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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293289

RESUMO

CYP2J2 is the main epoxygenase in the heart that is responsible for oxidizing arachidonic acid to cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Once formed, EETs can then be hydrolyzed by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, encoded by EPHX2) or re-esterified back to the membrane. EETs have several cardioprotective properties and higher levels are usually associated with better cardiac outcomes/prognosis. This study investigates how cardiovascular disease (CVD) can influence total EET levels by altering protein expression and activity of enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation. Diseased ventricular cardiac tissues were collected from patients receiving Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) or heart transplants and compared to ventricular tissue from controls free of CVD. EETs, and enzymes involved in EETs biosynthesis and degradation, were measured using mass spectrometric assays. Terfenadine hydroxylation was used to probe CYP2J2 activity. Significantly higher cis- and trans-EET levels were observed in control cardiac tissue (n = 17) relative to diseased tissue (n = 24). Control cardiac tissue had higher CYP2J2 protein levels, which resulted in higher rate of terfenadine hydroxylation, compared to diseased cardiac tissues. In addition, levels of both NADPH-Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and sEH proteins were significantly higher in control versus diseased cardiac tissue. Overall, alterations in protein and activity of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of EETs provide a mechanistic understanding for decreased EET levels in diseased tissues.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Cardiopatias , Humanos , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Terfenadina , NADP , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2J2
3.
iScience ; 25(10): 105210, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36267918

RESUMO

Premature atrial contractions (PACs) are frequently observed on electrocardiograms and are associated with increased risks of atrial fibrillation (AF), stroke, and mortality. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic susceptibility loci for PAC frequency. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis with PAC frequency obtained from ambulatory cardiac monitoring in 4,831 individuals of European ancestry. We identified a genome-wide significant locus at the SCN5A gene. The lead variant, rs7373862, located in an intron of SCN5A, was associated with an increase of 0.12 [95% CI 0.08-0.16] standard deviations of the normalized PAC frequency per risk allele. Among genetic variants previously associated with AF, there was a significant enrichment in concordance of effect for PAC frequency (n = 73/106, p = 5.1 × 10-5). However, several AF risk loci, including PITX2, were not associated with PAC frequency. These findings suggest the existence of both shared and distinct genetic mechanisms for PAC frequency and AF.

4.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194491

RESUMO

People with kidney disease are disproportionately affected by atherosclerosis for unclear reasons. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an immune-derived mediator of kidney disease, levels of which are strongly associated with cardiovascular outcomes. We assessed suPAR's pathogenic involvement in atherosclerosis using epidemiologic, genetic, and experimental approaches. We found serum suPAR levels to be predictive of coronary artery calcification and cardiovascular events in 5,406 participants without known coronary disease. In a genome-wide association meta-analysis including over 25,000 individuals, we identified a missense variant in the PLAUR gene (rs4760) confirmed experimentally to lead to higher suPAR levels. Mendelian randomization analysis in the UK Biobank using rs4760 indicated a causal association between genetically predicted suPAR levels and atherosclerotic phenotypes. In an experimental model of atherosclerosis, Pcsk9 transfection in mice over-expressing suPAR (suPARTg) led to substantially increased atherosclerotic plaques with necrotic cores and macrophage infiltration compared to wild-type mice, despite similar cholesterol levels. Pre-atherosclerosis, aortas of suPARTg mice excreted higher levels of CCL2 and had higher monocyte counts compared to wild-type aortas. Aortic and circulating suPARTg monocytes exhibited a pro-inflammatory profile and enhanced chemotaxis. These findings characterize suPAR as a pathogenic factor for atherosclerosis acting at least partially through modulation of monocyte function.

6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5350, 2022 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097025

RESUMO

Age-related changes to the genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) pattern observed in blood are well-documented. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), characterized by the age-related acquisition and expansion of leukemogenic mutations in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), is associated with blood cancer and coronary artery disease (CAD). Epigenetic regulators DNMT3A and TET2 are the two most frequently mutated CHIP genes. Here, we present results from an epigenome-wide association study for CHIP in 582 Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants, with replication in 2655 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study participants. We show that DNMT3A and TET2 CHIP have distinct and directionally opposing genome-wide DNAm association patterns consistent with their regulatory roles, albeit both promoting self-renewal of HSCs. Mendelian randomization analyses indicate that a subset of DNAm alterations associated with these two leading CHIP genes may promote the risk for CAD.


