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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244732, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278538

RESUMO

Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Resumo Alguns estudos relatam o efeito positivo de resíduos orgânicos de formigueiros nas propriedades do solo e na estrutura da comunidade de plantas adjacentes em experimentos de campo, mas há uma lacuna sobre o efeito em espécies individuais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento de Turnera subulata Smith, uma espécie ornamental, na presença do substrato de descarte (SD) de formigueiros produzido pela formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) por meio de experimento em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido com dois tratamentos: solo controle e solo com 25% de SD. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de 1L por 90 dias. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, comprimento da raiz, número de folhas, massa seca da raiz, biomassa seca e fresca da parte aérea. Além disso, o conteúdo relativo de clorofila e os nutrientes foliares foram usados como parâmetros fisiológicos. Como resultado, as plantas que cresceram no solo com SD apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de todos os parâmetros avaliados quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (p < 0.001). Concluímos que esse biofertilizante contribuiu para a produção de plantas mais vigorosas, podendo atuar na dinâmica local de nutrientes nos ecossistemas onde A. balzani ocorre. Além disso, por ser relativamente abundante e fácil de coletar, o SD de A. balzani tem potencial para ser utilizado como biofertilizante na produção de plantas de ciclo de vida curta.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244732, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161460

RESUMO

Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Assuntos
Formigas , Turnera , Animais , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta , Plantas , Solo , Simbiose
3.
Environ Entomol ; 39(6): 1744-50, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22182538

RESUMO

In many tropical landscapes, agroforestry systems are the last forested ecosystems, providing shade, having higher humidity, mitigating potential droughts, and possessing more species than any other crop system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of shade and associated humidity in agroforestry enhance coffee ant richness more during the dry than rainy season, comparing ant richness in 22 plots of three coffee agroforestry types in coastal Ecuador: simple-shade agroforests (intensively managed with low tree species diversity), complex-shade agroforests (extensively managed with intermediate tree species diversity) and abandoned coffee agroforests (abandoned for 10-15 yr and resembling secondary forests). Seasonality affected responses of ant richness but not composition to agroforestry management, in that most species were observed in abandoned coffee agroforests in the dry season. In the rainy season, however, most species were found in simple-shade agroforests, and complex agroforestry being intermediate. Foraging coffee ants species composition did not change differently according to agroforestry type and season. Results show that shade appears to be most important in the dry seasons, while a mosaic of different land-use types may provide adequate environmental conditions to ant species, maximizing landscape-wide richness throughout the year.


Assuntos
Formigas , Biodiversidade , Agricultura Florestal , Estações do Ano , Árvores , Animais , Coffea , Equador , Chuva
4.
Braz J Biol ; 66(2A): 503-8, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16862305

RESUMO

In an ant colony, the queen is the single reproducer and can interact with her workers via pheromones and cuticular compounds. However, in most species queen importance is not restricted to reproduction: in the initial development of the colony, her presence might play a more important role. In this work, we studied the effects of queen absence on workers behavior displayed in the foraging arena. Ants mortality and refuse accumulation was also measured daily. The results showed that queen absence did not alter either workers behavior or foraging efficiency. However, we observed increased ant mortality accompanied by a decrease in refuse dumping outside the nest. These results corroborate the hypothesis that environmental factors are more important than intrinsical factors in the allocation of external tasks. Probably, the queen could only influence internal activities of the colony.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Análise de Variância , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 66(2a): 503-508, May 2006. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-431538

RESUMO

Numa colônia de formiga, a rainha é a única que exerce a atividade de reprodução e sua interação com as operárias ocorre, principalmente, por meio de feromônios e compostos cuticulares. No entanto, em muitas espécies, a sua importância não está restrita à reprodução. Nos estágios iniciais do desenvolvimento da colônia, ela pode exercer um papel mais importante. Neste trabalho, foram estudados os efeitos da ausência da rainha no comportamento de operárias presentes na arena de forrageamento. A mortalidade de operárias e a acumulação de lixo também foi medida diariamente. Os resultados mostraram que a ausência da rainha não alterou o comportamento das operárias nem a eficiência de forrageamento. Entretanto, verificou-se o aumento da mortalidade diária acompanhado do decréscimo na deposição de lixo fora do ninho. Estes resultados corroboram a hipótese de que fatores ambientais são mais importantes do que fatores intrínsecos na alocação de tarefas externas. Provavelmente, a rainha atue apenas na influência de atividades internas da colônia.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Formigas/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Análise de Variância , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
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