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2.
J Mater Sci ; 57(22): 10017-10027, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35221374

RESUMO

The transformation of olivine during the conversion of CO2 to light hydrocarbons activated by mechanochemical treatments at different impact frequencies was studied by a combination of several complementary characterization methods including X-ray diffraction, Raman and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Several olivine samples were studied as a function of the milling time, indicating the gradual transformation of FeII-containing olivine into new FeIII-containing weathering products including iron oxides, magnesium iron carbonates and silicates. The results presented here complement those of a previous study on the weathering process of olivine promoted by mechanochemical activation, by demonstrating the role of the redox activity of the iron species during the activation process. These additional spectroscopic results allow us to thoroughly understand the complex weathering mechanism and to correlate it with the efficiency of the CO2 conversion and storage properties of mechanochemically activated olivine. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10853-022-06962-x.

3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073364

RESUMO

The stability upon cycling of Fe2WO6 used as a negative electrode material for electrochemical capacitors was investigated. The material was synthesized using low temperature conditions for the first time (220 °C). The electrochemical study of Fe2WO6 in a 5 M LiNO3 aqueous electrolyte led to a specific and volumetric capacitance of 38 F g-1 and 240 F cm-3 when cycled at 2 mV·s-1, respectively, associated with a minor capacitance loss after 10,000 cycles. In order to investigate this very good cycling stability, both surface and bulk characterization techniques (such as Transmission Electron Microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements) were used. Only a slight disordering of the Fe3+ cations was observed in the structure, explaining the good stability of the Fe2WO6 upon cycling. This study adds another pseudocapacitive material to the short list of compounds that exhibit such a behavior up to now.

4.
Nat Mater ; 20(10): 1385-1391, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112977

RESUMO

Replacing scarce and expensive platinum (Pt) with metal-nitrogen-carbon (M-N-C) catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells has largely been impeded by the low oxygen reduction reaction activity of M-N-C due to low active site density and site utilization. Herein, we overcome these limits by implementing chemical vapour deposition to synthesize Fe-N-C by flowing iron chloride vapour over a Zn-N-C substrate at 750 °C, leading to high-temperature trans-metalation of Zn-N4 sites into Fe-N4 sites. Characterization by multiple techniques shows that all Fe-N4 sites formed via this approach are gas-phase and electrochemically accessible. As a result, the Fe-N-C catalyst has an active site density of 1.92 × 1020 sites per gram with 100% site utilization. This catalyst delivers an unprecedented oxygen reduction reaction activity of 33 mA cm-2 at 0.90 V (iR-corrected; i, current; R, resistance) in a H2-O2 proton exchange membrane fuel cell at 1.0 bar and 80 °C.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 60(10): 7217-7227, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956446

RESUMO

The effect of crystallizing solution chemistry on the chemistry of subsequently as-grown materials was investigated for Mo-substituted iron oxides prepared by thermally activated co-precipitation. In the presence of Mo ions, we find that varying the oxidation state of the iron precursor from Fe(II) to Fe(III) causes a progressive loss of atomic long-range order with the stabilization of 2-4 nm particles for the sample prepared with Fe(III). The oxidation state of the Fe precursor also affects the distribution of Fe and Mo cations within the spinel structure. Increasing the Fe precursor oxidation state gives decreased Fe-ion occupation and increased Mo-ion occupation of tetrahedral sites, as revealed by the extended X-ray absorption fine structure. The stabilization of Mo within tetrahedral sites appears to be unexpected, considering the octahedral preferred coordination number of Mo(VI). The analysis of the atomic structure of the sample prepared with Fe(III) indicates a local ordering of vacancies and that the occupation of tetrahedral sites by Mo induces a contraction of the interatomic distances within the polyhedra as compared to Fe atoms. Moreover, the occupancy of Mo into the thermodynamic site preference of a Mo dopant in Fe2O3 assessed by density functional theory calculations points to a stronger preference for Mo substitution at octahedral sites. Hence, we suggest that the synthetized compound is thermodynamically metastable, that is, kinetically trapped. Such a state is suggested to be a consequence of the tetrahedral site occupation by Mo ions. The population of these sites, known to be reactive sites enabling particle growth, is concomitant with the stabilization of very small particles. We confirmed our hypothesis by using a blank experiment without Mo ions, further supporting the impact of tetrahedral Mo ions on the growth of iron oxide nanoparticles. Our findings provide new insights into the relationships between the Fe-chemistry of the crystallizing solution and the structural features of the as-grown Mo-substituted Fe-oxide materials.