Assuntos
Hematopoiese Clonal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hematopoiese Clonal/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Hematopoese/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5106, 2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042188

RESUMO

Accurate and efficient classification of variant pathogenicity is critical for research and clinical care. Using data from three large studies, we demonstrate that population-based associations between rare variants and quantitative endophenotypes for three monogenic diseases (low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol for familial hypercholesterolemia, electrocardiographic QTc interval for long QT syndrome, and glycosylated hemoglobin for maturity-onset diabetes of the young) provide evidence for variant pathogenicity. Effect sizes are associated with pathogenic ClinVar assertions (P < 0.001 for each trait) and discriminate pathogenic from non-pathogenic variants (area under the curve 0.82-0.84 across endophenotypes). An effect size threshold of ≥ 0.5 times the endophenotype standard deviation nominates up to 35% of rare variants of uncertain significance or not in ClinVar in disease susceptibility genes with pathogenic potential. We propose that variant associations with quantitative endophenotypes for monogenic diseases can provide evidence supporting pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Endofenótipos , Síndrome do QT Longo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Virulência
9.
Resuscitation ; 179: 152-162, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) waveform measures reflect myocardial physiologic status. Continuous assessment of VF prognosis using such measures could guide resuscitation, but has not been possible due to CPR artifact in the ECG. A recently-validated VF measure (termed VitalityScore), which estimates the probability (0-100%) of return-of-rhythm (ROR) after shock, can assess VF during CPR, suggesting potential for continuous application during resuscitation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated VF using VitalityScore to characterize VF prognostic status continuously during resuscitation. METHODS: We characterized VF using VitalityScore during 60 seconds of CPR and 10 seconds of subsequent pre-shock CPR interruption in patients with out-of-hospital VF arrest. VitalityScore utility was quantified using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). VitalityScore trends over time were estimated using mixed-effects models, and associations between trends and ROR were evaluated using logistic models. A sensitivity analysis characterized VF during protracted (100-second) periods of CPR. RESULTS: We evaluated 724 VF episodes among 434 patients. After an initial decline from 0-8 seconds following VF onset, VitalityScore increased slightly during CPR from 8-60 seconds (slope: 0.18%/min). During the first 10 seconds of subsequent pre-shock CPR interruption, VitalityScore declined (slope: -14%/min). VitalityScore predicted ROR throughout CPR with AUCs 0.73-0.75. Individual VitalityScore trends during 8-60 seconds of CPR were marginally associated with subsequent ROR (adjusted odds ratio for interquartile slope change (OR) = 1.10, p = 0.21), and became significant with protracted (100 seconds) CPR duration (OR = 1.28, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: VF prognostic status can be continuously evaluated during resuscitation, a development that could translate to patient-specific resuscitation strategies.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Fibrilação Ventricular , Cardioversão Elétrica , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fibrilação Ventricular/complicações , Fibrilação Ventricular/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Ventricular/terapia
10.
Brain ; 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943854

RESUMO

Cerebral white matter hyperintensities on MRI are markers of cerebral small vessel disease, a major risk factor for dementia and stroke. Despite the successful identification of multiple genetic variants associated with this highly heritable condition, its genetic architecture remains incompletely understood. More specifically, the role of DNA methylation has received little attention. We investigated the association between white matter hyperintensity burden and DNA methylation in blood at approximately 450,000 CpG sites in 9,732 middle-aged to older adults from 14 community-based studies. Single-CpG and region-based association analyses were carried out. Functional annotation and integrative cross-omics analyses were performed to identify novel genes underlying the relationship between DNA methylation and white matter hyperintensities. We identified 12 single-CpG and 46 region-based DNA methylation associations with white matter hyperintensity burden. Our top discovery single CpG, cg24202936 (P = 7.6 × 10-8), was associated with F2 expression in blood (P = 6.4 × 10-5), and colocalized with FOLH1 expression in brain (posterior probability =0.75). Our top differentially methylated regions were in PRMT1 and in CCDC144NL-AS1, which were also represented in single-CpG associations (cg17417856 and cg06809326, respectively). Through Mendelian randomization analyses cg06809326 was putatively associated with white matter hyperintensity burden (P = 0.03) and expression of CCDC144NL-AS1 possibly mediated this association. Differentially methylated region analysis, joint epigenetic association analysis, and multi-omics colocalization analysis consistently identified a role of DNA methylation near SH3PXD2A, a locus previously identified in genome-wide association studies of white matter hyperintensities. Gene set enrichment analyses revealed functions of the identified DNA methylation loci in the blood-brain barrier and in the immune response. Integrative cross-omics analysis identified 19 key regulatory genes in two networks related to extracellular matrix organization, and lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. A drug repositioning analysis indicated antihyperlipidemic agents, more specifically peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, as possible target drugs for white matter hyperintensities. Our epigenome-wide association study and integrative cross-omics analyses implicate novel genes influencing white matter hyperintensity burden, which converged on pathways related to the immune response and to a compromised blood brain barrier possibly due to disrupted cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. The results also suggest that antihyperlipidemic therapy may contribute to lowering risk for white matter hyperintensities possibly through protection against blood brain barrier disruption.

