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Front Plant Sci ; 10: 937, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396248


Whole genome duplication (WGD) events are common in many plant lineages, but the ploidy status and possible occurrence of intraspecific ploidy variation are unknown for most species. Standard methods for ploidy determination are chromosome counting and flow cytometry approaches. While flow cytometry approaches typically use fresh tissue, an increasing number of studies have shown that recently dried specimens can be used to yield ploidy data. Recent studies have started to explore whether high-throughput sequencing (HTS) data can be used to assess ploidy levels by analyzing allelic frequencies from single copy nuclear genes. Here, we compare different approaches using a range of yam (Dioscorea) tissues of varying ages, drying methods and quality, including herbarium tissue. Our aims were to: (1) explore the limits of flow cytometry in estimating ploidy level from dried samples, including herbarium vouchers collected between 1831 and 2011, and (2) optimize a HTS-based method to estimate ploidy by considering allelic frequencies from nuclear genes obtained using a target-capture method. We show that, although flow cytometry can be used to estimate ploidy levels from herbarium specimens collected up to fifteen years ago, success rate is low (5.9%). We validated our HTS-based estimates of ploidy using 260 genes by benchmarking with dried samples of species of known ploidy (Dioscorea alata, D. communis, and D. sylvatica). Subsequently, we successfully applied the method to the 85 herbarium samples analyzed with flow cytometry, and successfully provided results for 91.7% of them, comprising species across the phylogenetic tree of Dioscorea. We also explored the limits of using this HTS-based approach for identifying high ploidy levels in herbarium material and the effects of heterozygosity and sequence coverage. Overall, we demonstrated that ploidy diversity within and between species may be ascertained from historical collections, allowing the determination of polyploidization events from samples collected up to two centuries ago. This approach has the potential to provide insights into the drivers and dynamics of ploidy level changes during plant evolution and crop domestication.

Appl Plant Sci ; 7(6): e11254, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236313


Premise: We developed a target enrichment panel for phylogenomic studies of Dioscorea, an economically important genus with incompletely resolved relationships. Methods: Our bait panel comprises 260 low- to single-copy nuclear genes targeted to work in Dioscorea, assessed here using a preliminary taxon sampling that includes both distantly and closely related taxa, including several yam crops and potential crop wild relatives. We applied coalescent-based and maximum likelihood phylogenomic inference approaches to the pilot taxon set, incorporating new and published transcriptome data from additional species. Results: The custom panel retrieved ~94% of targets and >80% of full gene length from 88% and 68% of samples, respectively. It has minimal gene overlap with existing panels designed for angiosperm-wide studies and generally recovers longer and more variable targets. Pilot phylogenomic analyses consistently resolve most deep and recent relationships with strong support across analyses and point to revised relationships between the crop species D. alata and candidate crop wild relatives. Discussion: Our customized panel reliably retrieves targeted loci from Dioscorea, is informative for resolving relationships in denser samplings, and is suitable for refining our understanding of the independent origins of cultivated yam species; the panel likely has broader promise for phylogenomic studies across Dioscoreales.

Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 136: 138-150, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980936


Reconstructing phylogenetic topologies and divergence times is essential for inferring the timing of radiations, the appearance of adaptations, and the historical biogeography of key lineages. In temperate marine ecosystems, kelps (Laminariales) drive productivity and form essential habitat but an incomplete understanding of their phylogeny has limited our ability to infer their evolutionary origins and the spatial and temporal patterns of their diversification. Here, we reconstruct the diversification of habitat-forming kelps using a global genus-level phylogeny inferred primarily from organellar genome datasets, and investigate the timing of kelp radiation. We resolve several important phylogenetic features, including relationships among the morphologically simple kelp families and the broader radiation of complex kelps, demonstrating that the initial radiation of the latter resulted from an increase in speciation rate around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. This burst in speciation rate is consistent with a possible role of recent climatic cooling in triggering the kelp radiation and pre-dates the origin of benthic-foraging carnivores. Historical biogeographical reconstructions point to a northeast Pacific origin of complex kelps, with subsequent colonization of new habitats likely playing an important role in driving their ecological diversification. We infer that complex morphologies associated with modern kelp forests (e.g. branching, pneumatocysts) evolved several times over the past 15-20 MY, highlighting the importance of morphological convergence in establishing modern upright kelp forests. Our phylogenomic findings provide new insights into the geographical and ecological proliferation of kelps and provide a timeline along which feedbacks between kelps and their food-webs could have shaped the structure of temperate ecosystems.