6.
Nat Chem ; 13(11): 1070-1080, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531571

RESUMO

Anionic redox is a double-edged sword for Li-ion cathodes because it offers a transformational increase in energy density that is also negated by several detrimental drawbacks to its practical implementation. Among them, voltage hysteresis is the most troublesome because its origin is still unclear and under debate. Herein, we tackle this issue by designing a prototypical Li-rich cation-disordered rock-salt compound Li1.17Ti0.33Fe0.5O2 that shows anionic redox activity and exceptionally large voltage hysteresis while exhibiting a partially reversible Fe migration between octahedral and tetrahedral sites. Through combined in situ and ex situ spectroscopic techniques, we demonstrate the existence of a non-equilibrium (adiabatic) redox pathway enlisting Fe3+/Fe4+ and O redox as opposed to the equilibrium (non-adiabatic) redox pathway involving sole O redox. We further show that the charge transfer from O(2p) lone pair states to Fe(3d) states involving sluggish structural distortion is responsible for voltage hysteresis. This study provides a general understanding of various voltage hysteresis signatures in the large family of Li-rich rock-salt compounds.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15871, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985546

RESUMO

Coal samples of different ranks were investigated through various compositional, morphological/structural, and textural experiments prior to their electrochemical implementation in Na-ion half-cells. The purity of coals proved insignificant while distinctions in the flake size, pore width, pore distribution, ID/IG ratio, crystallite parameters (La and Lc) along with adjacent parameters, such as the R-empirical parameter, i.e., limited parallel graphene stacking proved more relevant for Na+ storage into the negative host electrodes. Coal powders were identified via a two-step TGA analysis technique displaying the overall carbon content of the coals and the impurities. Coal-based anode materials were prepared from raw and pyrolyzed coals (at 800 °C under argon gas-flow) and cycled in Na-ion half-cells to further investigate the impact of the coal rank on the energetic properties. High volatile bituminous coal with lower graphene stacking and augmented nanoscopic pores delivered higher reversible capacity in comparison with semi-anthracite coal, whether in their raw (67 vs. 54 mAh/g) or pyrolyzed (214 vs. 64 mAh/g) states, respectively vs. Na/Na+. The dominance of HVBC over SAC due to enhanced properties as R-empirical parameter, ID/IG ratio, and internal porosity. This study provides an exhaustive methodology to assess other carbonaceous anode materials further to evaluate their energy storage capabilities.

8.
Nat Mater ; 19(11): 1215-1223, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661387

RESUMO

This contribution reports the discovery and analysis of a p-block Sn-based catalyst for the electroreduction of molecular oxygen in acidic conditions at fuel cell cathodes; the catalyst is free of platinum-group metals and contains single-metal-atom actives sites coordinated by nitrogen. The prepared SnNC catalysts meet and exceed state-of-the-art FeNC catalysts in terms of intrinsic catalytic turn-over frequency and hydrogen-air fuel cell power density. The SnNC-NH3 catalysts displayed a 40-50% higher current density than FeNC-NH3 at cell voltages below 0.7 V. Additional benefits include a highly favourable selectivity for the four-electron reduction pathway and a Fenton-inactive character of Sn. A range of analytical techniques combined with density functional theory calculations indicate that stannic Sn(IV)Nx single-metal sites with moderate oxygen chemisorption properties and low pyridinic N coordination numbers act as catalytically active moieties. The superior proton-exchange membrane fuel cell performance of SnNC cathode catalysts under realistic, hydrogen-air fuel cell conditions, particularly after NH3 activation treatment, makes them a promising alternative to today's state-of-the-art Fe-based catalysts.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(3): 1417-1423, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880925

