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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570892

RESUMO

The cardiac transcription factor (TF) gene NKX2-5 has been associated with electrocardiographic (EKG) traits through genome-wide association studies (GWASs), but the extent to which differential binding of NKX2-5 at common regulatory variants contributes to these traits has not yet been studied. We analyzed transcriptomic and epigenomic data from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from seven related individuals, and identified ~2,000 single-nucleotide variants associated with allele-specific effects (ASE-SNVs) on NKX2-5 binding. NKX2-5 ASE-SNVs were enriched for altered TF motifs, for heart-specific expression quantitative trait loci and for EKG GWAS signals. Using fine-mapping combined with epigenomic data from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, we prioritized candidate causal variants for EKG traits, many of which were NKX2-5 ASE-SNVs. Experimentally characterizing two NKX2-5 ASE-SNVs (rs3807989 and rs590041) showed that they modulate the expression of target genes via differential protein binding in cardiac cells, indicating that they are functional variants underlying EKG GWAS signals. Our results show that differential NKX2-5 binding at numerous regulatory variants across the genome contributes to EKG phenotypes.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15192, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645637

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that genes play a substantial role in determining a person's susceptibility to age-related hearing impairment. The existing studies on this subject have different results, which may be caused by difficulties in determining the phenotype or the limited number of participants involved. Here, we have gathered the largest sample to date (discovery n = 9,675; replication n = 10,963; validation n = 356,141), and examined phenotypes that represented low/mid and high frequency hearing loss on the pure tone audiogram. We identified 7 loci that were either replicated and/or validated, of which 5 loci are novel in hearing. Especially the ILDR1 gene is a high profile candidate, as it contains our top SNP, is a known hearing loss gene, has been linked to age-related hearing impairment before, and in addition is preferentially expressed within hair cells of the inner ear. By verifying all previously published SNPs, we can present a paper that combines all new and existing findings to date, giving a complete overview of the genetic architecture of age-related hearing impairment. This is of importance as age-related hearing impairment is highly prevalent in our ageing society and represents a large socio-economic burden.

3.
J Nutr ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the associations of ceramides and sphingomyelins (SMs) with diabetes in humans. OBJECTIVE: We assessed associations of 15 circulating ceramides and SM species with incident diabetes in 2 studies. METHODS: The analysis included 435 American-Indian participants from the Strong Heart Study (nested case-control design for analyses; mean age: 57 y; 34% male; median time until diabetes 4.3 y for cases) and 1902 participants from the Strong Heart Family Study (prospective design for analyses; mean age: 37 y; 39% male; median 12.5 y of follow-up). Sphingolipid species were measured using stored plasma samples by sequential LC and MS. Using logistic regression and parametric survival models within studies, and an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis across studies, we examined associations of 15 ceramides and SM species with incident diabetes. RESULTS: There were 446 cases of incident diabetes across the studies. Higher circulating concentrations of ceramides containing stearic acid (Cer-18), arachidic acid (Cer-20), and behenic acid (Cer-22) were each associated with a higher risk of diabetes. The RRs for incident diabetes per 1 SD of each log ceramide species (µM) were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.37) for Cer-18, 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.31) for Cer-20, and 1.20 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.32) for Cer-22. Although the magnitude of the risk estimates for the association of ceramides containing lignoceric acid (Cer-24) with diabetes was similar to those for Cer-18, Cer-20, and Cer-22 (RR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.26), the association was not statistically significant after correction for multiple testing (P = 0.007). Ceramides carrying palmitic acid (Cer-16), SMs, glucosyl-ceramides, or a lactosyl-ceramide were not associated with diabetes risk. CONCLUSIONS: Higher concentrations of circulating Cer-18, Cer-20, and Cer-22 were associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes in 2 studies of American-Indian adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005134.

