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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6382, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286405

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Spirulina Platensis supplementation on selected blood markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammation, and performance in trained rats. Rats (250 g - 300 g) were submitted to a strength training program (eight weeks), divided into four groups: control (GT) (trained without supplementation), trained with daily-supplementation of 50 mg/kg (GT50), 150 mg/kg (GT150) and 500 mg/kg (GT500). Training consisted of a jump protocol in PVC-cylinder containing water, with increasing load over experimental weeks. We evaluated the markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde - MDA and antioxidant capacity) and inflammation (C-reactive protein) at the end of the training. Among groups submitted to strength training, concentration of C-reactive protein decreased after 8 weeks of intervention in the trained group and GT500. Strength training enhanced plasma MDA concentration of malondialdehyde with supplementation of S. platensis in GT150 and GT500. In plasma analysis, strength training enhanced the percentage of oxidation inhibition, with spirulina supplementation in rates of 150 and 500 mg/kg. Spirulina supplementation for 8 weeks (in a dose-effect manner) improved antioxidant capacity as well as attenuated exercise-induced increases in ROS and inflammation. As a practical application, the use as high doses did not cause a reduction in positive physiological adaptations to exercise training. Additional studies are necessary to test the application of Spirulina Platensis in other contexts, as collective sports (basketball, football, soccer).

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 253: 112678, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087317

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler (Menispermaceae) is popularly used in northeastern Brazil for the treatment of respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and asthma. Despite many pre-clinical pharmacological studies, the compounds mediating the anti-asthma activity of polar extracts of Cissampelos sympodialis leaves have not been definitively identified. AIM OF THE STUDY: Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between the bioactivity of polar extracts prepared from the leaves of C. sympodialis and the chemical composition using a 1H-NMR-based metabolomics approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The metabolic profile of the leaf polar extract during different phenological stages of the plant was investigated using 1H NMR spectroscopy while simultaneously screening for spasmolytic activity using guinea-pig tracheal preparations. The content of the alkaloids previously implicated in the bioactivity of Cissampelos sympodialis was determined by HPLC. RESULTS: PCA analysis of the 1H NMR data discriminated the extracts from different plant phenological stages. The contents of the major alkaloids decrease (from 2 ± 0.32 µg/mL for warifteine and 1 ± 0.14 µg/mL for methylwarifteine) to undetectable levels from 90 (CsL90 extract) and 120 (CsL120) days onwards for warifteine and methylwarifteine, respectively. All six extracts relaxed the trachea pre-contracted with carbachol, but the CsF210 extract was more potent (EC50 = 74.6 ± 7.9 µg/mL) compared to both CsL90 extracts and CsL180 in the presence of functional epithelium. PLS regression analysis of 1H-NMR spectral data demonstrated that the spasmolytic activity was better correlated with signals for flavonol derivatives. CONCLUSIONS: Our data challenge the idea that warifteine and methylwarifteine mediate the spasmolytic activity of the polar extract of C. sympodialis leaves.

3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 5148503, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089769

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by immune cell infiltrates, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and declining lung function. Thus, the possible effects of virgin coconut oil on a chronic allergic lung inflammation model were evaluated. Morphology of lung and airway tissue exhibited peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate, epithelial hyperplasia, and smooth muscle thickening in guinea pigs submitted to ovalbumin sensitization, which were prevented by virgin coconut oil supplementation. Additionally, in animals with lung inflammation, trachea contracted in response to ovalbumin administration, showed a greater contractile response to carbachol (CCh) and histamine, and these responses were prevented by the virgin coconut oil supplementation. Apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, did not reduce the potency of CCh, whereas tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, reduced potency only in nonsensitized animals. Catalase reduced the CCh potency in nonsensitized animals and animals sensitized and treated with coconut oil, indicating the participation of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in the hypercontractility, which was prevented by virgin coconut oil. In the presence of L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, the CCh curve remained unchanged in nonsensitized animals but had increased efficacy and potency in sensitized animals, indicating an inhibition of endothelial NOS but ineffective in inhibiting inducible NOS. In animals sensitized and treated with coconut oil, the CCh curve was not altered, indicating a reduction in the release of NO by inducible NOS. These data were confirmed by peribronchiolar expression analysis of iNOS. The antioxidant capacity was reduced in the lungs of animals with chronic allergic lung inflammation, which was reversed by the coconut oil, and confirmed by analysis of peribronchiolar 8-iso-PGF2α content. Therefore, the virgin coconut oil supplementation reverses peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate, epithelial hyperplasia, smooth muscle thickening, and hypercontractility through oxidative stress and its interactions with the NO pathway.