RESUMO

Pyrolysis is indispensable for synthesizing highly active Fe-N-C catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acid, but how Fe, N, and C precursors transform to ORR-active sites during pyrolysis remains unclear. This knowledge gap obscures the connections between the input precursors and the output products, clouding the pathway toward Fe-N-C catalyst improvement. Herein, we unravel the evolution pathway of precursors to ORR-active catalyst comprised exclusively of single-atom Fe1(II)-N4 sites via in-temperature X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The Fe precursor transforms to Fe oxides below 300 °C and then to tetrahedral Fe1(II)-O4 via a crystal-to-melt-like transformation below 600 °C. The Fe1(II)-O4 releases a single Fe atom that diffuses into the N-doped carbon defect forming Fe1(II)-N4 above 600 °C. This vapor-phase single Fe atom transport mechanism is verified by synthesizing Fe1(II)-N4 sites via "noncontact pyrolysis" wherein the Fe precursor is not in physical contact with the N and C precursors during pyrolysis.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(9): 3718-3723, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828910

RESUMO

We report a computational study on 3d transition-metal (Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co) carbodiimides in Li- and Na-ion batteries. The obtained cell voltages semi-quantitatively fit the experiments, highlighting the practicality of PBE+U as an approach for modeling the conversion-reaction mechanism of the FeNCN archetype with lithium and sodium. Also, the calculated voltage profiles agree satisfactorily with experiment both for full (Li-ion battery) and partial (Na-ion battery) discharge, even though experimental atomistic knowledge is missing up to now. Moreover, we rationalize the structural preference of intermediate ternaries and their characteristic lowering in the voltage profile using chemical-bonding and Mulliken-charge analysis. The formation of such ternary intermediates for the lithiation of FeNCN and the contribution of at least one ternary intermediate is also confirmed experimentally. This theoretical approach, aided by experimental findings, supports the atomistic exploration of electrode materials governed by conversion reactions.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3483, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375663

RESUMO

The growing demand for advanced lithium-ion batteries calls for the continued development of high-performance positive electrode materials. Polyoxyanion compounds are receiving considerable interest as alternative cathodes to conventional oxides due to their advantages in cost, safety and environmental friendliness. However, polyanionic cathodes reported so far rely heavily upon transition-metal redox reactions for lithium transfer. Here we show a polyanionic insertion material, Li2Fe(C2O4)2, in which in addition to iron redox activity, the oxalate group itself also shows redox behavior enabling reversible charge/discharge and high capacity without gas evolution. The current study gives oxalate a role as a family of cathode materials and suggests a direction for the identification and design of electrode materials with polyanionic frameworks.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(40): 34202-34211, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216721

RESUMO

A hydrothermal synthesis route was used to synthesize iron(III) phosphate hydroxide hydrate-carbon nanotube composites. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) were mixed in solution with Fe1.19(PO4)(OH)0.57(H2O)0.43 (FPHH) precursors for one-pot hydrothermal reaction leading to the FPHH/CNT composite. This produces a highly electronic conductive material to be used as a cathode material for Li-ion battery. The galvanostatic cycling analysis shows that the material delivers a specific capacity of 160 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C (0.2 Li per fu in 1 h), slightly decreasing with increasing current density. A high charge-discharge cyclability is observed, showing that a capacity of 120 mAh g-1 at 1 C is maintained after 500 cycles. This may be attributed to the microspherical morphology of the particles and electronic percolation due to CNT but also to the unusual insertion mechanism resulting from the peculiar structure of FPHH formed by chains of partially occupied FeO6 octahedra connected by PO4 tetrahedra. The mechanism of the first discharge-charge cycle was investigated by combining operando X-ray diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. FPHH undergoes a monophasic reaction with up to 10% volume changes based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ redox process. However, the variations of the FPHH lattice parameters and the 57Fe quadrupole splitting distributions during the Li insertion-deinsertion process show a two-step behavior. We propose that such mechanism could be due to the existence of different types of vacant sites in FPHH, including vacant "octahedral" sites (Fe vacancies) that improve diffusion of Li by connecting the one-dimensional channels.