4.
Circulation ; 140(8): 645-657, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.

5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(10): e00788, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy affects up to 43% of African Americans (AAs). Antihypertensive treatment reduces LV mass (LVM). However, interindividual variation in LV traits in response to antihypertensive treatments exists. We hypothesized that genetic variants may modify the association of antihypertensive treatment class with LV traits measured by echocardiography. METHODS: We evaluated the main effects of the three most common antihypertensive treatments for AAs as well as the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-drug interaction on LVM and relative wall thickness (RWT) in 2,068 participants across five community-based cohorts. Treatments included thiazide diuretics (TDs), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (dCCBs) and were compared in a pairwise manner. We performed fixed effects inverse variance weighted meta-analyses of main effects of drugs and 2.5 million SNP-by-drug interaction estimates. RESULTS: We observed that dCCBs versus TDs were associated with higher LVM after adjusting for covariates (p = 0.001). We report three SNPs at a single locus on chromosome 20 that modified the association between RWT and treatment when comparing dCCBs to ACE-Is with consistent effects across cohorts (smallest p = 4.7 × 10-8 , minor allele frequency range 0.09-0.12). This locus has been linked to LV hypertrophy in a previous study. A marginally significant locus in BICD1 (rs326641) was validated in an external population. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified one locus having genome-wide significant SNP-by-drug interaction effect on RWT among dCCB users in comparison to ACE-I users. Upon additional validation in future studies, our findings can enhance the precision of medical approaches in hypertension treatment.

6.
Circ Res ; 125(6): 575-589, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366290

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The ventricular conduction system (VCS) rapidly propagates electrical impulses through the working myocardium of the ventricles to coordinate chamber contraction. GWAS (Genome-wide association studies) have associated nucleotide polymorphisms, most are located within regulatory intergenic or intronic sequences, with variation in VCS function. Two highly correlated polymorphisms (r2>0.99) associated with VCS functional variation (rs13165478 and rs13185595) occur 5' to the gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor HAND1 (heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1). OBJECTIVE: Here, we test the hypothesis that these polymorphisms influence HAND1 transcription thereby influencing VCS development and function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We employed transgenic mouse models to identify an enhancer that is sufficient for left ventricle (LV) cis-regulatory activity. Two evolutionarily conserved GATA transcription factor cis-binding elements within this enhancer are bound by GATA4 and are necessary for cis-regulatory activity, as shown by in vitro DNA binding assays. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9-mediated deletion of this enhancer dramatically reduces Hand1 expression solely within the LV but does not phenocopy previously published mouse models of cardiac Hand1 loss-of-function. Electrophysiological and morphological analyses reveals that mice homozygous for this deleted enhancer display a morphologically abnormal VCS and a conduction system phenotype consistent with right bundle branch block. Using 1000 Genomes Project data, we identify 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within the Hand1 LV enhancer, that compose a haplotype with rs13165478 and rs13185595. One of these SNPs, rs10054375, overlaps with a critical GATA cis-regulatory element within the Hand1 LV enhancer. This SNP, when tested in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, disrupts GATA4 DNA-binding. Modeling 2 of these SNPs in mice causes diminished Hand1 expression and mice present with abnormal VCS function. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings reveal that SNP rs10054375, which is located within a necessary and sufficient LV-specific Hand1 enhancer, exhibits reduces GATA DNA-binding in electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and this enhancer in total, is required for VCS development and function in mice and perhaps humans.

