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1.
SSM Qual Res Health ; 1: 100013, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870265

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing service delivery interruptions had serious impacts on people who use drugs (PWUD) and people experiencing homelessness, including instability in the drug supply, decreased access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment and harm reduction supplies, increased substance use and relapse due to stress and isolation, inability to properly isolate and quarantine without stable housing, and risk of COVID-19 spread in congregate living spaces. At the same time, many have noted a potential opportunity for rapid change in health, housing, and drug policy despite previous stagnation-referred to as a "punctuated equilibrium" by Baumgartner and Jones-in response to the pandemic. The pandemic forced some important policy interventions in the United States at both national and local levels, including eviction moratoriums and loosening of drug policy related to substance use treatment. However, to what extent some of these changes will be sustained past the current COVID-19 crisis is still unclear, as is how drug and housing related policy shifts have impacted the work of frontline overdose prevention, substance use treatment, and homelessness advocacy workers. In this qualitative study, we used semi-structured interviews to assess how Philadelphia's harm reduction advocates, community organizers, and SUD treatment clinicians have responded to the overdose and homelessness crises during COVID-19, and how they predict the pandemic and ensuing policy changes will impact the future of overdose prevention, harm reduction efforts, and homelessness advocacy. We interviewed 30 eligible participants during July and August 2020. The analysis of these data yielded three themes: 1/"None of it should be new to anybody": COVID-era issues impacting PWUD and people experiencing homelessness are extensions of existing problems; 2/"An opportunity to actually benefit in some way from this crisis": Possibility for innovation and improved care for PWUD and people experiencing homelessness; and 3/"Nothing we've tried has worked, so we have to be uncomfortable and creative": The uncertain path forward. Despite the many barriers that participants faced to promoting the health and well-being of marginalized communities during the pandemic, they also believed that the pandemic presented an important opportunity for positive policy change that has the potential to promote drug user health into the future, including a continuation of loosened federal restrictions on substance use disorder treatment, legalization of safe consumption spaces, safe supply of substances, and progressive, creative housing solutions.

2.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(12): 1777-1778, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929119
3.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 119, 2021 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) face access barriers to evidence-based treatment, and the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the United States (US) opioid overdose crisis. However, the pandemic has also ushered in rapid transitions to telehealth in the USA, including for substance use disorder treatment with buprenorphine. These changes have the potential to mitigate barriers to care or to exacerbate pre-existing treatment inequities. The objective of this study was to qualitatively explore Philadelphia-based low-barrier, harm-reduction oriented, opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment provider perspectives about and experiences with telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to assess their desire to offer telehealth to patients at their programs in the future. METHODS: We interviewed 22 OUD treatment prescribers and staff working outpatient programs offering OUD treatment with buprenorphine in Philadelphia during July and August 2020. All participants worked at low-barrier treatment programs that provide buprenorphine using a harm reduction-oriented approach and without mandating counseling or other requirements as a condition of treatment. We analyzed the data using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Our analysis yielded three themes: 1/ Easier access for some: telehealth facilitates care for many patients who have difficulty attending in-person appointments due to logistical and psychological barriers; 2/ A layered digital divide: engagement with telehealth can be seriously limited by patients' access to and comfort with technology; and 3/ Clinician control: despite some clinic staff beliefs that patients should have the freedom to choose their treatment modality, patients' access to treatment via telehealth may hinge on clinician perceptions of patient "stability" rather than patient preferences. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth may address many access issues, however, barriers to implementation remain, including patient ability and desire to attend healthcare appointments virtually. In addition, the potential for telehealth models to extend OUD care to patients currently underserved by in-person models may partially depend on clinician comfort treating patients deemed "unstable" via this modality. The ability of telehealth to expand access to OUD care for individuals who have previously struggled to engage with in-person care will likely be limited if these patients are not given the opportunity to receive treatment via telehealth.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Telemedicina , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2127799, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665240