13.
Small ; 14(16): e1703338, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29356378

RESUMO

Development of efficient, affordable, and sustainable energy storage technologies has become an area of interest due to the worsening environmental issues and rising technological dependence on Li-ion batteries. Na-ion batteries (NIBs) have been receiving intensive research efforts during the last few years. Owing to their potentially low cost and relatively high energy density, NIBs are promising energy storage devices, especially for stationary applications. A fundamental understanding of electrode properties during electrochemical reactions is important for the development of low cost, high-energy density, and long shelf life NIBs. This Review aims to summarize and discuss reaction mechanisms of the major types of NIB electrode materials reported. By appreciating how the material works and the fundamental flaws it possesses, it is hoped that this Review will assist readers in coming up with innovative solutions for designing better materials for NIBs.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(39): 34024-34032, 2017 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841290

RESUMO

The development of functional materials based on Earth-abundant, environmentally benign compositions is critical for ensuring their commercial viability and sustainable production. Here we present an investigation into the crystal chemistry and electrochemical properties of the muscovite clay KFe2.75Si3.25O10(OH)2. We first report a low-temperature hydrothermal reaction that allows for a significant degree of control over sample crystallinity, particle morphology, and cation distribution through the lattice. A complex sequence of stacking faults is identified and characterized using a combination of Mössbauer spectroscopy and total scattering neutron experiments. We then show the existence of a reversible electrochemical process using galvanostatic cycling with complementary cyclic voltammetry suggesting that the redox activity occurs primarily on the surface of the particles. We conclude by determining that the ability to (de)intercalate Li ions from the material is hindered by the strong negative charge on the transition metal silicate layers, which prevents the displacement of the interlayer K ions. This work calls attention to a hugely Earth-abundant family of minerals that possesses useful electrochemical properties that warrant further exploration.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(30): 8809-8812, 2017 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28570025

RESUMO

Fe-N-C catalysts with high O2 reduction performance are crucial for displacing Pt in low-temperature fuel cells. However, insufficient understanding of which reaction steps are catalyzed by what sites limits their progress. The nature of sites were investigated that are active toward H2 O2 reduction, a key intermediate during indirect O2 reduction and a source of deactivation in fuel cells. Catalysts comprising different relative contents of FeNx Cy moieties and Fe particles encapsulated in N-doped carbon layers (0-100 %) show that both types of sites are active, although moderately, toward H2 O2 reduction. In contrast, N-doped carbons free of Fe and Fe particles exposed to the electrolyte are inactive. When catalyzing the ORR, FeNx Cy moieties are more selective than Fe particles encapsulated in N-doped carbon. These novel insights offer rational approaches for more selective and therefore more durable Fe-N-C catalysts.

16.
Inorg Chem ; 55(24): 12775-12782, 2016 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27989176

RESUMO

In the search for new cathode materials for sodium ion batteries, the exploration of polyanionic compounds has led to attractive candidates in terms of high redox potential and cycling stability. Herein we report the synthesis of the two new sodium transition-metal pentaborates Na3MB5O10 (M = Fe, Co), where Na3FeB5O10 represents the first sodium iron borate reported at present. By means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we reveal a layered structure consisting of pentaborate B5O10 groups connected through M2+ in tetrahedral coordination, providing possible three-dimensional Na-ion migration pathways. Inspired by these structural features, we examined the electrochemical performances versus sodium and showed that Na3FeB5O10 is active at an average potential of 2.5 V vs Na+/Na0, correlated to the Fe3+/Fe2+ redox couple as deduced from ex situ Mössbauer measurements. This contrasts with the case for Na3CoB5O10, which is electrochemically inactive. Moreover, we show that their electrochemical performances are kinetically limited, as deduced by complementary ac/dc conductivity measurements, hence confirming once again the complexity in designing high-performance borate-based electrodes.

