, and it is well known that high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infections are the necessary carcinogenic factors for the development of cervical tumors. Moreover, the interaction between HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase the risk of cancer progression. Self-sampling has been demonstrated to represent a valid and well-accepted alternative, favoring women's participation in screening programs. This study aimed to investigate the use of FLOQSwabs® (FS) as compared to two other vaginal self-collection devices for the detection of hrHPV and other sexually transmitted infections. METHODS: Cervical and vaginal self-samples were collected, using two different combinations of vaginal self-sampling devices, from 40 women referred to colposcopy for a documented abnormal Pap smear. All samples were tested for hrHPV and seven STI pathogens using two commercial molecular assays. RESULTS: Data on hrHPV detection from the first group of women showed an almost perfect agreement (kappa: 0.89) between cervical vs. FS vaginal self-samples, and a substantial agreement (kappa: 0.79) between cervical and HerSwab™ (HS) samples. In the second group of women, an almost perfect agreement (kappa: 0.90) was demonstrated in the detection of hrHPV between cervical samples vs. FS, and a moderate agreement (kappa: 0.60) for cervical vs. Evalyn®Brush (EB) self-collected samples. STI detections showed a very good agreement (kappa: 0.89 and kappa: 1.00) both among FS vs. HS and FS vs. EB, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the different devices used. The most frequently detected hrHPV genotypes in the studied population were HPV 16, 31, 35, 51, and 56; whilst the most frequently identified STI pathogens were Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis. Overall, investigated women did not report any discomfort in using the different vaginal self-collection devices. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the three different vaginal self-collection devices confirmed their overall good acceptability by the studied population, as well as a similar agreement for hrHPV detection as compared to cervical samples. Our study indicated that the use of self-collected samples offers an alternative strategy to improve women's participation in cervical cancer screening programs, but also underlined the importance of evaluating the concordance in hrHPV detection of collection devices in combination with the molecular hrHPV assay.

10.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 37, 2022 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated public health measures have had a profound impact on health systems worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess quantitative and qualitative changes in Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) visits in Sardinia, Italy, during the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the number and characteristics of visits to two major Sardinian PEDs, in the periods January-June 2020 and January-June 2019. RESULTS: From January to June 2020, 8399 PED visits with 1160 hospital admissions (13.8% of PED visits) were registered, compared with 15,692 PED visits (Δ = -46.5%) and 1819 hospital admissions (11.6% of PED visits) occurring from January to June 2019. Comparing January-June 2020 with January-June 2019, we found differences in the percentage of visits for age groups, and significant changes in the proportion of triage codes, with a decrease in green codes (72.1% vs 74.2%, respectively) and an increase in white codes (19.0% vs 16.5%, respectively). Moreover, in the period January-June 2020, the frequency of skin disorders and acute respiratory disease significantly decreased, while the frequency of trauma, acute surgical disease, intoxication, and neuropsychiatric disease significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: After the beginning of the Italian lockdown, we observed a marked drop in the number of PED visits, an increase in hospital admission rate, and radical changes in the reason for visit.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245659

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a life-threatening condition needing long poly-chemotherapy regimens. As no systematic reviews/meta-analysis is available to comprehensively evaluate the role of delamanid (DLM), we evaluated its effectiveness and safety. METHODS: We reviewed the relevant scientific literature published up to January 20, 2022. The pooled success treatment rate with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was assessed using a random-effect model. We assessed studies for quality and bias, and considered P<0.05 to be statistically significant. RESULTS: After reviewing 626 records, we identified 25 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 22 observational and 3 experimental, with 1276 and 411 patients, respectively. In observational studies the overall pooled treatment success rate of DLM-containing regimens was 80.9% (95% CI 72.6-87.2) with no evidence of publication bias (Begg's test; P >0.05). The overall pooled treatment success rate in DLM and bedaquiline-containing regimens was 75.2% (95% CI 68.1-81.1) with no evidence of publication bias (Begg's test; P >0.05). In experimental studies the pooled treatment success rate of DLM-containing regimens was 72.5 (95% CI 44.2-89.8, P <0.001, I2: 95.1%) with no evidence of publication bias (Begg's test; P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In MDR-TB patients receiving DLM, culture conversion and treatment success rates were high despite extensive resistance with limited adverse events.

12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(1): 1-4, 2022 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192514

RESUMO

This commentary elaborates on different methodological aspects complicating the interpretation of epidemiological data related to the current COVID-19 pandemic, thus preventing reliable within and across-country estimates. Firstly, an inaccuracy of epidemiological data maybe arguably be attributed to passive surveillance, a relatively long incubation period during which infected individuals can still shed high loads of virus into the surrounding environment and the very high proportion of cases not even developing signs and/or symptoms of COVID-19. The latter is also the major reason for the inappropriateness of the abused "wave" wording, which gives the idea that health system starts from scratch to respond between "peaks". Clinical data for case-management on the other hand often requires complex technology in order to merge and clean data from health care facilities. Decision-making is often further derailed by the overuse of epidemiological modeling: precise aspects related to transmissibility, clinical course of COVID-19 and effectiveness of the public health and social measures are heavily influenced by unbeknownst and unpredictable human behaviors and modelers try to overcome missing epidemiological information by relying on poorly precise or questionable assumptions. Therefore the COVID-9 pandemic may provide a valuable opportunity to rethink how we are dealing with the very basic principles of epidemiology as well as risk communication issues related to such an unprecedented emergency situation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212852

RESUMO

Left atrial sphericity index (LASI) is an echocardiographic index easily obtained; its use in patients with heart failure (HF) has never been investigated so far. This single-centre study aimed to investigate the usefulness of LASI in an unselected cohort of patients hospitalized for acute HF, and its potential correlation with the amino-terminal portion of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class. Ninety-four consecutive HF patients underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram with a detailed study of the left atrium (LA) including LASI (calculated from the apical four-chamber view as the ratio between the transverse and longitudinal diameters), and blood tests (including NT-proBNP) on the same day. Median age was 75.5 (interquartile range-IQR 62-82) years and 55% were males, 58.5% had a NYHA class III-IV, and median NT-proBNP was 3284 (IQR 1215-7055) pg/ml. The LA was dilated in 94%, and median biplane LA volume index was 62 ml/m2. Patients with advanced NYHA class showed more advanced LA remodeling. Mean LASI was 0.78 ± 0.09 and did not correlate with NT-proBNP levels (r 0.03; p 0.75) or with patient NYHA class (R2 0.011; p 0.287). None of the echocardiographic indices of LA structural and functional remodeling proved to be independently associated with a high NYHA class on multivariate regression analysis. In conclusion, LA remodeling is almost invariably present in patients with HF. LASI does not correlate with NT-proBNP levels or with NYHA functional class. Further studies are needed to describe the complex patterns of atrial remodeling in HF.

14.
Biomedicines ; 10(1)2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052843

RESUMO

HER2+ breast cancer (BC) is an aggressive subtype representing a genetically and biologically heterogeneous group of tumors resulting in variable prognosis and treatment response to HER2-targeted therapies according to estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The relationship with androgen receptors (AR), a member of the steroid hormone's family, is unwell known in BC. The present study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of AR expression in HER2+ BC subtypes. A total of 695 BCs were selected and reviewed, AR, ER, PR and HER2 expression in tumor cells were examined by immunohistochemical method, and the SISH method was used in case of HER2 with equivocal immunohistochemical score (2+). A high prevalence of AR expression (91.5%) in BC HER+ was observed, with minimal differences between luminal and non-luminal tumor. According to steroid receptor expression, tumors were classified in four subgroups, including BC luminal and non-luminal HER2+ expressing or not AR. The luminal BC HER2 + AR+ was associated with lower histological grade, lower tumor size, higher PR expression and lower HER2 intensity of expression (2+). Also, the non-luminal tumors AR+ showed lower tumor size and lower prognostic stage but frequently higher grade and higher HER2 intensity of expression (3+). These findings should suggest a different progression of luminal and non-luminal tumors, both expressing AR, and allow us to speculate that the molecular mechanisms of AR, involved in the biology of BC HER2 + AR+, differ in relation to ER and PR expression. Moreover, AR expression may be a useful predictor of prognosis for overall survival (OS) in HER2+ BC subtypes. Our findings suggest that AR expression evaluation in clinical practice could be utilized in clinical oncology to establish different aggressiveness in BC HER2+ subtypes.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35086328

RESUMO

Early physiotherapy could play an important role in the management of severe COVID-19 subjects with consequences of prolonged ICU stay, although its effectiveness is still unclear. Aim of this study is to describe physiotherapy performed in severe COVID-19 patients and to evaluate its safety and feasibility. Consecutive adults with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, admitted to the ICU, needing invasive mechanical ventilation for >24 hours and receiving early physiotherapy, have been enrolled. Adverse events occurred during physiotherapy sessions and timing and type of physiotherapy delivered were analysed, to identify the interventions most frequently performed and to determine the time taken to first mobilize, stand and walk. Functional and clinical assessment of patients was also performed at hospital discharge. Eighty-four severe COVID-19 subjects were enrolled. Few minor adverse events were recorded. Active mobilization was promoted over passive mobilization and independence in daily life activities was supported. Time interval from patients' intubation to the first physiotherapy treatment was 13 days and to walking was 27 days. Forty-eight (57.1%) subjects returned at home, whereas 29 (34.5%) were discharged to in-patient rehabilitation. Patients with tracheostomy experienced a delay in time from ICU admission until sit out of bed and ambulation, if compared with subjects without tracheostomy, although no differences were found in 6MWT and 1m-STST performances. This study reporting early physiotherapy during pandemic suggests that this intervention is feasible and safe for severe COVID-19 subjects, as well as healthcare workers, although delayed compared to other critically ill patients.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055515

RESUMO

The assessment of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype dynamics could support the adoption of more tailored preventive actions against cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to describe the prevalence of HPV infection, HPV genotype distribution, and the epidemiological characteristics of women with ASC-US cytology since the introduction of HPV-DNA testing in Sardinia (Italy), (March 2016-December 2020). Specimens were tested by RT-PCR for 14 high-risk HPV genotypes. A total of 1186 patients were enrolled, with a median (IQR) age of 41 (38-48) years. Of these women, 48.1% were positive for at least one HPV genotype; 311 (26.2%) women were vaccinated with a median (IQR) age of 38 (30/47) years. The percentage of prevalence of HPV-16, -31, -66, -56, and -51 was 36.3%, 18.7%, 11.9%, 11.4% and 10.7%, respectively. The highest prevalence of infection was found in women aged <41 years, and single women. Moreover, women aged >41 years (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31-0.86; p-value: 0.01), having parity (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.96, p-value: 0.04), and higher educational level (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; p-value: 0.02) were associated with a lower CIN2+ risk. We did not find a significant difference in terms of prevalence of HPV-16 infection between vaccinated and non-vaccinated (18.3% vs. 17.1%; p-value < 0.001). Our results support the adoption of nonavalent HPV-vaccine to prevent the most prevalent infections caused by HPV-16 and -31 genotypes and underscore the need of surveillance to implement tailored vaccination programs and preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Células Escamosas Atípicas do Colo do Útero , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico
17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 32, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the global survival in a real-life cohort of patients with LAC harboring driver genetic alterations. METHODS: A series of 1282 consecutive Sardinian LAC patients who underwent genetic testing from January 2011 through July 2016 was collected. Molecular tests were based on the clinical needs of each single case (EGFR-exon18/19/21, ALK, and, more recently, BRAF-exon15), and the availability of tissue (KRAS, MET, and presence of low-frequency EGFR-T790M mutated alleles at baseline). RESULTS: The mean follow-up time of the patients was 46 months. EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations were detected in 13.7%, 21.3%, and 3% of tested cases, respectively; ALK rearrangements and MET amplifications were found respectively in 4.7% and 2% of tested cases. As expected, cases with mutations in exons 18-21 of EGFR, sensitizing to anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) agents, had a significantly longer survival in comparison to those without (p < 0.0001); conversely, KRAS mutations were associated with a significantly lower survival (p = 0.0058). Among LAC patients with additional tissue section available for next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based analysis, 26/193 (13.5%) patients found positive for even low-rate EGFR-T790M mutated alleles at baseline were associated with a highly significant lower survival in comparison to those without (8.7 vs. 47.4 months, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to its predictive value for addressing targeted therapy approaches, the assessment of as more inclusive mutation analysis at baseline may provide clues about factors significantly impacting on global survival in advanced LAC patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Idoso , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Genes erbB-1 , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
18.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 88(4): 272-281, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluid challenge (FC) is often adopted as gold standard used to assess the reliability of passive leg raising (PLR) in predicting fluid responsiveness in the intensive care unit (ICU). This study aimed to address the impact of the different definitions and timings used to assess FC response on PLR reliability. METHODS: Ancillary study from a data set of a multicentric study in 85 ICU patient with acute circulatory failure who received a FC (500 mL of crystalloids in 10 minutes) within the first 48h of ICU admission, preceded by PLR in 30 patients. FC response was assessed considering the changes in Cardiac Index (CI) and Stroke Volume Index (SVI) using different thresholds and at different time-points. RESULTS: The definitions of fluid responsiveness by using CI or SVI with a 15% increase after 10 minutes were associated to the best performances of the PLR (AUC 0.94 [95% CI 0.83-1.01] vs. AUC 0.95 [95% CI 0.87-1.02]). The sensitivity of the PLR by adopting the CI or the SVI as reference variable ranged from 54.1% to 67.6% and from 81.5% to 100.0%; the specificity from 65.9% to 78.0% and from 79.5% to 100.0%, respectively. Considering all the subgroups, the number of responders 10 minutes after FC administration was higher as compared to 15 and 30 minutes (140 vs. 120 and 125, respectively, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The reliability of the PLR test to predict fluid responsiveness depends on the definition of FC adopted. The timing of FC outcome assessment affected the overall fluid responsiveness.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Perna (Membro) , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Hidratação , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
19.
Eur Respir J ; 59(4)2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has become a frequently used noninvasive form of respiratory support in acute settings; however, evidence supporting its use has only recently emerged. These guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of HFNC alongside other noninvasive forms of respiratory support in adults with acute respiratory failure (ARF). MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: The European Respiratory Society task force panel included expert clinicians and methodologists in pulmonology and intensive care medicine. The task force used the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methods to summarise evidence and develop clinical recommendations for the use of HFNC alongside conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for the management of adults in acute settings with ARF. RESULTS: The task force developed eight conditional recommendations, suggesting the use of 1) HFNC over COT in hypoxaemic ARF; 2) HFNC over NIV in hypoxaemic ARF; 3) HFNC over COT during breaks from NIV; 4) either HFNC or COT in post-operative patients at low risk of pulmonary complications; 5) either HFNC or NIV in post-operative patients at high risk of pulmonary complications; 6) HFNC over COT in nonsurgical patients at low risk of extubation failure; 7) NIV over HFNC for patients at high risk of extubation failure unless there are relative or absolute contraindications to NIV; and 8) trialling NIV prior to use of HFNC in patients with COPD and hypercapnic ARF. CONCLUSIONS: HFNC is a valuable intervention in adults with ARF. These conditional recommendations can assist clinicians in choosing the most appropriate form of noninvasive respiratory support to provide to patients in different acute settings.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Insuficiência Respiratória , Adulto , Cânula , Humanos , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Oxigênio , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
20.
Heart Vessels ; 37(1): 50-60, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091737