RESUMO

Importance: Mortality across US counties varies considerably, from 252 to 1847 deaths per 100 000 people in 2018. Although patient satisfaction with health care is associated with patient- and facility-level health outcomes, the association between health care satisfaction and community-level health outcomes is not known. Objective: To examine the association between online ratings of health care facilities and mortality across US counties and to identify language specific to 1-star (lowest rating) and 5-star (highest rating) reviews in counties with high vs low mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective population-based cross-sectional study examined reviews and ratings of 95 120 essential health care facilities across 1301 US counties. Counties that had at least 1 essential health care facility with reviews available on Yelp, an online review platform, were included. Essential health care was defined according to the 10 essential health benefits covered by Affordable Care Act insurance plans. Main Outcomes and Measures: The mean rating of essential health care facilities was calculated by county from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019. Ratings were on a scale of 1 to 5 stars, with 1 being the worst rating and 5 the best. County-level composite measures of health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and physical environment were obtained from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health County Health Rankings database. The 2018 age-adjusted mortality by county was obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiological Research database. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association between mean facility rating and mortality, adjusting for county health ranking variables. Words with frequencies of use that were significantly different across 1-star and 5-star reviews in counties with high vs low mortality were identified. Results: The 95 120 facilities meeting inclusion criteria were distributed across 1301 of 3142 US counties (41.4%). At the county level, a 1-point increase in mean rating was associated with a mean (SE) age-adjusted decrease of 18.05 (3.68) deaths per 100 000 people (P < .001). Words specific to 1-star reviews in high-mortality counties included told, rude, and wait, and words specific to 5-star reviews in low-mortality counties included Dr, pain, and professional. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, at the county level, higher online ratings of essential health care facilities were associated with lower mortality. Equivalent online ratings did not necessarily reflect equivalent experiences of care across counties with different mortality levels, as evidenced by variations in the frequency of use of key words in reviews. These findings suggest that online ratings and reviews may provide insight into unequal experiences of essential health care.

6.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(12): 1244-1251, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542562

RESUMO

Importance: Many children and adolescents in the United States are exposed to neighborhood gun violence. Associations between violence exposure and children's short-term mental health are not well understood. Objective: To examine the association between neighborhood gun violence and subsequent mental health-related pediatric emergency department (ED) utilization. Design, Setting, and Participants: This location-based cross-sectional study included 128 683 ED encounters for children aged 0 to 19 years living in 12 zip codes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, who presented to an urban academic pediatric ED from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2018. Children were included if they (1) had 1 or more ED visits in the 60 days before or after a neighborhood shooting and (2) lived within a quarter-mile radius of the location where this shooting occurred. Analysis began August 2020 and ended May 2021. Exposure: Neighborhood violence exposure, as measured by whether a patient resided near 1 or more episodes of police-reported gun violence. Main Outcomes and Measures: ED encounters for a mental health-related chief complaint or primary diagnosis. Results: A total of 2629 people were shot in the study area between 2014 and 2018, and 54 341 children living nearby had 1 or more ED visits within 60 days of a shooting. The majority of these children were Black (45 946 [84.5%]) and were insured by Medicaid (42 480 [78.1%]). After adjusting for age, sex, race and ethnicity, median household income by zip code, and insurance, children residing within one-eighth of a mile (2-3 blocks) of a shooting had greater odds of mental health-related ED presentations in the subsequent 14 days (adjusted odds ratio, 1.86 [95% CI, 1.20-2.88]), 30 days (adjusted odds ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.11-2.03]), and 60 days (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.06-1.72]). Conclusions and Relevance: Exposure to neighborhood gun violence is associated with an increase in children's acute mental health symptoms. City health departments and pediatric health care systems should work together to provide community-based support for children and families exposed to violence and trauma-informed care for the subset of these children who subsequently present to the ED. Policies aimed at reducing children's exposure to neighborhood gun violence and mitigating the mental symptoms associated with gun violence exposure must be a public health priority.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333789