7.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(7): e005708, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ceramides exhibit multiple biological activities that may influence the pathophysiology of heart failure. These activities may be influenced by the saturated fatty acid carried by the ceramide (Cer). However, the associations of different circulating Cer species, and their sphingomyelin (SM) precursors, with heart failure have received limited attention. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the associations of plasma Cer and SM species with incident heart failure in the Cardiovascular Health Study. We examined 8 species: Cer and SM with palmitic acid (Cer-16 and SM-16), species with arachidic acid (Cer-20 and SM-20), species with behenic acid (Cer-22 and SM-22), and species with lignoceric acid (Cer-24 and SM-24). During a median follow-up of 9.4 years, we identified 1179 cases of incident heart failure among 4249 study participants. In Cox regression analyses adjusted for risk factors, higher levels of Cer-16 and SM-16 were associated with higher risk of incident heart failure (hazard ratio for one SD increase:1.25 [95% CI, 1.16-1.36] and 1.28 [1.18-1.40], respectively). In contrast, higher levels of Cer-22 were associated with lower risk of heart failure in multivariable analyses further adjusted for Cer-16 (hazard ratio, 0.85 [0.78-0.92]); and higher levels of SM-20, SM-22 and SM-24 were associated with lower risk of heart failure in analyses further adjusted for SM-16 (hazard ratios, 0.83 [0.77-0.90], 0.81 [0.75-0.88], and 0.83 [0.77-0.90], respectively). No statistically significant interactions with age, sex, black race, body mass index, or baseline coronary heart disease were detected. Similar associations were observed for heart failure with preserved (n=529) or reduced (n=348) ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows associations of higher plasma levels of Cer-16 and SM-16 with increased risk of heart failure and higher levels of Cer-22, SM-20, SM-22, and SM-24 with decreased risk of heart failure. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00005133.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 437-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential micronutrients involved in the donation of methyl groups in cellular metabolism. However, associations between intake of these nutrients and genome-wide DNA methylation levels have not been studied comprehensively in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether folate and/or vitamin B-12 intake are asssociated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: A large-scale epigenome-wide association study of folate and vitamin B-12 intake was performed on DNA from 5841 participants from 10 cohorts using Illumina 450k arrays. Folate and vitamin B-12 intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Continuous and categorical (low compared with high intake) linear regression mixed models were applied per cohort, controlling for confounders. A meta-analysis was performed to identify significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs), and a pathway analysis was performed on the DMR annotated genes. RESULTS: The categorical model resulted in 6 DMPs, which are all negatively associated with folate intake, annotated to FAM64A, WRAP73, FRMD8, CUX1, and LCN8 genes, which have a role in cellular processes including centrosome localization, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Regional analysis showed 74 folate-associated DMRs, of which 73 were negatively associated with folate intake. The most significant folate-associated DMR was a 400-base pair (bp) spanning region annotated to the LGALS3BP gene. In the categorical model, vitamin B-12 intake was associated with 29 DMRs annotated to 48 genes, of which the most significant was a 1100-bp spanning region annotated to the calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated gene (CABYR). Vitamin B-12 intake was not associated with DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel epigenetic loci that are associated with folate and vitamin B-12 intake. Interestingly, we found a negative association between folate and DNA methylation. Replication of these methylation loci is necessary in future studies.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217796, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The electrocardiographically quantified QRS duration measures ventricular depolarization and conduction. QRS prolongation has been associated with poor heart failure prognosis and cardiovascular mortality, including sudden death. While previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 32 QRS SNPs across 26 loci among European, African, and Asian-descent populations, the genetics of QRS among Hispanics/Latinos has not been previously explored. METHODS: We performed a GWAS of QRS duration among Hispanic/Latino ancestry populations (n = 15,124) from four studies using 1000 Genomes imputed genotype data (adjusted for age, sex, global ancestry, clinical and study-specific covariates). Study-specific results were combined using fixed-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis. RESULTS: We identified six loci associated with QRS (P<5x10-8), including two novel loci: MYOCD, a nuclear protein expressed in the heart, and SYT1, an integral membrane protein. The top SNP in the MYOCD locus, intronic SNP rs16946539, was found in Hispanics/Latinos with a minor allele frequency (MAF) of 0.04, but is monomorphic in European and African descent populations. The most significant QRS duration association was with intronic SNP rs3922344 (P = 1.19x10-24) in SCN5A/SCN10A. Three other previously identified loci, CDKN1A, VTI1A, and HAND1, also exceeded the GWAS significance threshold among Hispanics/Latinos. A total of 27 of 32 previously identified QRS duration SNPs were shown to generalize in Hispanics/Latinos. CONCLUSIONS: Our QRS duration GWAS, the first in Hispanic/Latino populations, identified two new loci, underscoring the utility of extending large scale genomic studies to currently under-examined populations.