11.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 42(9): e273-e288, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effects of animal source foods (ASF) on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and underlying mechanisms remain controversial. We investigated prospective associations of different ASF with incident ASCVD and potential mediation by gut microbiota-generated trimethylamine N-oxide, its L-carnitine-derived intermediates γ-butyrobetaine and crotonobetaine, and traditional ASCVD risk pathways. METHODS: Among 3931 participants from a community-based US cohort aged 65+ years, ASF intakes and trimethylamine N-oxide-related metabolites were measured serially over time. Incident ASCVD (myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, stroke, other atherosclerotic death) was adjudicated over 12.5 years median follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying exposures and covariates examined ASF-ASCVD associations; and additive hazard models, mediation proportions by different risk pathways. RESULTS: After multivariable-adjustment, higher intakes of unprocessed red meat, total meat, and total ASF associated with higher ASCVD risk, with hazard ratios (95% CI) per interquintile range of 1.15 (1.01-1.30), 1.22 (1.07-1.39), and 1.18 (1.03-1.34), respectively. Trimethylamine N-oxide-related metabolites together significantly mediated these associations, with mediation proportions (95% CI) of 10.6% (1.0-114.5), 7.8% (1.0-32.7), and 9.2% (2.2-44.5), respectively. Processed meat intake associated with a nonsignificant trend toward higher ASCVD (1.11 [0.98-1.25]); intakes of fish, poultry, and eggs were not significantly associated. Among other risk pathways, blood glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein, but not blood pressure or blood cholesterol, each significantly mediated the total meat-ASCVD association. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, community-based cohort, higher meat intake associated with incident ASCVD, partly mediated by microbiota-derived metabolites of L-carnitine, abundant in red meat. These novel findings support biochemical links between dietary meat, gut microbiome pathways, and ASCVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Carnitina , Humanos , Carne , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
12.
EBioMedicine ; 83: 104189, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are metabolites of arachidonic acid that may impact atherosclerosis, and animal experimental studies suggest EETs protect cardiac function. Plasma EETs are mostly esterified to phospholipids and part of an active pool. To address the limited information about EETs and CVD in humans, we conducted a prospective study of total plasma EETs (free + esterified) and diabetes-related CVD in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). METHODS: We measured 4 EET species and their metabolites, dihydroxyepoxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), in plasma samples from 892 CHS participants with type 2 diabetes. We determined the association of EETs and DHETs with incident myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke using Cox regression. FINDINGS: During follow-up (median 7.5 years), we identified 150 MI and 134 ischemic strokes. In primary, multivariable analyses, elevated levels of each EET species were associated with non-significant lower risk of incident MI (for example, hazard ratio for 1 SD higher 14,15-EET: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.72-1.02; p=0.08). The EETs-MI associations became significant in analyses further adjusted for DHETs (hazard ratio for 1 SD higher 14,15-EET adjusted for 14,15-DHET: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63-0.91; p=0.004). Elevated EET levels were associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke in primary but not secondary analyses. Three DHET species were associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke in all analyses. INTERPRETATION: Findings from this prospective study complement the extensive studies in animal models showing EETs protect cardiac function and provide new information in humans. Replication is needed to confirm the associations. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , AVC Isquêmico , Animais , Ácidos Araquidônicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Eicosanoides/análise , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 167, 2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma ceramides and sphingomyelins have been independently linked to diabetes risk, glucose and insulin levels, and the risk of several cardiovascular (CVD) outcomes. However, whether individual ceramide and sphingomyelin species contribute to CVD risk among people with type 2 diabetes is uncertain. Our goal was to evaluate associations of 4 ceramide and 4 sphingomyelin species with incident CVD in a longitudinal population-based study among American Indians with diabetes. METHODS: This analysis included participants with prevalent type 2 diabetes from two cohorts: a prospective cohort of 597 participants in the Strong Heart Family Study (116 incident CVD cases; mean age: 49 years; average length of follow-up: 14 years), and a nested case-control sample of 267 participants in the Strong Heart Study (78 cases of CVD and 189 controls; mean age: 61 years; average time until incident CVD in cases: 3.8 years). The average onset of diabetes was 7 years prior to sphingolipid measurement. Sphingolipid species were measured using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to assess associations of sphingolipid species with incident CVD; results were combined across cohorts using inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. RESULTS: There were 194 cases of incident CVD in the two cohorts. In meta-analysis of the 2 cohort results, higher plasma levels of Cer-16 (ceramide with acylated palmitic acid) were associated with higher CVD risk (HR per two-fold higher Cer-16: 1.85; 95% CI 1.05-3.25), and higher plasma levels of sphingomyelin species with a very long chain saturated fatty acid were associated with lower CVD risk (HR per two-fold higher SM-22: 0.48; 95% CI 0.26-0.87), although none of the associations met our pre-specified threshold for statistical significance of p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS: While replication of the findings from the SHS in other populations is warranted, our findings add to a growing body of research suggesting that ceramides, in particular Cer-16, not only are associated with higher diabetes risk, but may also be associated with higher CVD risk after diabetes onset. We also find support for the hypothesis that sphingomyelins with a very long chain saturated fatty acid are associated with lower CVD risk among adults with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Ceramidas/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Esfingolipídeos , Esfingomielinas
14.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 37(7): 755-765, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, genomic studies have identified and replicated thousands of genetic associations with measures of health and disease and contributed to the understanding of the etiology of a variety of health conditions. Proteins are key biomarkers in clinical medicine and often drug-therapy targets. Like genomics, proteomics can advance our understanding of biology. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the setting of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a cohort study of older adults, an aptamer-based method that has high sensitivity for low-abundance proteins was used to assay 4979 proteins in frozen, stored plasma from 3188 participants (61% women, mean age 74 years). CHS provides active support, including central analysis, for seven phenotype-specific working groups (WGs). Each CHS WG is led by one or two senior investigators and includes 10 to 20 early or mid-career scientists. In this setting of mentored access, the proteomic data and analytic methods are widely shared with the WGs and investigators so that they may evaluate associations between baseline levels of circulating proteins and the incidence of a variety of health outcomes in prospective cohort analyses. We describe the design of CHS, the CHS Proteomics Study, characteristics of participants, quality control measures, and structural characteristics of the data provided to CHS WGs. We additionally highlight plans for validation and replication of novel proteomic associations. CONCLUSION: The CHS Proteomics Study offers an opportunity for collaborative data sharing to improve our understanding of the etiology of a variety of health conditions in older adults.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação , Proteômica , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteômica/métodos
15.
Resuscitation ; 176: 90-97, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662667