RESUMO

Unmaintained vacant land in urban areas is associated with a number of negative outcomes for residents of urban areas, including mental and physical health, safety, and quality of life. Community programs which promote land parcel maintenance in urban neighborhoods have been found to reverse some of the effects that unmaintained land has on nearby residents. We explored how land parcel maintenance is associated with mental health outcomes using data collected in Flint, MI in 2017-2018. Trained observers assessed the maintenance of approximately 7200 land parcels and surveyed 691 residents (57% Female, 53% Black, M age = 51). We aggregated resident and parcel rating data to 463 street segments and compared three structural equation models (SEM) to estimate the mediating effects of fear of crime on the association of parcel qualities on mental distress for residents. We found that fear of crime mediated the association between parcel maintenance values and mental distress indicating that poor maintenance predicted more fear of crime which was associated with mental distress. Our findings add to our understanding about the mechanism by which vacant lot improvements may operate to enhance psychological well-being of residents who live on streets with vacant and unkept lots.

8.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Urban neighborhood greenness is associated with greater cardiovascular health in the general population, and with better pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Hypertension in pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal mortality and long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women. We sought to examine the association between greenness and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of 1,943 women who received prenatal care from December 2013 to December 2016 at a single, urban, and tertiary academic medical center in Philadelphia, PA. Greenness measure was quantified via residential tree canopy cover within circumferential buffers of 100- and 500-meter radii around participants' homes. Associations between greenness and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (defined as gestational hypertension or preeclampsia) were estimated by using multilevel logistic regression accounting for maternal sociodemographic information (race-ethnicity, insurance status, and age) medical history (diabetes, body mass index, smoking history, and parity), neighborhood deprivation index, and including 1,225 Philadelphia residents for whom key exposure and outcome data were available. RESULTS: At baseline, the participants' mean (SD) age was 27.5 (5.9) years, (range: 14-44 years). The majority of participants were non-Hispanic Black (857, 70.2%). Participants with less residential tree canopy cover were significantly more likely to have hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among participants with less than 10% compared with those with greater than 30% tree canopy cover was 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-4.15) within 100-meter buffer. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, greenness was associated with lower hypertensive disorders of pregnancy odds. Our findings add to evidence that greenness may confer health benefits and warrant further investigations in identifying whether there is a causal pathway through which greenness may be protective against hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. KEY POINTS: · Low residential tree canopy is associated with increased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. · 100-meter buffers are most sensitive in identifying associations between tree canopy and HDP risk. · The role of greenness against hypertensive disorders of pregnancy should be further studied experimentally.

9.
Environ Res ; 201: 111620, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of urban residential tree canopy cover with perceived stress in a cohort of pregnant women in Philadelphia, PA, and explore whether this association differed among participants with a history of anxiety and depression. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a secondary analysis of 1294 participants of the Motherhood & Microbiome (M&M) pregnancy cohort who lived in Philadelphia, with first visit perceived stress (Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-14), and key covariate data. Tree canopy cover was calculated as percent cover within 100 and 500 m radii buffers around participants' homes. We performed multilevel mixed effects linear regression models, with perceived stress as the dependent variable. The main independent variable was tree canopy coverage. Individual-level covariates included season of last menstrual period, history of depression or anxiety, race/ethnicity, insurance, parity, and age. Census tract neighborhood deprivation index was used to account for area-level socioeconomic confounding variables. We also examined whether a history of anxiety or depression, modified the association between tree canopy coverage and perceived stress. RESULTS: Most participants were non-Hispanic Black (70.6%, n = 913), on Medicaid or uninsured (60.4%, n = 781), and 15.8% (n = 204) of participants had a prior history of depression or anxiety. We did not detect associations between tree canopy coverage and perceived stress overall. However, we detected effect modification; among participants with a history of depression or anxiety, each standard deviation increase in tree canopy cover was associated with lower PSS-14 in 100 m buffers (ß -1.0, 95% CI -1.8, -0.2), but not among participants with no histories of depression or anxiety (ß 0.2, 95% CI -0.3, 0.7) (interaction P = 0.007). Results were similar in directionality but not statistically significant within 500 m buffers. CONCLUSION: Residential tree canopy coverage was associated with reduced perceived stress among urban-dwelling pregnant women with history of anxiety or depression. Future studies of the effects of greenness and other stress-reducing efforts should consider underlying mental health conditions as effect modifiers.