11.
Sleep ; 42(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139831

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Daytime sleepiness is a consequence of inadequate sleep, sleep-wake control disorder, or other medical conditions. Population variability in prevalence of daytime sleepiness is likely due to genetic and biological factors as well as social and environmental influences. DNA methylation (DNAm) potentially influences multiple health outcomes. Here, we explored the association between DNAm and daytime sleepiness quantified by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). METHODS: We performed multi-ethnic and ethnic-specific epigenome-wide association studies for DNAm and ESS in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; n = 619) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 483), with cross-study replication and meta-analysis. Genetic variants near ESS-associated DNAm were analyzed for methylation quantitative trait loci and followed with replication of genotype-sleepiness associations in the UK Biobank. RESULTS: In MESA only, we detected four DNAm-ESS associations: one across all race/ethnic groups; three in African-Americans (AA) only. Two of the MESA AA associations, in genes KCTD5 and RXRA, nominally replicated in CHS (p-value < 0.05). In the AA meta-analysis, we detected 14 DNAm-ESS associations (FDR q-value < 0.05, top association p-value = 4.26 × 10-8). Three DNAm sites mapped to genes (CPLX3, GFAP, and C7orf50) with biological relevance. We also found evidence for associations with DNAm sites in RAI1, a gene associated with sleep and circadian phenotypes. UK Biobank follow-up analyses detected SNPs in RAI1, RXRA, and CPLX3 with nominal sleepiness associations. CONCLUSIONS: We identified methylation sites in multiple genes possibly implicated in daytime sleepiness. Most significant DNAm-ESS associations were specific to AA. Future work is needed to identify mechanisms driving ancestry-specific methylation effects.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(4): 1216-1223, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) of different chain lengths have unique metabolic and biological effects, and a small number of recent studies suggest that higher circulating concentrations of the very-long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs) arachidic acid (20:0), behenic acid (22:0), and lignoceric acid (24:0) are associated with a lower risk of diabetes. Confirmation of these findings in a large and diverse population is needed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident type 2 diabetes in prospective studies. METHODS: Twelve studies that are part of the Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium participated in the analysis. Using Cox or logistic regression within studies and an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis across studies, we examined the associations of VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident diabetes among 51,431 participants. RESULTS: There were 14,276 cases of incident diabetes across participating studies. Higher circulating concentrations of 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 were each associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes. Pooling across cohorts, the RR (95% CI) for incident diabetes comparing the 90th percentile to the 10th percentile was 0.78 (0.70, 0.87) for 20:0, 0.84 (0.77, 0.91) for 22:0, and 0.75 (0.69, 0.83) for 24:0 after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, adiposity, and other health factors. Results were fully attenuated in exploratory models that adjusted for circulating 16:0 and triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this pooled analysis indicate that higher concentrations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 are each associated with a lower risk of diabetes.

13.
Circulation ; 139(14): 1688-1697, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blacks have a higher incidence of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death (SCD) in comparison with whites. However, the racial differences in the cumulative risk of SCD and the reasons for these differences have not been assessed in large-scale community-based cohorts. The objective of this study is to compare the lifetime cumulative risk of SCD among blacks and whites, and to evaluate the risk factors that may explain racial differences in SCD risk in the general population. METHODS: This is a cohort study of 3832 blacks and 11 237 whites participating in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC). Race was self-reported. SCD was defined as a sudden pulseless condition from a cardiac cause in a previously stable individual, and SCD cases were adjudicated by an expert committee. Cumulative incidence was computed using competing risk models. Potential mediators included demographic and socioeconomic factors, cardiovascular risk factors, presence of coronary heart disease, and electrocardiographic parameters as time-varying factors. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 53.6 (5.8) years for blacks and 54.4 (5.7) years for whites. During 27.4 years of follow-up, 215 blacks and 332 whites experienced SCD. The lifetime cumulative incidence of SCD at age 85 years was 9.6, 6.6, 6.5, and 2.3% for black men, black women, white men, and white women, respectively. The sex-adjusted hazard ratio for SCD comparing blacks with whites was 2.12 (95% CI, 1.79-2.51). The association was attenuated but still statistically significant in fully adjusted models (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.11-1.71). In mediation analysis, known factors explained 65.3% (95% CI 37.9-92.8%) of the excess risk of SCD in blacks in comparison with whites. The single most important factor explaining this difference was income (50.5%), followed by education (19.1%), hypertension (22.1%), and diabetes mellitus (19.6%). Racial differences were evident in both genders but stronger in women than in men. CONCLUSIONS: Blacks had a much higher risk for SCD in comparison with whites, particularly among women. Income, education, and traditional risk factors explained ≈65% of the race difference in SCD. The high burden of SCD and the racial-gender disparities observed in our study represent a major public health and clinical problem.

