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1.
Adv Rheumatol ; 62(1): 11, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present an updated and evidence-based guideline for the use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess body composition in clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This Official Position was developed by the Scientific Committee of the Brazilian Association of Bone Assessment and Metabolism (Associação Brasileira de Avaliação Óssea e Osteometabolismo, ABRASSO) and experts in the field who were invited to contribute to the preparation of this document. The authors searched current databases for relevant publications in the area of body composition assessment. In this second part of the Official Position, the authors discuss the interpretation and reporting of body composition parameters assessed by DXA and the use of DXA for body composition evaluation in special situations, including evaluation of children, persons with HIV, and animals. CONCLUSION: This document offers recommendations for the use of DXA in body composition evaluation, including indications, interpretation, and applications, to serve as a guiding tool in clinical practice and research for health care professionals in Brazil.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose , Absorciometria de Fóton , Composição Corporal , Brasil , Humanos , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Sociedades Médicas
2.
Adv Rheumatol ; 62(1): 7, 2022 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the technical aspects of body composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and other methods based on the most recent scientific evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This Official Position is a result of efforts by the Scientific Committee of the Brazilian Association of Bone Assessment and Metabolism (Associação Brasileira de Avaliação Óssea e Osteometabolismo, ABRASSO) and health care professionals with expertise in body composition assessment who were invited to contribute to the preparation of this document. The authors searched current databases for relevant publications. In this first part of the Official Position, the authors discuss the different methods and parameters used for body composition assessment, general principles of DXA, and aspects of the acquisition and analysis of DXA scans. CONCLUSION: Considering aspects of accuracy, precision, cost, duration, and ability to evaluate all three compartments, DXA is considered the gold-standard method for body composition assessment, particularly for the evaluation of fat mass. In order to ensure reliable, adequate, and reproducible DXA reports, great attention is required regarding quality control procedures, preparation, removal of external artifacts, imaging acquisition, and data analysis and interpretation.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Brasil , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Parasitology ; 149(2): 270-282, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234599

RESUMO

It was investigated how many cattle become infected with Trypanosoma vivax by subcutaneous (SC), intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV) routes, using the same syringe and needle from an animal with acute T. vivax infection. Besides, the T. vivax viability in 109 injectable veterinary drugs (antibiotics, antiparasitics, reproductive hormones, vitamin complex and derivatives, vaccines, anaesthetics, anti-inflammatory/antipyretics, antitoxics). In the field assay, four groups were performed: T01, T02 and T03 animals that received saline solution with the same syringe and needle contaminated with T. vivax via SC, IM and IV routes, respectively, and T04 control animals that received only saline solution with the same syringe and needle IV. In the laboratory, drugs had their pH measured and T. vivax viability verified. The number of cattle infected with T. vivax via SC (3/20) was lower (P ≤ 0.05) compared to via IM (9/20), which was lower (P ≤ 0.05) compared to IV (15/20). The solution pH did not influence T. vivax viability. In 44% (48/109) of the products, T. vivax remained viable regardless of time, stooding out that in 100% of oxytocins the protozoan was verified, at some evaluation times. The mean of T. vivax quantified in foot-and-mouth and brucellosis vaccines and in doramectin-based products were higher (P ≤ 0.05) than found in blood + saline solution.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Tripanossomíase Africana , Tripanossomíase Bovina , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Seringas , Trypanosoma vivax , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária
4.
Med Chem Res ; 31(3): 426-435, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35106047

RESUMO

During the last years, the progression to control malaria disease seems to be slowed and WHO (World Health Organization) reported a modeling analysis with the prediction of the increase in malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic. A rapid way to the discovery of new drugs could be carried out by performing investigations to identify drugs based on repurposing of "old" drugs. The 5-nitrothiazole drug, Nitazoxanide was shown to be active against intestinal protozoa, human helminths, anaerobic bacteria, viruses, etc. In this work, Nitazoxanide and analogs were prepared using two methodologies and evaluated against P. falciparum 3D7. A bithiazole analog, showed attractive inhibitory activity with an EC50 value of 5.9 µM, low propensity to show toxic effect against HepG2 cells at 25 µM, and no cross-resistance with standard antimalarials.

5.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-5, 2022 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081011

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to report one case of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) recurrence after vitrectomy and review the scientific basis about it. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old male patient with previous OT, properly treated, underwent vitrectomy due to macular hole. During follow-up, patient evolved with recurrence of the OT. After 1 year, patient presents visual acuity of 20/200 and extensive macular scar. CONCLUSION: There is no consensus on using perioperative antiparasitic therapy aiming recurrence prophylaxis. Studies with better statistical design are necessary to evaluate the recurrence risk after ocular surgeries and the possible recommendation of prophylaxis, especially in countries where the strains are more virulent and the recurrence more common.

6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(3): 39, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018535

RESUMO

The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, viruses and tumors is a serious threat to public health. Among natural peptides, indolicidin, a 13-residue peptide belonging to the cathelicidin family, deserves special attention. Indolicidin has a broad spectrum of biological activity and is active against a wide range of targets, such as bacteria (Gram+ and Gram-), fungi and viruses. Here, we review the most important features of the biological activity, potential applications and perspectives of indolicidin and its analogs. Although not yet approved for commercialization, this peptide has great potential to be applied in different areas, including the medical, biomedical, food industry and other unexplored areas. To achieve this goal, a multidisciplinary team of researchers must work together to fine tune peptides that overall lead to novel analogs and formulations to combat existing and possibly future diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Catelicidinas/genética , Catelicidinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1521, 2022 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35087128

RESUMO

We investigated the proteomic profiles of two popcorn inbred lines, P2 (N-efficient and N-responsive) and L80 (N-inefficient and nonresponsive to N), under low (10% of N supply) and high (100% of N supply) nitrogen environments, associated with agronomic- and physiological-related traits to NUE. The comparative proteomic analysis allowed the identification of 79 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) in the comparison of high/low N for P2 and 96 DAPs in the comparison of high/low N for L80. The NUE and N uptake efficiency (NUpE) presented high means in P2 in comparison to L80 at both N levels, but the NUE, NUpE, and N utilization efficiency (NUtE) rates decreased in P2 under a high N supply. DAPs involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism suggested that N regulates enzymes of alternative pathways to adapt to energy shortages and that fructose-bisphosphate aldolase may act as one of the key primary nitrate responsive proteins in P2. Proteins related to ascorbate biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism increased their regulation in P2, and the interaction of L-ascorbate peroxidase and Fd-NiR may play an important role in the NUE trait. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the proteomic changes taking place in contrasting inbred lines, providing useful information on the genetic improvement of NUE in popcorn.


Assuntos
Proteômica
8.
Drug Dev Res ; 83(2): 264-284, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045013

RESUMO

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium and transmitted by Anopheles spp. mosquitos. Due to the emerging resistance to currently available drugs, great efforts must be invested in discovering new molecular targets and drugs. N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) is an essential enzyme to parasites and has been validated as a chemically tractable target for the discovery of new drug candidates against malaria. In this work, 2D and 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were conducted on a series of benzothiophene derivatives as P. falciparum NMT (PfNMT) and human NMT (HsNMT) inhibitors to shed light on the molecular requirements for inhibitor affinity and selectivity. A combination of Quantitative Structure-activity Relationship (QSAR) methods, including the hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship (HQSAR), comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) models, were used, and the impacts of the molecular alignment strategies (maximum common substructure and flexible ligand alignment) and atomic partial charge methods (Gasteiger-Hückel, MMFF94, AM1-BCC, CHELPG, and Mulliken) on the quality and reliability of the models were assessed. The best models exhibited internal consistency and could reasonably predict the inhibitory activity against both PfNMT (HQSAR: q2 /r2 /r2 pred = 0.83/0.98/0.81; CoMFA: q2 /r2 /r2 pred = 0.78/0.97/0.86; CoMSIA: q2 /r2 /r2 pred = 0.74/0.95/0.82) and HsNMT (HQSAR: q2 /r2 /r2 pred = 0.79/0.93/0.74; CoMFA: q2 /r2 /r2 pred = 0.82/0.98/0.60; CoMSIA: q2 /r2 /r2 pred = 0.62/0.95/0.56). The results enabled the identification of the polar interactions (electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding properties) as the major molecular features that affected the inhibitory activity and selectivity. These findings should be useful for the design of PfNMT inhibitors with high affinities and selectivities as antimalarial lead candidates.


Assuntos
Plasmodium falciparum , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Aciltransferases , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tiofenos
9.
Peptides ; 148: 170707, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896165

RESUMO

Chronic non-healing wounds caused by microbial infections extend the necessity for hospital care and constitute a public health problem and a great financial burden. Classic therapies include a wide range of approaches, from wound debridement to vascular surgery. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a preserved trait of the innate immune response among different animal species, with known effects on the immune system and microorganisms. Thus, AMPs may represent promising candidates for the treatment of chronic wounds with dual functionality in two of the main agents that lead to this condition, proliferation of microorganisms and uncontrolled inflammation. Here, our goal is to critically review AMPs with wound healing properties. We strongly believe that these dual-function peptides alone, or in combination with other wound healing strategies, constitute an underexplored field that researchers can take advantage of.


Assuntos
/farmacologia , Cicatrização , Animais , Humanos , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 261: 109213, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481272

RESUMO

Bovine genital leptospirosis (BGL) is characterized by silent chronic reproductive disorders, most related to early embryonic death leading to estrus repetition, subfertility and abortions. However, most studies were conducted in slaughterhouses, which lacks reproductive and sanitary history of the studied animals. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leptospira sp. infection in live cows with history of low reproductive efficiency. Blood, urine, cervico-vaginal mucus and uterine fragment were collected from nine cows of the same herd presenting reproductive failure (abortions, estrus repetition and chronic infertility). Serology (MAT) and molecular analysis (PCR and nucleotide sequencing) were performed. Serology showed three (33.3%) seroreactive cows, two to Sejroe and one to Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroups. Six cows (66.7%) presented leptospiral DNA on genital samples, while all urine samples were negative. L. interrogans was identified in five samples, very closely related to strains from Sejroe (n = 3) and Icterohaemorrhagiae (n = 2) serogroups, while L. noguchii was identified in one sample. Results from this preliminary study demonstrates the presence of leptospires on uterus and reinforces the negative impact of leptospiral infection on reproductive tract, highlighting its association with reproductive failures on live animals.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/veterinária , Infertilidade/veterinária , Leptospirose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/microbiologia , Infertilidade/complicações , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Útero/microbiologia
12.
Theriogenology ; 174: 121-123, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428677

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the association between reproductive disorders and the main serogroups of Leptospira spp. in dairy herds. Blood samples from 216 cows from nine herds were collected for a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and a reproductive follow-up with ultrasonography was carried out monthly for at least 12 months. A total of 75 (16.5%) cows were reactive, while seroreactivity to a herd level ranged from 16.0% to 52.8%. Out of the nine herds, in five (55.0%) Sejroe was found to be the predominant serogroup and in four (45.0%) it was Icterohaemorrhagiae. The major reproductive problems identified were embryonic death (ED) and abortions. All herds presented ED and abortion was observed in three (33.3%). Herds with high seroreactivity (>20%) had more reproductive problems. Those with a predominance of Sejroe were associated with ED (P < 0.05), while those with Icterohaemorrhagiae were associated with abortion. The results show that different leptospiral strains lead to different reproductive problems, as well as showing that the main problem - ED - is caused by leptospirosis, particularly for those determined by strains of the serogroup Sejroe.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Gravidez , Sorogrupo
13.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 32(9): 101, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406528

RESUMO

Nanoparticles (NPs) have a wide range of applications in various areas. For health application, cytotoxicity tests are used to ensure its efficiency and safety. In this paper, ZnFe2O4, CoFe2O4, Zn0.5Co0.5Fe2O4 NPs were synthesized, characterized and their antibacterial properties were evaluated. The Sol-Gel method was used to synthesize the NPs. Their electronic and crystallographic structures were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). To perform the antibacterial evaluation, ferrites were dispersed through nanoemulsion to prevent the crystals from accumulating together. Then the evaluation was performed through microdilution in a 96-well plate and diffusion in agar disc in contact with 3 different strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It demonstrated that the Sol-Gel method was efficient to synthesize NPs with suitable sizes for health application. All synthesized NPs showed the inhibition of bacterias with different concentrations used.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Metais/química , Óxidos/química , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Difusão , Escherichia coli , Química Verde/métodos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Transição de Fase , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus , Testes de Toxicidade , Células Vero , Difração de Raios X
14.
Int J Retina Vitreous ; 7(1): 49, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462013

RESUMO

The challenge of COVID-19 has rapidly changed medical management worldwide. The relatively small time from pandemic to vaccines regulatory approval triggered a race toward vaccines development. However, important questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccines remain. A case of complete Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) Syndrome that occurred 4 days following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and another patient that developed VKH 14 days post COVID-19 clinical onset are presented. A causal relationship between COVID-19 and uveitis may exist.

15.
Braz J Microbiol ; 52(4): 2401-2411, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396495

RESUMO

The aquatic plant Salvinia auriculata has been shown to possess promising properties for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis. The disease affects cattle health and compromises dairy cattle productivity, resulting in reduced milk production and higher mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, antibiofilm activity, and toxicity of S. auriculata root extracts using bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T); determine the chemical composition of the most active extract; and develop an S. auriculata antiseptic solution for pre- and post-milking teat disinfection. Plants were collected during the four seasons of the year. The most active hexane extract was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which resulted in the isolation of six known compounds, stigmast-22-ene-3,6-dione, stigmasterol, friedelinol, ß-sitosterol, octadecyl alcohol, and octadecanoic acid. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of the most active extract and isolated compounds were determined against nine S. aureus strains isolated from cows with mastitis. The efficacy of the S. auriculata teat dip formulation was tested using an excised teat model (ex vivo), and promising results were obtained. The S. auriculata extract formulation proved to be as effective as commercial antimicrobials in reducing log counts in excised teats.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Traqueófitas/classificação , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Leite , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e045604, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osteosarcopenia is defined as the concomitant occurrence of sarcopenia and osteopenia or osteoporosis. Older adults with this syndrome have a greater fragility and mortality risk compared with those without these conditions. Based on separate interventions with individuals with sarcopenia and osteoporosis, exercise has been recommended as a treatment for osteosarcopenia. However, there is no evidence of its efficacy. Our objective is to identify whether physical exercise can improve osteosarcopenia in older adults and lead to good health outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic review in the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and Scopus. The criterion of inclusion will be clinical trials involving physical exercise interventions in older adults diagnosed with osteosarcopenia. To assess the risk of bias, the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation and Downs and Black tools will be used. For each search result, the quality of the evidence will ultimately receive one of four grades: high, moderate, low or very low. The outcome of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of physical exercise in improving the parameters that lead to the diagnosis of osteosarcopenia (bone mineral density, quality of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical function) in older adults. The possibility of meta-analysis will be assessed according to the homogeneity of the studies, using the methods of fixed or random effects. Sensitivity analyses will be performed, and the funnel plot will be used to assess publication bias. The proposed statistical analyses will be performed using STATA software, V.14.0. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The results of the systematic review will be disseminated via publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference. As we will not use individual patient data, ethical approval is not required. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020215659.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Osteoporose , Sarcopenia , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Osteoporose/terapia , Sarcopenia/terapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199336

RESUMO

The natural compound ravenelin was isolated from the biomass extracts of Exserohilum rostratum fungus, and its antimicrobial, antiplasmodial, and trypanocidal activities were evaluated. Ravenelin was isolated by column chromatography and HPLC and identified by NMR and MS. The susceptibility of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains to ravenelin was determined by microbroth dilution assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) and BALB/c peritoneal macrophages by using MTT. SYBR Green I-based assay was used in the asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Trypanocidal activity was tested against the epimastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Ravenelin was active against Gram-positive bacteria strains, with emphasis on Bacillus subtilis (MIC value of 7.5 µM). Ravenelin's antiparasitic activities were assessed against both the epimastigote (IC50 value of 5 ± 1 µM) and the intracellular amastigote forms of T. cruzi (IC50 value of 9 ± 2 µM), as well as against P. falciparum (IC50 value of 3.4 ± 0.4 µM). Ravenelin showed low cytotoxic effects on both HepG2 (CC50 > 50 µM) and peritoneal macrophage (CC50 = 185 ± 1 µM) cells with attractive selectivity for the parasites (SI values > 15). These findings indicate that ravenelin is a natural compound with both antibacterial and antiparasitic activities, and considerable selectivity indexes. Therefore, ravenelin is an attractive candidate for hit-to-lead development.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Macrófagos Peritoneais/citologia , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antiprotozoários/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Biomassa , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/parasitologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/química
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12709, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135407

RESUMO

Congenital toxoplasmosis is represented by the transplacental passage of Toxoplasma gondii from the mother to the fetus. Our studies demonstrated that T. gondii developed mechanisms to evade of the host immune response, such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induction, and these mediators can be produced/stored in lipid droplets (LDs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of COX-2 and LDs during T. gondii infection in human trophoblast cells and villous explants. Our data demonstrated that COX-2 inhibitors decreased T. gondii replication in trophoblast cells and villous. In BeWo cells, the COX-2 inhibitors induced an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and MIF), and a decrease in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). In HTR-8/SVneo cells, the COX-2 inhibitors induced an increase of IL-6 and nitrite and decreased IL-4 and TGF-ß1. In villous explants, the COX-2 inhibitors increased MIF and decreased TNF-α and IL-10. Furthermore, T. gondii induced an increase in LDs in BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo, but COX-2 inhibitors reduced LDs in both cells type. We highlighted that COX-2 is a key factor to T. gondii proliferation in human trophoblast cells, since its inhibition induced a pro-inflammatory response capable of controlling parasitism and leading to a decrease in the availability of LDs, which are essentials for parasite growth.


Assuntos
Vilosidades Coriônicas/parasitologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trofoblastos/parasitologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vilosidades Coriônicas/imunologia , Vilosidades Coriônicas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/imunologia , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
19.
Biotechnol Prog ; 37(5): e3182, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115926

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is a mosquito vector of arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, zika and yellow fever that cause important public health diseases. The incidence and gravity of these diseases justifies the search for effective measures to reduce the presence of this vector in the environment. Bioinsecticides are an effective alternative method for insect control, with added ecological benefits such as biodegradability. The current study demonstrates that a chitinolytic enzyme complex produced by the fungus Trichoderma asperellum can disrupt cuticle formation in the L3 larvae phase of A. aegypti, suggesting such biolarvicidal action could be used for mosquito control. T. asperellum was exposed to chitin from different sources. This induction of cell wall degrading enzymes, including chitinase, N-acetylglucosaminidase and ß-1,3-glucanase. Groups of 20 L3 larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to varying concentrations of chitinolytic enzymes induced with commercial chitin (CWDE) and larvae cell wall degrading enzymes (L-CWDE). After 72 h of exposure to the CWDE, 100% of larvae were killed. The same percent mortality was observed after 48 h of exposure to L-CWDE at half the CWDE enzyme mixture concentration. Exoskeleton deterioration was further observed by scanning and electron microscopy. Our findings indicate that L-CWDE produced by T. asperellum reflect chitinolytic enzymes with greater specificity for L3 larval biomolecules. This specificity is characterized by the high percentage of mortality compared with CWDE treatments and also by abrupt changes in patterns of the cellular structures visualized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These mixtures of chitinolytic enzymes could be candidates, as adjuvant or synergistic molecules, to replace conventional chemical insecticides currently in use.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hypocreales/enzimologia , Inseticidas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia
20.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 84(17): 689-701, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034641

RESUMO

Nicotiana tabacum is the most cultivated tobacco species in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Workers who handle the plant are exposed to the leaf components during the harvesting process and when separating and classifying the dried leaves. In addition to nicotine, after the drying process, other components may be found including tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as pesticides residues. The objective of this study was to examine the genotoxicity attributed to the aqueous extract of dried tobacco leaves obtained from tobacco barns using Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79) as a model system by employing alkaline comet assay, micronucleus (MN) and Ames test. MTT assay was used to assess cytotoxicity and establish concentrations for this study. Data demonstrated cell viability > 85% for concentrations of 0.625-5 mg/ml while the comet assay indicated a significant increase in DNA damage at all concentrations tested. A significant elevation of MN and nuclear buds (NBUD) was found for 5 mg/ml compared to control and other dry tobacco leaves concentrations (0.625-2.5 mg/ml). Mutagenicity was not found using the Salmonella/Microsome test (TA98, TA100, and TA102 strains) with and without metabolic activation. The concentration of inorganic elements was determined employing the PIXE technique, and 13 inorganic elements were detected. Using CG/MS nicotine amounts present were 1.56 mg/g dry tobacco leaf powder. Due to the observed genotoxicity in V79 cells, more investigations are needed to protect the health of tobacco workers exposed daily to this complex mixture of toxic substances present in dry tobacco leaves.


Assuntos
Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Tabaco/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ensaio Cometa , Cricetulus , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade
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