Assuntos
Gestantes , Árvores , Humanos , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117067, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287632

RESUMO

Importance: The root causes of violent crime in Black urban neighborhoods are structural, including residential racial segregation and concentrated poverty. Previous work suggests that simple and scalable place-based environmental interventions can overcome the legacies of neighborhood disinvestment and have implications for health broadly and crime specifically. Objective: To assess whether structural repairs to the homes of low-income owners are associated with a reduction in nearby crime. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study using difference-in-differences analysis included data from the City of Philadelphia Basic Systems Repair Program (BSRP) from January 1, 2006, through April 30, 2013. The unit of analysis was block faces (single street segments between 2 consecutive intersecting streets) with or without homes that received the BSRP intervention. The blocks of homes that received BSRP services were compared with the blocks of eligible homes that were still on the waiting list. Data were analyzed from December 1, 2019, to February 28, 2021. Exposures: The BSRP intervention includes a grant of up to $20 000 provided to low-income owners for structural repairs to electrical, plumbing, heating, and roofing damage. Eligible homeowners must meet income guidelines, which are set by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development and vary yearly. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was police-reported crime across 7 major categories of violent and nonviolent crimes (homicide, assault, burglary, theft, robbery, disorderly conduct, and public drunkenness). Results: A total of 13 632 houses on 6732 block faces received the BSRP intervention. Owners of these homes had a mean (range) age of 56.5 (18-98) years, were predominantly Black (10 952 [78.6%]) or Latino (1658 [11.9%]) individuals, and had a mean monthly income of $993. These census tracts compared with those without BSRP intervention had a substantially larger Black population (49.5% vs 12.2%; |D| = 0.406) and higher unemployment rate (17.3% vs 9.3%; |D| = 0.357). The main regression analysis demonstrated that the addition to a block face of a property that received a BSRP intervention was associated with a 21.9% decrease in the expected count of total crime (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.76-0.80; P < .001), 19.0% decrease in assault (IRR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.79-0.84; P < .001), 22.6% decrease in robbery (IRR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.75-0.80; P < .001), and 21.9% decrease in homicide (IRR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.71-0.86; P < .001). When restricting the analysis to blocks with properties that had ever received a BSRP intervention, a total crime reduction of 25.4% was observed for each additional property (IRR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73-0.77; P < .001). A significant dose-dependent decrease in total crime was found such that the magnitude of association increased with higher numbers of homes participating in the BSRP on a block. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the BSRP intervention was associated with a modest but significant reduction in crime. These findings suggest that intentional and targeted financial investment in structural, scalable, and sustainable place-based interventions in neighborhoods that are still experiencing the lasting consequences of structural racism and segregation is a vital step toward achieving health equity.

12.
J Urban Health ; 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014451

RESUMO

Spending time in nature is associated with numerous mental health benefits, including reduced depression and improved well-being. However, few studies examine the most effective ways to nudge people to spend more time outside. Furthermore, the impact of spending time in nature has not been previously studied as a postpartum depression (PPD) prevention strategy. To fill these gaps, we developed and pilot tested Nurtured in Nature, a 4-week intervention leveraging a behavioral economics framework, and included a Nature Coach, digital nudges, and personalized goal feedback. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among postpartum women (n = 36) in Philadelphia, PA between 9/9/2019 and 3/27/2020. Nature visit frequency and duration was determined using GPS data. PPD was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Participants were from low-income, majority Black neighborhoods. Compared to control, the intervention arm had a strong trend toward longer duration and higher frequency of nature visits (IRR 2.6, 95%CI 0.96-2.75, p = 0.059). When analyzing women who completed the intervention (13 of 17 subjects), the intervention was associated with three times higher nature visits compared to control (IRR 3.1, 95%CI 1.16-3.14, p = 0.025). No significant differences were found in the EPDS scores, although we may have been limited by the study's sample size. Nurture in Nature increased the amount of time postpartum women spent in nature, and may be a useful population health tool to leverage the health benefits of nature in majority Black, low-resourced communities.

13.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1143-1144, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058105

RESUMO

The year 2020 saw the largest social movement in response to the police killings of Black people and anti-Black racism in U.S. history. As a result, medical schools and professional societies such as the American Medical Association and the Association of American Medical Colleges are reckoning with their role in perpetuating racial inequality and the impact of structural racism on medical training. Whether these efforts will translate into meaningful change has yet to be determined. Success depends on a deep understanding of the fundamental role racism plays in how medical schools function and an acknowledgment that current organizational structures and processes often serve to entrench, not dismantle, racial inequities. Drawing on racialized organizations theory from the field of sociology, this article gives an overview of scholarship on race and racism in medical training to demonstrate how seemingly race-neutral processes and structures within medical education, in conjunction with individuals' biases and interpersonal discrimination, serve to reproduce and sustain racial inequality. From entrance into medical school through the residency application process, organizational factors such as reliance on standardized tests to predict future success, a hostile learning climate, and racially biased performance metrics ultimately stunt the careers of trainees of color, particularly those from backgrounds underrepresented in medicine (URM). These compounding disadvantages contribute to URM trainees' lower matching odds, steering into less competitive and lucrative specialties, and burnout and attrition from academic careers. In their commitment against structural racism in medical training and academic medicine, medical schools and larger organizations like the Association of American Medical Colleges should prioritize interventions targeted at these structural barriers to achieve equity.


Assuntos
Grupos Minoritários/educação , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Objetivos Organizacionais , Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Estados Unidos
14.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(584)2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692133

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic halted research operations at academic medical centers. This shutdown has adversely affected research infrastructure, the current research workforce, and the research pipeline. We discuss the impact of the pandemic on overall research operations, examine its disproportionate effect on underrepresented minority researchers, and provide concrete strategies to reverse these losses.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Escolha da Profissão , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia
15.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(4): 687-694, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe trends and factors associated with medication administration for opioid use disorder (OUD) and retention in treatment among pregnant women with OUD. METHODS: This is a retrospective, nationwide, cross-sectional analysis of treatment episodes for primary OUD among pregnant women from 2013 to 2017. The primary outcome was initiation of methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone. Secondary outcomes were retention in treatment defined as length of treatment episode lasting six months or greater, and completion of treatment. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied to describe trends in, and identify factors associated with the outcomes. RESULTS: There were 42,239 treatment episodes for primary OUD among pregnant women who reported using heroin (65.0%, 27,459), synthetic opioid (33.2%, 14,034), or nonprescribed methadone (1.8%, 746) between 2013 and 2017. Medications for OUD were administered in 47.4% (20,013) of episodes. Retention in treatment occurred in 16.6% of episodes without medications for OUD, and 37.8% of episodes with medications for OUD (P=.01). The rate of medication administration for OUD increased from 41.0% in 2013 to 52.0% in 2017; however, retention rates declined from 39.0% to 33.0% among treatment episodes with medication for OUD. History of at least one prior treatment episode was associated with both administration of medications for OUD and retention in treatment. CONCLUSION: In spite of current guidelines, most treatment episodes for OUD during pregnancy did not involve administration of medications for OUD. Although administration of medications for OUD has improved over time, retention in treatment is lagging. These findings highlight gaps in the U.S. addiction care system.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ann Emerg Med ; 77(5): 469-478, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342597

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the association between living near a neighborhood shooting and emergency department (ED) utilization for stress-responsive complaints. METHODS: In this location-based before-and-after neighborhood study, we examined variability in ED encounter volume for stress-responsive complaints after neighborhood shooting incidents around 2 academic hospitals. We included patients residing within 1/8- and 1/2-mile-diameter buffers around a shooting (place) if their ED encounter occurred 7, 30, or 60 days before or after the shooting (time). Prespecified outcomes were stress-responsive complaints (chest pain, lightheadedness, syncope, hypertension, shortness of breath, asthma, anxiety, depression, and substance use) based on prior literature for stress-responsive diseases. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of presentation to the ED with a stress-responsive complaint after, compared with before, a neighborhood shooting incident. RESULTS: Between January 2013 and December 2014, 513 shooting incidents and 19,906 encounters for stress-responsive complaints were included in the analysis. Mean age was 50.3 years (SD 22.3 years), 61.5% were women, and 91% were black. We found increased odds of presenting with syncope in 2 place-time buffers: 30 days in the 1/8-mile buffer (odds ratio 2.61; 99% confidence interval 1.2 to 5.67) and 60 days in 1/8-mile buffer (odds ratio 1.56; 99% confidence interval 0.99 to 2.46). No other chief complaints met our statistical threshold for significance. CONCLUSION: This study evaluated the relationship between objectively measured gun violence exposure and short-term health effect at a microspatial scale. Overall, this was a study with largely negative results, and we did not find any consistent dose-response pattern in time or space regarding neighborhood shootings and stress-responsive presentations to the ED. Theoretic links make this relationship plausible, however, and further investigation is needed to understand the short-term health consequences of violence exposure, and whether those vary based on the circumstances that are experienced inherently by residents of a given neighborhood.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029043, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306115

RESUMO

Importance: The incidence of opioid use during pregnancy is increasing, and drug overdoses are a leading cause of postpartum mortality. Most women who are pregnant do not receive medications for treatment of opioid use disorder, despite the mortality benefit that these agents confer. Furthermore, buprenorphine is associated with milder symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) compared with methadone. Objective: To describe the prevalence and geographic distribution across the US of obstetrician-gynecologists who can prescribe buprenorphine (henceforth described as X-waivered) in 2019. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional, nationwide study linking physician-specific data to county- and state-level data was conducted from September 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020. Data were obtained on 31 211 obstetrician-gynecologists who accept Medicaid insurance through the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Physician Compare data set and linked to the Drug Addiction Treatment Act buprenorphine-waived clinician list. Exposures: State-level NAS incidence and county-level uninsured rates and rurality. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence and geographic distribution of obstetrician-gynecologists who are trained to prescribe buprenorphine. Results: Among the 31 211 identified obstetrician-gynecologists, 18 710 (59.9%) were women. Most had hospital privileges (23 236 [74.4%]) and worked in metropolitan counties (28 613 [91.7%]). Only 560 of the identified obstetrician-gynecologists (1.8%) were X-waivered. Obstetrician-gynecologists in counties with fewer than 5% uninsured residents had nearly twice the odds of being X-waivered (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.59; 95% CI, 1.04-2.44; P = .04) compared with those in counties with greater than 15% uninsured residents. Compared with those located in metropolitan counties, obstetrician-gynecologists in suburban counties (eg, urban population of ≥20 000 and adjacent to a metropolitan area) were more likely to be X-waivered (aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.26-2.71; P = .002). Compared with states with an NAS rate of 5 per 1000 births or less, obstetrician-gynecologists in states with an NAS rate of 15 per 1000 births or greater had nearly 5 times the odds of being X-waivered (aOR, 4.94; 95% CI, 3.60-6.77; P < .001). Obstetrician-gynecologists without hospital privileges were more likely to be X-waivered (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.61; P = .007). Conclusions and Relevance: Fewer than 2% of obstetrician-gynecologists who accept Medicaid are able to prescribe buprenorphine, and their geographic distribution appears to be skewed in favor of suburban counties. This finding suggests that there is an opportunity for health systems and professional societies to incentivize X-waiver trainings among obstetrician-gynecologists to increase patients' access to buprenorphine, especially during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Metadona , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal , Obstetrícia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez , Adulto , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Buprenorfina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Medicaid , Metadona/administração & dosagem , Metadona/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/etiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/prevenção & controle , Obstetrícia/educação , Obstetrícia/métodos , Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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