14.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 144-152, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673084

RESUMO

Importance: Increased free thyroxine (FT4) and decreased thyrotropin are associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in observational studies, but direct involvement is unclear. Objective: To evaluate the potential direct involvement of thyroid traits on AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Study-level mendelian randomization (MR) included 11 studies, and summary-level MR included 55 114 AF cases and 482 295 referents, all of European ancestry. Exposures: Genomewide significant variants were used as instruments for standardized FT4 and thyrotropin levels within the reference range, standardized triiodothyronine (FT3):FT4 ratio, hypothyroidism, standardized thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, and hyperthyroidism. Mendelian randomization used genetic risk scores in study-level analysis or individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 2-sample MR for the summary-level data. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalent and incident AF. Results: The study-level analysis included 7679 individuals with AF and 49 233 referents (mean age [standard error], 62 [3] years; 15 859 men [29.7%]). In study-level random-effects meta-analysis, the pooled hazard ratio of FT4 levels (nanograms per deciliter) for incident AF was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.09-2.20; P = .02; I2 = 76%) and the pooled odds ratio (OR) for prevalent AF was 2.80 (95% CI, 1.41-5.54; P = .003; I2 = 64%) in multivariable-adjusted analyses. The FT4 genetic risk score was associated with an increase in FT4 by 0.082 SD (standard error, 0.007; P < .001) but not with incident AF (risk ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.62-1.14; P = .27) or prevalent AF (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.64-2.73; P = .46). Similarly, in summary-level inverse-variance weighted random-effects MR, gene-based FT4 within the reference range was not associated with AF (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89-1.14; P = .88). However, gene-based increased FT3:FT4 ratio, increased thyrotropin within the reference range, and hypothyroidism were associated with AF with inverse-variance weighted random-effects OR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.08-1.63; P = .006), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92; P < .001), and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.99; P = .009), respectively, and robust to tests of horizontal pleiotropy. However, the subset of hypothyroidism single-nucleotide polymorphisms involved in autoimmunity and thyroid peroxidase antibodies levels were not associated with AF. Gene-based hyperthyroidism was associated with AF with MR-Egger OR of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.05-1.63; P = .02) with evidence of horizontal pleiotropy (P = .045). Conclusions and Relevance: Genetically increased FT3:FT4 ratio and hyperthyroidism, but not FT4 within the reference range, were associated with increased AF, and increased thyrotropin within the reference range and hypothyroidism were associated with decreased AF, supporting a pathway involving the pituitary-thyroid-cardiac axis.

15.
EBioMedicine ; 41: 44-49, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest sphingolipids as an early marker of impaired glucose metabolism; however, research in humans is limited. We evaluated whether individual sphingolipid species were associated with fasting plasma glucose and incident impaired fasting glucose in a longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: We measured 15 sphingolipid species from blood samples collected in 2001-2003 from 2145 participants without prevalent diabetes in the Strong Heart Family Study. Fasting plasma glucose was measured in blood samples collected at baseline and follow-up (mean 5.5 years after baseline). FINDINGS: The average age of study participants was 38 years; 41% were men. Ceramide, sphingomyelin, and glucosylceramide species levels were higher in older participants; lactosyl-ceramide levels were higher in participants with lower BMIs. In adjusted analyses, greater concentrations of most ceramide species and lower lactosyl-ceramide with palmitic acid (LC-16) were associated with higher glucose levels at baseline. We did not observe associations of sphingomyelin species or glucosyl-ceramide species with glucose levels. Associations of sphingolipid levels with fasting glucose levels at follow-up were similar but had greater uncertainty than associations with baseline glucose. Although no statistically significant associations of sphingolipids with incident impaired fasting glucose were present, results were similar to glucose analyses. INTERPRETATION: We identified several ceramide species associated with higher fasting glucose levels and one sphingolipid, LC-16, that was associated with lower fasting glucose levels. These findings compliment previous research, which linked these sphingolipids with fasting insulin levels, and suggest that higher levels of these ceramides and lower LC-16 may be an early marker of impaired glucose metabolism. FUND: US National Institutes Health.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Ceramidas/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
JAMA ; 320(22): 2354-2364, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535219