RESUMO

AIM: We developed a method which continuously classifies the ECG rhythm during CPR in order to guide clinical care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 432 patients treated following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Continuous ECG sequences from two-minute CPR cycles were extracted from defibrillator recordings and further divided into five-second clips. We developed an algorithm using wavelet analysis, hidden semi-Markov modeling, and random forest classification. The algorithm classifies individual clips as asystole, organized rhythm, ventricular fibrillation, or Inconclusive while integrating information from previous clips. Classifications were compared to manual annotations to estimate accuracy in an independent validation dataset. Continuous sequences were classified as shockable, non-shockable, or Inconclusive; classifications were used to compute shock sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Of 432 patient-cases, 290 were used for development and 142 for validation. In the 12,294 validation ECG clips during CPR, accuracies were 0.88 (95% CI 0.85-0.91) for asystole, 0.98 (95% CI 0.98-0.99) for organized rhythm, and 0.97 (95% CI 0.96-0.97) for ventricular fibrillation, with 43% classified as Inconclusive. Of 457 continuous sequences, shock sensitivity was 0.90 (95% CI 0.86-0.93), shock specificity was 0.98 (95% CI 0.93-0.99), and 7% were Inconclusive. Median delay to ventricular fibrillation recognition was 10 (IQR 5-32) seconds. CONCLUSION: A novel algorithm continuously classified the primary resuscitation rhythms-asystole, organized rhythms, and ventricular fibrillation-with 88-98% accuracy, enabling accurate shock advisory guidance during most two-minute CPR cycles. Additional investigation is required to understand how algorithm implementation could affect rescuer actions and clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Choque , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fibrilação Ventricular/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Ventricular/terapia
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2213242, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594043