RESUMO

The presence of an interatrial block (IAB) on surface ECG should be considered as a hallmark of atrial electrical remodelling. This is often accompanied by morphological abnormalities. We aimed to investigate the frequency of IAB and its relationship with the echocardiographic indices of left atrial (LA) remodelling in patients hospitalised with acute HF. Ninety-four consecutive HF patients underwent 12-lead ECG, transthoracic echocardiogram including a detailed study of the LA, and blood tests (including NT-proBNP) on the same day. Thirty-six patients were excluded from the analysis because of atrial fibrillation or rhythms other than sinus. Twenty-eight over 58 (48%) were males. Median age was 72 (IQR 60-82) years. The majority of patients (72%) were diagnosed as having an HF with reduced ejection fraction. Overall, 27 (46%) patients presented with an advanced III or IV NYHA functional class. Median plasma NT-proBNP was 3046 (IQR 1066-5460) pg/ml. Nearly, all the enrolled patients (90%) showed LA dilation. Nineteen patients (33%) presented with advanced IAB. There was a trend toward a more advanced age in patients with advanced IAB (median age 79 vs 68, p = 0.051). Moreover, they were more frequently treated with anticoagulants (42% vs 13%, p = 0.01), and they exhibited greater LA structural and functional remodelling documented by larger area (28 vs 26 cm2, p = 0.04) and greater minimum LA volume index-LAVi (43 ± 16 vs 36 ± 10, p = 0.04). Advanced IAB resulted to be an independent determinant of LA area (Beta 3.49 (0.37-6.60), p = 0.03) and minimum LAVi (Beta 7.22 (0.15-14.30), p = 0.045), and vice versa. LA electrical and structural remodelling is highly prevalent in a non-selected cohort of patients with acute HF. Advanced IAB on surface ECG is present in a high percentage of cases. Patients with advanced IAB tend to be older, and they exhibit higher degrees of LA structural and functional remodelling.


Assuntos
Remodelamento Atrial , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Bloqueio Interatrial , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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