RESUMO

Importance: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting 1% of the population. Young individuals with AF have a strong genetic association with the disease, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Objective: To perform large-scale whole-genome sequencing to identify genetic variants related to AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program includes longitudinal and cohort studies that underwent high-depth whole-genome sequencing between 2014 and 2017 in 18 526 individuals from the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Barbados, and Samoa. This case-control study included 2781 patients with early-onset AF from 9 studies and identified 4959 controls of European ancestry from the remaining participants. Results were replicated in the UK Biobank (346 546 participants) and the MyCode Study (42 782 participants). Exposures: Loss-of-function (LOF) variants in genes at AF loci and common genetic variation across the whole genome. Main Outcomes and Measures: Early-onset AF (defined as AF onset in persons <66 years of age). Due to multiple testing, the significance threshold for the rare variant analysis was P = 4.55 × 10-3. Results: Among 2781 participants with early-onset AF (the case group), 72.1% were men, and the mean (SD) age of AF onset was 48.7 (10.2) years. Participants underwent whole-genome sequencing at a mean depth of 37.8 fold and mean genome coverage of 99.1%. At least 1 LOF variant in TTN, the gene encoding the sarcomeric protein titin, was present in 2.1% of case participants compared with 1.1% in control participants (odds ratio [OR], 1.76 [95% CI, 1.04-2.97]). The proportion of individuals with early-onset AF who carried a LOF variant in TTN increased with an earlier age of AF onset (P value for trend, 4.92 × 10-4), and 6.5% of individuals with AF onset prior to age 30 carried a TTN LOF variant (OR, 5.94 [95% CI, 2.64-13.35]; P = 1.65 × 10-5). The association between TTN LOF variants and AF was replicated in an independent study of 1582 patients with early-onset AF (cases) and 41 200 control participants (OR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.19-3.92]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: In a case-control study, there was a statistically significant association between an LOF variant in the TTN gene and early-onset AF, with the variant present in a small percentage of participants with early-onset AF (the case group). Further research is necessary to understand whether this is a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Conectina/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade
17.
PLoS Med ; 15(10): e1002670, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate prospective associations of circulating or adipose tissue odd-chain fatty acids 15:0 and 17:0 and trans-palmitoleic acid, t16:1n-7, as potential biomarkers of dairy fat intake, with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen prospective cohorts from 12 countries (7 from the United States, 7 from Europe, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan) performed new harmonised individual-level analysis for the prospective associations according to a standardised plan. In total, 63,682 participants with a broad range of baseline ages and BMIs and 15,180 incident cases of T2D over the average of 9 years of follow-up were evaluated. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Prespecified interactions by age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity were explored in each cohort and were meta-analysed. Potential heterogeneity by cohort-specific characteristics (regions, lipid compartments used for fatty acid assays) was assessed with metaregression. After adjustment for potential confounders, including measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) and lipogenesis (levels of palmitate, triglycerides), higher levels of 15:0, 17:0, and t16:1n-7 were associated with lower incidence of T2D. In the most adjusted model, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for incident T2D per cohort-specific 10th to 90th percentile range of 15:0 was 0.80 (0.73-0.87); of 17:0, 0.65 (0.59-0.72); of t16:1n7, 0.82 (0.70-0.96); and of their sum, 0.71 (0.63-0.79). In exploratory analyses, similar associations for 15:0, 17:0, and the sum of all three fatty acids were present in both genders but stronger in women than in men (pinteraction < 0.001). Whereas studying associations with biomarkers has several advantages, as limitations, the biomarkers do not distinguish between different food sources of dairy fat (e.g., cheese, yogurt, milk), and residual confounding by unmeasured or imprecisely measured confounders may exist. CONCLUSIONS: In a large meta-analysis that pooled the findings from 16 prospective cohort studies, higher levels of 15:0, 17:0, and t16:1n-7 were associated with a lower risk of T2D.

18.
Chem Phys Lipids ; 216: 162-170, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201384

RESUMO

A method for the detection and quantification of hydroxyl and epoxy arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in human plasma was developed using liquid-liquid extraction, phospholipid saponification followed by derivatization of the acid moiety and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric detection. Derivatization with a pyridinium analog allowed for detection in the positive ion mode, greatly improving sensitivity and the stability of the more labile AA metabolites. The entire method utilizes a 96-well plate format, increasing sample throughput, and was optimized to measure 5-, 8-, 9-, 11-, 12-, 15-, 19-, and 20- hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15- dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHET), and the regio- and cis-/ trans- isomers of 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET). The method was validated for its applicability over the FA concentration range found in human plasma. Using 100 µL aliquots of pooled human plasma, EET levels, particularly 5,6-EET, were observed to be higher than previously reported, with measured concentrations of 23.6 ng/ml for 5,6-EET, 5.6 ng/mL for 5,6-trans-EET, 8.0 ng/mL for 8,9-EET, 1.9 ng/mL for 8,9-trans-EET, 8.8 ng/mL for 11,12-EET, 3.4 ng/mL for 11,12-trans-EET, 10.7 ng/mL for 14,15-EET, and 1.7 ng/mL 14,15-trans- EET. This method is suitable for large population studies to elucidate the complex interactions between the eicosanoids and various disease states and may be used for quantitation of a wide variety of fattyacids beyond eicosanoids from small volumes of human plasma.

19.
Heart Asia ; 10(2): e011047, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233660

RESUMO

Objective: Hypertension is a significant and rising burden in Nepal. The disease remains undetected and inadequately managed. However, no studies have been conducted to understand the inhibiting and facilitating factors to hypertension treatment among newly diagnosed cases. This qualitative study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to treatment among patients with newly diagnosed hypertension aged ≥18 years in Dhulikhel, Nepal. Methods: We conducted seven focus group discussions with 35 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension identified through community surveillance of the Dhulikhel Heart Study, an observational cohort of Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University. Audiotaped discussions were transcribed, inductively coded and analysed by the thematic framework method using Atlas.ti V.7. Results: Hypertension was viewed as a rising problem in the community. Participants had limited knowledge and many misbeliefs regarding hypertension and its treatment. The major barriers included absence of symptoms, reluctance to take medicine, low perceived seriousness of the disease, challenges in behaviour change (diet and exercise), lack of family support, and lack of communication and trust with the provider. The major reported facilitating factors were fear of consequences of the disease, and family support in controlling diet and adhering to treatment. Conclusions: A number of factors emerged as barriers and facilitators to hypertension treatment. This information can be useful in designing appropriate health interventions to improve hypertension management.

20.
Health Place ; 53: 128-134, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121010

RESUMO

We explored links between food environments, dietary intake biomarkers, and sudden cardiac arrest in a population-based longitudinal study using cases and controls accruing between 1990 and 2010 in King County, WA. Surprisingly, presence of more unhealthy food sources near home was associated with a lower 18:1 trans-fatty acid concentration (-0.05% per standard deviation higher count of unhealthy food sources, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.01, 0.09). However, presence of more unhealthy food sources was associated with higher odds of cardiac arrest (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.41 per standard deviation in unhealthy food outlets). While unhealthy food outlets were associated with higher cardiac arrest risk, circulating 18:1 trans fats did not explain the association.

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