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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926479

RESUMO

Limited evidence exists on the link between inflammation and epigenetic ageing. We aimed to 1) assess the cross-sectional and prospective associations of 22 inflammation-related plasma markers and a signature of inflammaging with epigenetic ageing; 2) determine whether epigenetic ageing and inflammaging are independently associated with mortality. Blood samples from 940 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, collected at baseline (1990-1994) and follow-up (2003-2007) were assayed for DNA methylation and 22 inflammation-related markers, including well-established markers (e.g., interleukins and C-reactive protein) and metabolites of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway. Four measures of epigenetic ageing (PhenoAge, GrimAge, DunedinPoAm and Zhang) and a signature of inflammaging were considered, adjusted for age, and transformed to Z-scores. Associations were assessed using linear regression, and mortality hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox regression. Cross-sectionally, most inflammation-related markers were associated with epigenetic ageing measures, although with generally modest effect sizes (regression coefficients per SD≤0.26) and explaining altogether between 1% and 11% of their variation. Prospectively, baseline inflammation-related markers were not, or only weakly, associated with epigenetic ageing after 11 years of follow-up. Epigenetic ageing and inflammaging were strongly and independently associated with mortality, e.g. inflammaging: HR=1.41, 95%CI=1.27-1.56, P=2x10-10; which was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for four epigenetic ageing measures: HR=1.35, 95%CI=1.22-1.51, P=7x10-9). Although cross-sectionally associated with epigenetic ageing, inflammation-related markers accounted for a modest proportion of its variation. Inflammaging and epigenetic ageing are essentially non-overlapping markers of biological ageing and may be used jointly to predict mortality.

2.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 194(3): 673-682, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780210

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The American Cancer Society (ACS) published an updated Guideline for Cancer Prevention (ACS Guideline) in 2020. Research suggests that adherence to the 2012 ACS Guideline might lower breast cancer risk, but there is limited evidence that this applies to women at increased familial and genetic risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Using the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR), a cohort enriched for increased familial and genetic risk of breast cancer, we examined adherence to three 2020 ACS Guideline recommendations (weight management (body mass index), physical activity, and alcohol consumption) with breast cancer risk in 9615 women. We used Cox proportional hazard regression modeling to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) overall and stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant status, family history of breast cancer, menopausal status, and estrogen receptor-positive (ER +) breast cancer. RESULTS: We observed 618 incident invasive or in situ breast cancers over a median 12.9 years. Compared with being adherent to none (n = 55 cancers), being adherent to any ACS recommendation (n = 563 cancers) was associated with a 27% lower breast cancer risk (HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.97). This was evident for women with a first-degree family history of breast cancer (HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.93), women without BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variants (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.95), postmenopausal women (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.44-0.89), and for risk of ER+ breast cancer (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40-0.98). DISCUSSION: Adherence to the 2020 ACS Guideline recommendations for BMI, physical activity, and alcohol consumption could reduce breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women and women at increased familial risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , American Cancer Society , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Epigenetics ; : 1-10, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726372

RESUMO

Lifestyle-related phenotypes have been shown to be heritable and associated with DNA methylation. We aimed to investigate whether genetic predisposition to tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and higher body mass index (BMI) moderates the effect of these phenotypes on blood DNA methylation. We calculated polygenic scores (PGS) to quantify genetic predisposition to these phenotypes using training (N = 7,431) and validation (N = 4,307) samples. Using paired genetic-methylation data (N = 4,307), gene-environment interactions (i.e., PGS × lifestyle) were assessed using linear mixed-effects models with outcomes: 1) methylation at sites found to be strongly associated with smoking (1,061 CpGs), alcohol consumption (459 CpGs), and BMI (85 CpGs) and 2) two epigenetic ageing measures, PhenoAge and GrimAge. In the validation sample, PGS explained ~1.4% (P = 1 × 10-14), ~0.6% (P = 2 × 10-7), and ~8.7% (P = 7 × 10-87) of variance in smoking initiation, alcohol consumption, and BMI, respectively. Nominally significant interaction effects (P < 0.05) were found at 61, 14, and 7 CpGs for smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI, respectively. There was strong evidence that all lifestyle-related phenotypes were positively associated with PhenoAge and GrimAge, except for alcohol consumption with PhenoAge. There was weak evidence that the association of smoking with GrimAge was attenuated in participants genetically predisposed to smoking (interaction term: -0.022, standard error [SE] = 0.012, P = 0.058) and that the association of alcohol consumption with PhenoAge was attenuated in those genetically predisposed to drink alcohol (interaction term: -0.030, SE = 0.015, P = 0.041). In conclusion, genetic susceptibility to unhealthy lifestyles did not strongly modify the association between observed lifestyle behaviour and blood DNA methylation. Potential associations were observed for epigenetic ageing measures, which should be replicated in additional studies.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681745

RESUMO

Cumulus, Altocumulus, and Cirrocumulus are measures of mammographic density defined at increasing pixel brightness thresholds, which, when converted to mammogram risk scores (MRSs), predict breast cancer risk. Twin and family studies suggest substantial variance in the MRSs could be explained by genetic factors. For 2559 women aged 30 to 80 years (mean 54 years), we measured the MRSs from digitized film mammograms and estimated the associations of the MRSs with a 313-SNP breast cancer polygenic risk score (PRS) and 202 individual SNPs associated with breast cancer risk. The PRS was weakly positively correlated (correlation coefficients ranged 0.05-0.08; all p < 0.04) with all the MRSs except the Cumulus-white MRS based on the "white but not bright area" (correlation coefficient = 0.04; p = 0.06). After adjusting for its association with the Altocumulus MRS, the PRS was not associated with the Cumulus MRS. There were MRS associations (Bonferroni-adjusted p < 0.04) with one SNP in the ATXN1 gene and nominally with some ESR1 SNPs. Less than 1% of the variance of the MRSs is explained by the genetic markers currently known to be associated with breast cancer risk. Discovering the genetic determinants of the bright, not white, regions of the mammogram could reveal substantial new genetic causes of breast cancer.

5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6199, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418701

RESUMO

Use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is associated with increased risk for breast cancer. However, the relevant mechanisms and its interaction with genetic variants are not fully understood. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between MHT use and genetic variants for breast cancer risk in 27,585 cases and 34,785 controls from 26 observational studies. All women were post-menopausal and of European ancestry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test for multiplicative interactions between genetic variants and current MHT use. We considered interaction p-values < 5 × 10-8 as genome-wide significant, and p-values < 1 × 10-5 as suggestive. Linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based clumping was performed to identify independent candidate variants. None of the 9.7 million genetic variants tested for interactions with MHT use reached genome-wide significance. Only 213 variants, representing 18 independent loci, had p-values < 1 × 105. The strongest evidence was found for rs4674019 (p-value = 2.27 × 10-7), which showed genome-wide significant interaction (p-value = 3.8 × 10-8) with current MHT use when analysis was restricted to population-based studies only. Limiting the analyses to combined estrogen-progesterone MHT use only or to estrogen receptor (ER) positive cases did not identify any genome-wide significant evidence of interactions. In this large genome-wide SNP-MHT interaction study of breast cancer, we found no strong support for common genetic variants modifying the effect of MHT on breast cancer risk. These results suggest that common genetic variation has limited impact on the observed MHT-breast cancer risk association.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Menopausa , Fatores de Risco
6.
Breast Cancer Res ; 24(1): 24, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multigene panel tests for breast cancer predisposition routinely include ATM as it is now a well-established breast cancer predisposition gene. METHODS: We included ATM in a multigene panel test applied to the Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry (ABCFR), a population-based case-control-family study of breast cancer, with the purpose of estimating the prevalence and penetrance of heterozygous ATM pathogenic variants from the family data, using segregation analysis. RESULTS: The estimated breast cancer hazard ratio for carriers of pathogenic ATM variants in the ABCFR was 1.32 (95% confidence interval 0.45-3.87; P = 0.6). The estimated cumulative risk of breast cancer to age 80 years for heterozygous ATM pathogenic variant carriers was estimated to be 13% (95% CI 4.6-30). CONCLUSIONS: Although ATM has been definitively identified as a breast cancer predisposition gene, further evidence, such as variant-specific penetrance estimates, are needed to inform risk management strategies for carriers of pathogenic variants to increase the clinical utility of population testing of this gene.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
7.
Breast Cancer Res ; 24(1): 27, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) phenotypes, including percent density (PMD), area of dense tissue (DA), and area of non-dense tissue (NDA), are associated with breast cancer risk. Twin studies suggest that MD phenotypes are highly heritable. However, only a small proportion of their variance is explained by identified genetic variants. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study, as well as a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS), of age- and BMI-adjusted DA, NDA, and PMD in up to 27,900 European-ancestry women from the MODE/BCAC consortia. RESULTS: We identified 28 genome-wide significant loci for MD phenotypes, including nine novel signals (5q11.2, 5q14.1, 5q31.1, 5q33.3, 5q35.1, 7p11.2, 8q24.13, 12p11.2, 16q12.2). Further, 45% of all known breast cancer SNPs were associated with at least one MD phenotype at p < 0.05. TWAS further identified two novel genes (SHOX2 and CRISPLD2) whose genetically predicted expression was significantly associated with MD phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provided novel insight into the genetic background of MD phenotypes, and further demonstrated their shared genetic basis with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama , Densidade da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(6)2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35326633

RESUMO

Cumulus, Cumulus-percent, Altocumulus, Cirrocumulus, and Cumulus-white are mammogram risk scores (MRSs) for breast cancer based on mammographic density defined in effect by different levels of pixel brightness and adjusted for age and body mass index. We measured these MRS from digitized film mammograms for 593 monozygotic (MZ) and 326 dizygotic (DZ) female twin pairs and 1592 of their sisters. We estimated the correlations in relatives (r) and the proportion of variance due to genetic factors (heritability) using the software FISHER and predicted the familial risk ratio (FRR) associated with each MRS. The ρ estimates ranged from: 0.41 to 0.60 (standard error [SE] 0.02) for MZ pairs, 0.16 to 0.26 (SE 0.05) for DZ pairs, and 0.19 to 0.29 (SE 0.02) for sister pairs (including pairs of a twin and her non-twin sister), respectively. Heritability estimates were 39% to 69% under the classic twin model and 36% to 56% when allowing for shared non-genetic factors specific to MZ pairs. The FRRs were 1.08 to 1.17. These MRSs are substantially familial, due mostly to genetic factors that explain one-quarter to one-half as much of the familial aggregation of breast cancer that is explained by the current best polygenic risk score.

10.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 77(4): 826-836, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key feature of aging. We aimed to (i) investigate the association of 34 blood markers potentially involved in inflammatory processes with age and mortality and (ii) develop a signature of "inflammaging." METHODS: Thirty-four blood markers relating to inflammation, B vitamin status, and the kynurenine pathway were measured in 976 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study at baseline (median age = 59 years) and follow-up (median age = 70 years). Associations with age and mortality were assessed using linear and Cox regression, respectively. A parsimonious signature of inflammaging was developed and its association with mortality was compared with 2 marker scores calculated across all markers associated with age and mortality, respectively. RESULTS: The majority of markers (30/34) were associated with age, with stronger associations observed for neopterin, cystatin C, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), several markers of the kynurenine pathway and derived indices KTR (kynurenine/tryptophan ratio), PAr index (ratio of 4-pyridoxic acid and the sum of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and pyridoxal), and HK:XA (3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio). Many markers (17/34) showed an association with mortality, in particular IL-6, neopterin, C-reactive protein, quinolinic acid, PAr index, and KTR. The inflammaging signature included 10 markers and was strongly associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.24-1.57, p = 2 × 10-8), similar to scores based on all age-associated (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.23-1.55, p = 4 × 10-8) and mortality-associated markers (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.28-1.60, p = 1 × 10-10), respectively. Strong evidence of replication of the inflammaging signature association with mortality was found in the Hordaland Health Study. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the key role of the kynurenine pathway and vitamin B6 catabolism in aging, along with other well-established inflammation-related markers. A signature of inflammaging based on 10 markers was strongly associated with mortality.


Assuntos
Complexo Vitamínico B , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Inflamação , Cinurenina/metabolismo
11.
Fam Cancer ; 21(2): 211-227, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125377

RESUMO

The first International Workshop of the ATM and Cancer Risk group focusing on the role of Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) gene in cancer was held on December 4 and 5, 2019 at Institut Curie in Paris, France. It was motivated by the fact that germline ATM pathogenic variants have been found to be associated with different cancer types. However, due to the lack of precise age-, sex-, and site-specific risk estimates, no consensus on management guidelines for variant carriers exists, and the clinical utility of ATM variant testing is uncertain. The meeting brought together epidemiologists, geneticists, biologists and clinicians to review current knowledge and on-going challenges related to ATM and cancer risk. This report summarizes the meeting sessions content that covered the latest results in family-based and population-based studies, the importance of accurate variant classification, the effect of radiation exposures for ATM variant carriers, and the characteristics of ATM-deficient tumors. The report concludes that ATM variant carriers outside of the context of Ataxia-Telangiectasia may benefit from effective cancer risk management and therapeutic strategies and that efforts to set up large-scale studies in the international framework to achieve this goal are necessary.

12.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(3): 185-191, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965921

RESUMO

We considered whether weight is more informative than body mass index (BMI) = weight/height2 when predicting breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women, and if the weight association differs by underlying familial risk. We studied 6,761 women postmenopausal at baseline with a wide range of familial risk from 2,364 families in the Prospective Family Study Cohort. Participants were followed for on average 11.45 years and there were 416 incident breast cancers. We used Cox regression to estimate risk associations with log-transformed weight and BMI after adjusting for underlying familial risk. We compared model fits using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and nested models using the likelihood ratio test. The AIC for the weight-only model was 6.22 units lower than for the BMI-only model, and the log risk gradient was 23% greater. Adding BMI or height to weight did not improve fit (ΔAIC = 0.90 and 0.83, respectively; both P = 0.3). Conversely, adding weight to BMI or height gave better fits (ΔAIC = 5.32 and 11.64; P = 0.007 and 0.0002, respectively). Adding height improved only the BMI model (ΔAIC = 5.47; P = 0.006). There was no evidence that the BMI or weight associations differed by underlying familial risk (P > 0.2). Weight is more informative than BMI for predicting breast cancer risk, consistent with nonadipose as well as adipose tissue being etiologically relevant. The independent but multiplicative associations of weight and familial risk suggest that, in terms of absolute breast cancer risk, the association with weight is more important the greater a woman's underlying familial risk. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Our results suggest that the relationship between BMI and breast cancer could be due to a relationship between weight and breast cancer, downgraded by inappropriately adjusting for height; potential importance of anthropometric measures other than total body fat; breast cancer risk associations with BMI and weight are across a continuum.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Genet Med ; 24(1): 119-129, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906479

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants has been a part of clinical practice for >2 decades. However, no studies have compared the cancer risks associated with missense pathogenic variants (PVs) with those associated with protein truncating (PTC) variants. METHODS: We collected 582 informative pedigrees segregating 1 of 28 missense PVs in BRCA1 and 153 pedigrees segregating 1 of 12 missense PVs in BRCA2. We analyzed 324 pedigrees with PTC variants in BRCA1 and 214 pedigrees with PTC variants in BRCA2. Cancer risks were estimated using modified segregation analysis. RESULTS: Estimated breast cancer risks were markedly lower for women aged >50 years carrying BRCA1 missense PVs than for the women carrying BRCA1 PTC variants (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.9 [2.4-6.2] for PVs vs 12.8 [5.7-28.7] for PTC variants; P = .01), particularly for missense PVs in the BRCA1 C-terminal domain (HR = 2.8 [1.4-5.6]; P = .005). In case of BRCA2, for women aged >50 years, the HR was 3.9 (2.0-7.2) for those heterozygous for missense PVs compared with 7.0 (3.3-14.7) for those harboring PTC variants. BRCA1 p.[Cys64Arg] and BRCA2 p.[Trp2626Cys] were associated with particularly low risks of breast cancer compared with other PVs. CONCLUSION: These results have important implications for the counseling of at-risk women who harbor missense PVs in the BRCA1/2 genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética
14.
Br J Dermatol ; 186(5): 823-834, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) may improve melanoma risk stratification. However, there has been limited independent validation of PRS-based risk prediction, particularly assessment of calibration (comparing predicted to observed risks). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate PRS-based melanoma risk prediction in prospective UK and Australian cohorts with European ancestry. METHODS: We analysed invasive melanoma incidence in the UK Biobank (UKB; n = 395 647, 1651 cases) and a case-cohort nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS, Australia; n = 4765, 303 cases). Three PRSs were evaluated: 68 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 54 loci from a 2020 meta-analysis (PRS68), 50 SNPs significant in the 2020 meta-analysis excluding UKB (PRS50) and 45 SNPs at 21 loci known in 2018 (PRS45). Ten-year melanoma risks were calculated from population-level cancer registry data by age group and sex, with and without PRS adjustment. RESULTS: Predicted absolute melanoma risks based on age and sex alone underestimated melanoma incidence in the UKB [ratio of expected/observed cases: E/O = 0·65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·62-0·68] and MCCS (E/O = 0·63, 95% CI 0·56-0·72). For UKB, calibration was improved by PRS adjustment, with PRS50-adjusted risks E/O = 0·91, 95% CI 0·87-0·95. The discriminative ability for PRS68- and PRS50-adjusted absolute risks was higher than for risks based on age and sex alone (Δ area under the curve 0·07-0·10, P < 0·0001), and higher than for PRS45-adjusted risks (Δ area under the curve 0·02-0·04, P < 0·001). CONCLUSIONS: A PRS derived from a larger, more diverse meta-analysis improves risk prediction compared with an earlier PRS, and might help tailor melanoma prevention and early detection strategies to different risk levels. Recalibration of absolute risks may be necessary for application to specific populations.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Herança Multifatorial , Austrália/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
EBioMedicine ; 77: 103927, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous findings for the genetic and environmental contributions to DNA methylation variation were for limited age ranges only. We investigated the lifespan contributions and their implications for human health for the first time. METHODS: 1,720 monozygotic twin (MZ) pairs and 1,107 dizygotic twin (DZ) pairs aged 0-92 years were included. Familial correlations (i.e., correlations between twins) for 353,681 methylation sites were estimated and modelled as a function of twin pair cohabitation history. FINDINGS: The methylome average familial correlation was around zero at birth (MZ pair: -0.01; DZ pair: -0.04), increased with the time of twins living together during childhood at rates of 0.16 (95%CI: 0.12-0.20) for MZ pairs and 0.13 (95%CI: 0.07-0.20) for DZ pairs per decade, and decreased with the time of living apart during adulthood at rates of 0.026 (95%CI: 0.019-0.033) for MZ pairs and 0.027 (95%CI: 0.011-0.043) for DZ pairs per decade. Neither the increasing nor decreasing rate differed by zygosity (both P>0.1), consistent with cohabitation environment shared by twins, rather than genetic factors, influencing the methylation familial correlation changes. Familial correlations for 6.6% (23,386/353,681) sites changed with twin pair cohabitation history. These sites were enriched for high heritability, proximal promoters, and epigenetic/genetic associations with various early-life factors and late-life health conditions. INTERPRETATION: Early life strongly influences DNA methylation variation across the lifespan, and the effects are stronger for heritable sites and sites biologically relevant to the regulation of gene expression. Early life could affect late-life health through influencing DNA methylation. FUNDING: Victorian Cancer Agency, Cancer Australia, Cure Cancer Foundation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Longevidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epigenômica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Longevidade/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 153, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887416

RESUMO

Population-based estimates of breast cancer risk for carriers of pathogenic variants identified by gene-panel testing are urgently required. Most prior research has been based on women selected for high-risk features and more data is needed to make inference about breast cancer risk for women unselected for family history, an important consideration of population screening. We tested 1464 women diagnosed with breast cancer and 862 age-matched controls participating in the Australian Breast Cancer Family Study (ABCFS), and 6549 healthy, older Australian women enroled in the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) study for rare germline variants using a 24-gene-panel. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and other potential confounders. We identified pathogenic variants in 11.1% of the ABCFS cases, 3.7% of the ABCFS controls and 2.2% of the ASPREE (control) participants. The estimated breast cancer OR [95% confidence interval] was 5.3 [2.1-16.2] for BRCA1, 4.0 [1.9-9.1] for BRCA2, 3.4 [1.4-8.4] for ATM and 4.3 [1.0-17.0] for PALB2. Our findings provide a population-based perspective to gene-panel testing for breast cancer predisposition and opportunities to improve predictors for identifying women who carry pathogenic variants in breast cancer predisposition genes.

17.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943892

RESUMO

Genetic variants in FOXO3 are associated with longevity. Here, we assessed whether blood DNA methylation at FOXO3 was associated with cancer risk, survival, and mortality. We used data from eight prospective case-control studies of breast (n = 409 cases), colorectal (n = 835), gastric (n = 170), kidney (n = 143), lung (n = 332), prostate (n = 869), and urothelial (n = 428) cancer and B-cell lymphoma (n = 438). Case-control pairs were matched on age, sex, country of birth, and smoking (lung cancer study). Conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between cancer risk and methylation at 45 CpGs of FOXO3 included on the HumanMethylation450 assay. Mixed-effects Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations with cancer survival (total n = 2286 deaths). Additionally, using data from 1088 older participants, we assessed associations of FOXO3 methylation with overall and cause-specific mortality (n = 354 deaths). Methylation at a CpG in the first exon region of FOXO3 (6:108882981) was associated with gastric cancer survival (HR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.60-3.56, p = 1.9 × 10-5). Methylation at three CpGs in TSS1500 and gene body was associated with lung cancer survival (p < 6.1 × 10-5). We found no evidence of associations of FOXO3 methylation with cancer risk and mortality. Our findings may contribute to understanding the implication of FOXO3 in longevity.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/sangue , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 5(6)2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950851

RESUMO

Background: Recreational physical activity (RPA) is associated with improved survival after breast cancer (BC) in average-risk women, but evidence is limited for women who are at increased familial risk because of a BC family history or BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (BRCA1/2 PVs). Methods: We estimated associations of RPA (self-reported average hours per week within 3 years of BC diagnosis) with all-cause mortality and second BC events (recurrence or new primary) after first invasive BC in women in the Prospective Family Study Cohort (n = 4610, diagnosed 1993-2011, aged 22-79 years at diagnosis). We fitted Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, demographics, and lifestyle factors. We tested for multiplicative interactions (Wald test statistic for cross-product terms) and additive interactions (relative excess risk due to interaction) by age at diagnosis, body mass index, estrogen receptor status, stage at diagnosis, BRCA1/2 PVs, and familial risk score estimated from multigenerational pedigree data. Statistical tests were 2-sided. Results: We observed 1212 deaths and 473 second BC events over a median follow-up from study enrollment of 11.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, RPA (any vs none) was associated with lower all-cause mortality of 16.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4% to 27.9%) overall, 11.8% (95% CI = -3.6% to 24.9%) in women without BRCA1/2 PVs, and 47.5% (95% CI = 17.4% to 66.6%) in women with BRCA1/2 PVs (RPA*BRCA1/2 multiplicative interaction P = .005; relative excess risk due to interaction = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.01 to 1.74). RPA was not associated with risk of second BC events. Conclusion: Findings support that RPA is associated with lower all-cause mortality in women with BC, particularly in women with BRCA1/2 PVs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Exercício Físico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Terapia Recreacional , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Exercício Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Terapia Recreacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830967

RESUMO

Despite the high prevalence of prostate cancer in older men, the predictive value of a polygenic risk score (PRS) remains uncertain in men aged ≥70 years. We used a 6.6 million-variant PRS to predict the risk of incident prostate cancer in a prospective study of 5701 men of European descent aged ≥70 years (mean age 75 years) enrolled in the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) clinical trial. The study endpoint was prostate cancer, including metastatic or non-metastatic disease, confirmed by an expert panel. After excluding participants with a history of prostate cancer at enrolment, we used a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to assess the association between the PRS and incident prostate cancer risk, adjusting for covariates. Additionally, we examined the distribution of Gleason grade groups by PRS group to determine if a higher PRS was associated with higher grade disease. We tested for interaction between the PRS and aspirin treatment. Logistic regression was used to independently assess the association of the PRS with prevalent (pre-trial) prostate cancer, reported in medical histories. During a median follow-up time of 4.6 years, 218 of the 5701 participants (3.8%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The PRS predicted incident risk with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.52 per standard deviation (SD) (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-1.74, p < 0.001). Men in the top quintile of the PRS distribution had an almost three times higher risk of prostate cancer than men in the lowest quintile (HR = 2.99 (95% CI 1.90-4.27), p < 0.001). However, a higher PRS was not associated with a higher Gleason grade groups. We found no interaction between aspirin treatment and the PRS for prostate cancer risk. The PRS was also associated with prevalent prostate cancer (odds ratio = 1.80 per SD (95% CI 1.65-1.96), p < 0.001).While a PRS for prostate cancer is strongly associated with incident risk in men aged ≥70 years, the clinical utility of the PRS as a biomarker is currently limited by its inability to select for clinically significant disease.

20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(20)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680343

RESUMO

Prospective validation of risk models is needed to assess their clinical utility, particularly over the longer term. We evaluated the performance of six commonly used breast cancer risk models (IBIS, BOADICEA, BRCAPRO, BRCAPRO-BCRAT, BCRAT, and iCARE-lit). 15-year risk scores were estimated using lifestyle factors and family history measures from 7608 women in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study who were aged 50-65 years and unaffected at commencement of follow-up two (conducted in 2003-2007), of whom 351 subsequently developed breast cancer. Risk discrimination was assessed using the C-statistic and calibration using the expected/observed number of incident cases across the spectrum of risk by age group (50-54, 55-59, 60-65 years) and family history of breast cancer. C-statistics were higher for BOADICEA (0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.62) and IBIS (0.57, 95% CI 0.54-0.61) than the other models (p-difference ≤ 0.04). No model except BOADICEA calibrated well across the spectrum of 15-year risk (p-value < 0.03). The performance of BOADICEA and IBIS was similar across age groups and for women with or without a family history. For middle-aged Australian women, BOADICEA and IBIS had the highest discriminatory accuracy of the six risk models, but apart from BOADICEA, no model was well-calibrated across the risk spectrum.

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