17.
Nat Mater ; 14(9): 937-42, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26259106

RESUMO

While platinum has hitherto been the element of choice for catalysing oxygen electroreduction in acidic polymer fuel cells, tremendous progress has been reported for pyrolysed Fe-N-C materials. However, the structure of their active sites has remained elusive, delaying further advance. Here, we synthesized Fe-N-C materials quasi-free of crystallographic iron structures after argon or ammonia pyrolysis. These materials exhibit nearly identical Mössbauer spectra and identical X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) spectra, revealing the same Fe-centred moieties. However, the much higher activity and basicity of NH3-pyrolysed Fe-N-C materials demonstrates that the turnover frequency of Fe-centred moieties depends on the physico-chemical properties of the support. Following a thorough XANES analysis, the detailed structures of two FeN4 porphyrinic architectures with different O2 adsorption modes were then identified. These porphyrinic moieties are not easily integrated in graphene sheets, in contrast with Fe-centred moieties assumed hitherto for pyrolysed Fe-N-C materials. These new insights open the path to bottom-up synthesis approaches and studies on site-support interactions.

18.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7343, 2015 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26059552

RESUMO

Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon-nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation.


Assuntos
Metais/química , Nitrogênio/química , Oxigênio/química , Catálise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Oxirredução , Difração de Raios X
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(14): 4804-14, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25811894

RESUMO

Li-rich oxides continue to be of immense interest as potential next generation Li-ion battery positive electrodes, and yet the role of oxygen during cycling is still poorly understood. Here, the complex electrochemical behavior of Li4FeSbO6 materials is studied thoroughly with a variety of methods. Herein, we show that oxygen release occurs at a distinct voltage plateau from the peroxo/superoxo formation making this material ideal for revealing new aspects of oxygen redox processes in Li-rich oxides. Moreover, we directly demonstrate the limited reversibility of the oxygenated species (O2(n-); n = 1, 2, 3) for the first time. We also find that during charge to 4.2 V iron is oxidized from +3 to an unusual +4 state with the concomitant formation of oxygenated species. Upon further charge to 5.0 V, an oxygen release process associated with the reduction of iron +4 to +3 is present, indicative of the reductive coupling mechanism between oxygen and metals previously reported. Thus, in full state of charge, lithium removal is fully compensated by oxygen only, as the iron and antimony are both very close to their pristine states. Besides, this charging step results in complex phase transformations that are ultimately destructive to the crystallinity of the material. Such findings again demonstrate the vital importance of fully understanding the behavior of oxygen in such systems. The consequences of these new aspects of the electrochemical behavior of lithium-rich oxides are discussed in detail.

20.
Materials (Basel) ; 8(7): 4593-4607, 2015 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793459

RESUMO

Magnetic Fe3O4, Fe and Fe/Pd nanoparticles embedded within the pores of activated carbon fabrics (ACF) were prepared by impregnation of the ACF in iron acetylacetanoate (Fe(acac)3) ethanol solution, followed by thermal decomposition of the embedded iron precursor at 200, 400 and 600 °C in an inert atmosphere. The effect of the annealing temperature on the chemical composition, shape, crystallinity, surface area, pore volume, and magnetic properties of the various functionalized ACF was elucidated. The Fe nanoparticles within the ACF were also doped with tinier Pd nanoparticles, by impregnation of the Fe/ACF in palladium acetate ethanol solution. The potential use of the functionalized ACF for removal of a model azo-dye, orange II, was demonstrated. This study illustrated the enhanced removal of the dye from an aqueous solution according to the following order: Fe/Pd/ACF > Fe/ACF > ACF. In addition, the enhanced activity of Fe3O4/ACF in the presence of increasing concentrations of H2O2 (Fenton catalysts) was also illustrated.

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