4.
Mar Drugs ; 18(2)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013202

RESUMO

The blue alga Spirulina platensis has presented several pharmacological activities, highlighting its actions as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. In addition, there are few studies with the influence of strength training on physiological parameters, as intestinal contractility and oxidative cell damage. We evaluated the influence of S. platensis supplementation, strength training, and its association on contractile reactivity of rat ileum, as well as the balance of oxidative stress/antioxidant defenses. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into; sedentary (S); S + supplemented with algae at 50 (S50), 150 (S150), and 500 mg/kg (S500); trained (T); and T + supplemented (T50, T150, and T500). Contractile reactivity was analyzed by kymographs; oxidative stress on ileum by the malondialdehyde (MDA) formation; and the antioxidant capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. S. platensis supplementation reduced the reactivity of rat ileum to carbachol (CCh) and KCl, while training reduced only the CCh efficacy. In addition, association potentiated the reduction on contractile reactivity. Supplementation reduced the oxidative stress and increased oxidation inhibition; training alone did not alter this parameter, however association potentiated this beneficial effect. Therefore, this study demonstrated that both supplementation and its association with strength training promote beneficial effects regarding intestinal contractile reactivity and oxidative stress, providing new insights for intestinal disorders management.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 7838149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772708

RESUMO

The possible mechanism is involved in the effects of Spirulina platensis on vascular reactivity. Animals were divided into sedentary group (SG) and sedentary groups supplemented with S. platensis at doses of 50 (SG50), 150 (SG150), and 500 mg/kg (SG500). To evaluate reactivity, cumulative concentration-response curves were constructed for phenylephrine and acetylcholine. To evaluate the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, aorta tissue was preincubated with L-NAME and a new curve was then obtained for phenylephrine. Biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate nitrite levels, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant activity. To contractile reactivity, only SG500 (pD2 = 5.6 ± 0.04 vs. 6.1 ± 0.06, 6.2 ± 0.02, and 6.2 ± 0.04) showed reduction in phenylephrine contractile potency. L-NAME caused a higher contractile response to phenylephrine in SG150 and SG500. To relaxation, curves for SG150 (pD2 = 7.0 ± 0.08 vs. 6.4 ± 0.06) and SG500 (pD2 = 7.3 ± 0.02 vs. 6.4 ± 0.06) were shifted to the left, more so in SG500. Nitrite was increased in SG150 and SG500. Lipid peroxidation was reduced, and oxidation inhibition was increased in all supplemented groups, indicating enhanced antioxidant activity. Chronic supplementation with S. platensis (150/500 mg/kg) caused a decrease in contractile response and increase in relaxation and nitrite levels, indicating greater NO production, due to decreased oxidative stress and increased antioxidant activity.