Ecossistema , Kelp/classificação , Filogenia , Florestas , Funções Verossimilhança , Oceanos e Mares , Filogeografia , Fatores de Tempo
Am J Bot ; 105(11): 1888-1910, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368769


PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We present the first plastome phylogeny encompassing all 77 monocot families, estimate branch support, and infer monocot-wide divergence times and rates of species diversification. METHODS: We conducted maximum likelihood analyses of phylogeny and BAMM studies of diversification rates based on 77 plastid genes across 545 monocots and 22 outgroups. We quantified how branch support and ascertainment vary with gene number, branch length, and branch depth. KEY RESULTS: Phylogenomic analyses shift the placement of 16 families in relation to earlier studies based on four plastid genes, add seven families, date the divergence between monocots and eudicots+Ceratophyllum at 136 Mya, successfully place all mycoheterotrophic taxa examined, and support recognizing Taccaceae and Thismiaceae as separate families and Arecales and Dasypogonales as separate orders. Only 45% of interfamilial divergences occurred after the Cretaceous. Net species diversification underwent four large-scale accelerations in PACMAD-BOP Poaceae, Asparagales sister to Doryanthaceae, Orchidoideae-Epidendroideae, and Araceae sister to Lemnoideae, each associated with specific ecological/morphological shifts. Branch ascertainment and support across monocots increase with gene number and branch length, and decrease with relative branch depth. Analysis of entire plastomes in Zingiberales quantifies the importance of non-coding regions in identifying and supporting short, deep branches. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first resolved, well-supported monocot phylogeny and timeline spanning all families, and quantify the significant contribution of plastome-scale data to resolving short, deep branches. We outline a new functional model for the evolution of monocots and their diagnostic morphological traits from submersed aquatic ancestors, supported by convergent evolution of many of these traits in aquatic Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales).

Especiação Genética , Genomas de Plastídeos , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia , DNA Intergênico , Zingiberales/genética
Am J Bot ; 105(3): 480-494, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730895


PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phylogenomic studies employing large numbers of genes, including those based on plastid genomes (plastomes), are becoming common. Nonphotosynthetic plants such as mycoheterotrophs (which rely on root-associated fungi for essential nutrients, including carbon) tend to have highly elevated rates of plastome evolution, substantial genome reduction, or both. Mycoheterotroph plastomes therefore provide excellent test cases for investigating how extreme conditions impact phylogenomic inference. METHODS: We used parsimony and likelihood analysis of protein-coding gene sets from published and newly completed plastomes to infer the phylogenetic placement of taxa from the 10 angiosperm families in which mycoheterotrophy evolved. KEY RESULTS: Despite multiple very long branches that reflect elevated substitution rates, and frequently patchy gene recovery due to genome reduction, inferred phylogenetic placements of most mycoheterotrophic lineages in DNA-based likelihood analyses are both well supported and congruent with other studies. Amino-acid-based likelihood placements are broadly consistent with DNA-based inferences, but extremely rate-elevated taxa can have unexpected placements-albeit with weak support. In contrast, parsimony analysis is strongly misled by long-branch attraction among many distantly related mycoheterotrophic monocots. CONCLUSIONS: Mycoheterotrophic plastomes provide challenging cases for phylogenomic inference, as substitutional rates can be elevated and genome reduction can lead to sparse gene recovery. Nonetheless, diverse likelihood frameworks provide generally well-supported and mutually concordant phylogenetic placements of mycoheterotrophs, consistent with recent phylogenetic studies and angiosperm-wide classifications. Previous predictions of parallel photosynthesis loss within families are supported for Burmanniaceae, Ericaceae, Gentianaceae, and Orchidaceae. Burmanniaceae and Thismiaceae should not be combined as a single family in Dioscoreales.

Evolução Biológica , Genes de Plantas , Genomas de Plastídeos , Processos Heterotróficos/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Filogenia , Aminoácidos/análise , DNA de Plantas/análise , Ericaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Fungos , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos , Gentianaceae/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Orchidaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
Genome Biol Evol ; 7(8): 2220-36, 2015 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26170229


The enigmatic monocot family Triuridaceae provides a potentially useful model system for studying the effects of an ancient loss of photosynthesis on the plant plastid genome, as all of its members are mycoheterotrophic and achlorophyllous. However, few studies have placed the family in a comparative context, and its phylogenetic placement is only partly resolved. It was also unclear whether any taxa in this family have retained a plastid genome. Here, we used genome survey sequencing to retrieve plastid genome data for Sciaphila densiflora (Triuridaceae) and ten autotrophic relatives in the orders Dioscoreales and Pandanales. We recovered a highly reduced plastome for Sciaphila that is nearly colinear with Carludovica palmata, a photosynthetic relative that belongs to its sister group in Pandanales, Cyclanthaceae-Pandanaceae. This phylogenetic placement is well supported and robust to a broad range of analytical assumptions in maximum-likelihood inference, and is congruent with recent findings based on nuclear and mitochondrial evidence. The 28 genes retained in the S. densiflora plastid genome are involved in translation and other nonphotosynthetic functions, and we demonstrate that nearly all of the 18 protein-coding genes are under strong purifying selection. Our study confirms the utility of whole plastid genome data in phylogenetic studies of highly modified heterotrophic plants, even when they have substantially elevated rates of substitution.

Evolução Molecular , Genomas de Plastídeos , Magnoliopsida/genética , Seleção Genética , Tamanho do Genoma , Magnoliopsida/classificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia