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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(15): 153602, 2015 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25933314

RESUMO

We show that it is possible to reduce the number of two-qubit gates needed for the construction of an arbitrary controlled-unitary transformation by up to 2 times using a tunable controlled-phase gate. On the platform of linear optics, where two-qubit gates can only be achieved probabilistically, our method significantly reduces the amount of components and increases success probability of a two-qubit gate. The experimental implementation of our technique presented in this Letter for a controlled single-qubit unitary gate demonstrates that only one tunable controlled-phase gate is needed instead of two standard controlled-not gates. Thus, not only do we increase the success probability by about 1 order of magnitude (with the same resources), but also avoid the need for conducting quantum nondemolition measurement otherwise required to join two probabilistic gates. Subsequently, we generalize our method to a higher order, showing that n-times controlled gates can be optimized by replacing blocks of controlled-not gates with tunable controlled-phase gates.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(17): 173601, 2013 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23679725

RESUMO

The security of quantum cryptography is guaranteed by the no-cloning theorem, which implies that an eavesdropper copying transmitted qubits in unknown states causes their disturbance. Nevertheless, in real cryptographic systems some level of disturbance has to be allowed to cover, e.g., transmission losses. An eavesdropper can attack such systems by replacing a noisy channel by a better one and by performing approximate cloning of transmitted qubits which disturb them but below the noise level assumed by legitimate users. We experimentally demonstrate such symmetric individual eavesdropping on the quantum key distribution protocols of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) and the trine-state spherical code of Renes (R04) with two-level probes prepared using a recently developed photonic multifunctional quantum cloner [Lemr et al., Phys. Rev. A 85, 050307(R) (2012)]. We demonstrated that our optimal cloning device with high-success rate makes the eavesdropping possible by hiding it in usual transmission losses. We believe that this experiment can stimulate the quest for other operational applications of quantum cloning.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 100(18): 180501, 2008 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18518357

RESUMO

We present a linear-optical implementation of a class of two-qubit partial SWAP gates for polarization states of photons. Different gate operations, including the SWAP and entangling sqrt[SWAP], can be obtained by changing a classical control parameter, namely, the path difference in the interferometer. Reconstruction of output states, full quantum process tomography, and an evaluation of entanglement of formation prove very good performance of the gates.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 99(12): 120505, 2007 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17930488

RESUMO

We present the experimental realization of optimal symmetric and asymmetric phase-covariant 1-->2 cloning of qubit states using fiber optics. The state of each qubit is encoded into a single photon which can propagate through two optical fibers. The operation of our device is based on one- and two-photon interference. We have demonstrated the creation of two copies for a wide range of qubit states from the equator of the Bloch sphere. The measured fidelities of both copies are close to the theoretical values and they surpass the theoretical maximum obtainable with the universal cloner.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 93(18): 180404, 2004 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15525137

RESUMO

If there are correlations between two qubits, then the results of the measurement on one of them can help to predict measurement results on the other one. It is an interesting question as to what can be predicted about the results of two complementary projective measurements on the first qubit. To quantify these predictions the complementary knowledge excesses are used. A nontrivial constraint restricting them is derived. For any mixed state and for arbitrary measurements the knowledge excesses are bounded by a factor depending only on the maximal violation of Bell's inequalities. This result is experimentally verified on two-photon Werner states prepared by means of spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

6.
Appl Opt ; 43(4): 766-70, 2004 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14960067

RESUMO

White-light interferometry is a well-established method for measuring the height profiles of samples with rough as well as with smooth surfaces. Because white-light interferometry uses broadband light sources, the problem of dispersion arises. Because the optical paths in the two interferometer arms cannot be balanced for all wavelengths, the white-light correlogram is distorted, which interferes with its evaluation. We investigate the influence of setup parameters on the shape of the correlogram. Calculated values are compared with experimental results.

7.
Appl Opt ; 42(10): 1809-13, 2003 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12683760

RESUMO

A great advantage of the white-light interferometry is that it can be used for profile objects with a rough surface. A speckle pattern that arises in the image plane allows one to observethe interference; however, this pattern is also the source of the measurement uncertainty. We derive the theoretical limits of the longitudinal uncertainty by virtue of the first-order statistics of thespeckle pattern. It is shown that this uncertainty depends on the surface roughness of the measured object only; it does not depend on the setup parameters.

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