RESUMO

Importance: Little is known about the association of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a novel plasma metabolite derived from L-carnitine and phosphatidylcholine, and related metabolites (ie, choline, betaine, carnitine, and butyrobetaine) with risk of death among older adults in the general population. Objective: To investigate the associations of serial measures of plasma TMAO and related metabolites with risk of total and cause-specific death (ie, deaths from cardiovascular diseases [CVDs] and non-CVDs) among older adults in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study involved 5333 participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study-a community-based longitudinal cohort of adults aged 65 years or older-who were followed up from June 1, 1989, to December 31, 2015. Participants were from 4 communities in the US (Forsyth County, North Carolina; Sacramento County, California; Washington County, Maryland; and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania). Data were analyzed from March 17 to June 23, 2021. Exposures: Plasma TMAO, choline, betaine, carnitine, and butyrobetaine levels were measured using stored samples from baseline (June 1, 1989, to May 31, 1990, or November 1, 1992, to June 31, 1993) and follow-up examination (June 1, 1996, to May 31, 1997). Measurements were performed through stable-isotope dilution liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using high-performance liquid chromatography with online electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Main Outcomes and Measures: Deaths (total and cause specific) were adjudicated by a centralized Cardiovascular Health Study events committee based on information from medical records, laboratory and diagnostic reports, death certificates, and/or interviews with next of kin. The associations of each metabolite with mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Among 5333 participants in the analytic sample, the mean (SD) age was 73 (6) years; 2149 participants (40.3%) were male, 3184 (59.7%) were female, 848 (15.9%) were African American, 4450 (83.4%) were White, and 35 (0.01%) were of other races (12 were American Indian or Alaska Native, 4 were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 19 were of other races or ethnicities). During a median follow-up of 13.2 years (range, 0-26.9 years), 4791 deaths occurred. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratios for death from any cause (ie, total mortality) comparing extreme quintiles (fifth vs first) of plasma concentrations were 1.30 (95% CI, 1.17-1.44) for TMAO, 1.19 (95% CI, 1.08-1.32) for choline, 1.26 (95% CI, 1.15-1.40) for carnitine, and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.13-1.40) for butyrobetaine. Plasma betaine was not associated with risk of death. The extent of risk estimates was similar for CVD and non-CVD mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, plasma concentrations of TMAO and related metabolites were positively associated with risk of death. These findings suggest that circulating TMAO is an important novel risk factor associated with death among older adults.


Assuntos
Betaína , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Carnitina , Colina , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metilaminas , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2408, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504910

RESUMO

We performed a multi-ethnic Epigenome Wide Association study on 22,774 individuals to describe the DNA methylation signature of chronic low-grade inflammation as measured by C-Reactive protein (CRP). We find 1,511 independent differentially methylated loci associated with CRP. These CpG sites show correlation structures across chromosomes, and are primarily situated in euchromatin, depleted in CpG islands. These genomic loci are predominantly situated in transcription factor binding sites and genomic enhancer regions. Mendelian randomization analysis suggests altered CpG methylation is a consequence of increased blood CRP levels. Mediation analysis reveals obesity and smoking as important underlying driving factors for changed CpG methylation. Finally, we find that an activated CpG signature significantly increases the risk for cardiometabolic diseases and COPD.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Inflamação , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Motivos de Nucleotídeos
18.
Aging Cell ; 21(6): e13608, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546478

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) has been reported to be associated with many diseases and with mortality. We hypothesized that the integration of DNAm with clinical risk factors would improve mortality prediction. We performed an epigenome-wide association study of whole blood DNAm in relation to mortality in 15 cohorts (n = 15,013). During a mean follow-up of 10 years, there were 4314 deaths from all causes including 1235 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths and 868 cancer deaths. Ancestry-stratified meta-analysis of all-cause mortality identified 163 CpGs in European ancestry (EA) and 17 in African ancestry (AA) participants at p < 1 × 10-7 , of which 41 (EA) and 16 (AA) were also associated with CVD death, and 15 (EA) and 9 (AA) with cancer death. We built DNAm-based prediction models for all-cause mortality that predicted mortality risk after adjusting for clinical risk factors. The mortality prediction model trained by integrating DNAm with clinical risk factors showed an improvement in prediction of cancer death with 5% increase in the C-index in a replication cohort, compared with the model including clinical risk factors alone. Mendelian randomization identified 15 putatively causal CpGs in relation to longevity, CVD, or cancer risk. For example, cg06885782 (in KCNQ4) was positively associated with risk for prostate cancer (Beta = 1.2, PMR  = 4.1 × 10-4 ) and negatively associated with longevity (Beta = -1.9, PMR  = 0.02). Pathway analysis revealed that genes associated with mortality-related CpGs are enriched for immune- and cancer-related pathways. We identified replicable DNAm signatures of mortality and demonstrated the potential utility of CpGs as informative biomarkers for prediction of mortality risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética
19.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(3): 321-336, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536696

RESUMO

Rationale: Methylation integrates factors present at birth and modifiable across the lifespan that can influence pulmonary function. Studies are limited in scope and replication. Objectives: To conduct large-scale epigenome-wide meta-analyses of blood DNA methylation and pulmonary function. Methods: Twelve cohorts analyzed associations of methylation at cytosine-phosphate-guanine probes (CpGs), using Illumina 450K or EPIC/850K arrays, with FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC. We performed multiancestry epigenome-wide meta-analyses (total of 17,503 individuals; 14,761 European, 2,549 African, and 193 Hispanic/Latino ancestries) and interpreted results using integrative epigenomics. Measurements and Main Results: We identified 1,267 CpGs (1,042 genes) differentially methylated (false discovery rate, <0.025) in relation to FEV1, FVC, or FEV1/FVC, including 1,240 novel and 73 also related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1,787 cases). We found 294 CpGs unique to European or African ancestry and 395 CpGs unique to never or ever smokers. The majority of significant CpGs correlated with nearby gene expression in blood. Findings were enriched in key regulatory elements for gene function, including accessible chromatin elements, in both blood and lung. Sixty-nine implicated genes are targets of investigational or approved drugs. One example novel gene highlighted by integrative epigenomic and druggable target analysis is TNFRSF4. Mendelian randomization and colocalization analyses suggest that epigenome-wide association study signals capture causal regulatory genomic loci. Conclusions: We identified numerous novel loci differentially methylated in relation to pulmonary function; few were detected in large genome-wide association studies. Integrative analyses highlight functional relevance and potential therapeutic targets. This comprehensive discovery of potentially modifiable, novel lung function loci expands knowledge gained from genetic studies, providing insights into lung pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pulmão
20.
Heart Rhythm ; 19(9): 1532-1540, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) experience increased cardiac event risk after the onset of adolescence, perhaps stemming from the known modulating effects of sex hormones on the cardiac potassium channels. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the effect of sex hormones on cardiac ion channel function may modify electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters associated with the propensity for ventricular tachyarrhythmias during the menstrual cycle in women with LQTS. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 65 women with congenital LQTS (type 1 LQTS [LQT1], n = 24 [36.9%]; type 2 LQTS [LQT2], n = 20 [30.8%]) and unaffected female relatives (n = 21 [32.3%]). Patients underwent three 7-day ECG recordings during their menstrual cycles. Simultaneous saliva testing of sex hormone levels was conducted on the first day of each 7-day ECG recording cycle. RESULTS: The mean age was 35 ± 8 years, without a significant difference among the groups. In women with LQT2, linear mixed effects models showed significant inverse correlations of the corrected QT interval with progesterone levels (P < .001) and with the progesterone to estradiol ratio (P < .001). Inverse relationships of the R-R interval with estradiol levels (P = .003) and of the T-wave duration with testosterone levels (P = .014) were also observed in women with LQT2. In contrast, no significant associations were observed between ECG parameters and sex hormone levels in women with LQT1 or unaffected relatives. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to prospectively assess correlations between repolarization dynamics and sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle in women with congenital LQTS. Our findings show genotype-specific unique corrected QT dynamics during the menstrual cycle that may affect the propensity for ventricular tachyarrhythmia in women with LQTS, particularly women with LQT2.


Assuntos
Síndrome do QT Longo , Síndrome de Romano-Ward , Taquicardia Ventricular , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletrocardiografia , Estradiol , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual , Progesterona
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