6.
Front Genet ; 10: 791, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552095

RESUMO

Lead poisoning effects are wide and include nervous system impairment, peculiarly during development, leading to neural damage. Lead interaction with calcium and zinc-containing metalloproteins broadly affects cellular metabolism since these proteins are related to intracellular ion balance, activation of signaling transduction cascades, and gene expression regulation. In spite of lead being recognized as a neurotoxin, there are gaps in knowledge about the global effect of lead in modulating the transcription of entire cellular systems in neural cells. In order to investigate the effects of lead poisoning in a systemic perspective, we applied the transcriptogram methodology in an RNA-seq dataset of human embryonic-derived neural progenitor cells (ES-NP cells) treated with 30 µM lead acetate for 26 days. We observed early downregulation of several cellular systems involved with cell differentiation, such as cytoskeleton organization, RNA, and protein biosynthesis. The downregulated cellular systems presented big and tightly connected networks. For long treatment times (12 to 26 days), it was possible to observe a massive impairment in cell transcription profile. Taking the enriched terms together, we observed interference in all layers of gene expression regulation, from chromatin remodeling to vesicle transport. Considering that ES-NP cells are progenitor cells that can originate other neural cell types, our results suggest that lead-induced gene expression disturbance might impair cells' ability to differentiate, therefore influencing ES-NP cells' fate.

7.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163990

RESUMO

The essential oil of Lippia microphylla (LM-OE) presents several pharmacological activities. This work evaluates the tocolytic effect of LM-OE on rats. LM-OE inhibited phasic contractions and relaxed tonic contractions on rat uterus. Considering that nitric oxide (NO) pathway regulates uterine contraction, LM-OE potency was attenuated in the presence of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor and this reduction was reversed in the presence of a NOS substrate. Similarly, the relaxant potency of LM-OE was reduced in the presence of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitors. LM-OE also demonstrates a positive modulation of large and small conductance calcium-activated, voltage-gated and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels and inhibited curves to CaCl2 as well as relaxed the uterus pre-contracted by S-(-)-Bay K8644, suggesting voltage-gated calcium channels type-1 (CaV1) blockade. Thus, the tocolytic effect of LM-OE on rat involves positive modulation of NO/NOS/sGC/PKG/K+-channels pathway and Ca2+ influx blockade through CaV1.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 658: 798-808, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583175

RESUMO

Intracellular titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) with rutile crystalline form and dimensions varying from 43 to 67 nm × 64 to 93 nm are reported for the first time as being sequestered from the environment. TiO2-NP were identified inside all organs/tissues (muscle, kidney, gonad, hepatopancreas and gill) in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the neotropical fish Centropomus parallelus, captured in an area affected by metallurgical activity. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) sampled in the same area showed the presence of TiO2-NP with the same rutile crystalline form and dimensions varying from 16 to 93 nm × 45 to 193 nm, thus indicating the smelting and iron processing industries as the most probable source of TiO2-NP. In any sample, chemical analyses identify and quantify Ti concentration and nanocrystallography identified the structure of TiO2-NP. The Ti concentration in the sediment and atmospheric PM varied between years and it was mirrored by the Ti concentration in the fish organs. The gill has a higher Ti concentration varying from 5.50 to 14.57 µg g-1 dry weight and the gonad was the organ with lowest Ti level, 0.25 to 0.87 µg g-1 dry weight. In the muscles, Ti concentration varied from 0.85 to 3.34 µg g-1 dry weight. This contamination may be likely to affect the surrounding biota and food uptake, including the humans living in the city close to the metallurgical complex. These findings emphasised the needs to improve methods to reduce PM (including nanoparticles) arising from human activities and to evaluate the toxicokinetic and effects of TiO2-NP in the biota and human health.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Perciformes/metabolismo , Titânio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Cristalografia , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Oxirredução , Distribuição Tecidual , Titânio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 6364821, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498560

RESUMO

Few studies have associated the effects of changes in caloric intake and redox disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating the hypercaloric diet consumption influence on the contractile reactivity of intestinal smooth muscle, morphology, and oxidative stress of rat ileum. Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups that received a standard diet and fed with a hypercaloric diet for 8 weeks. Animals were euthanized, and the ileum was isolated to isotonic contraction monitoring. Morphology was evaluated by histological staining and oxidative stress by quantification of malondialdehyde levels and total antioxidant activity. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl and carbachol were attenuated in rats fed with a hypercaloric diet compared to those that received a standard diet. In addition, an increase in caloric intake promotes a rise in the thickness of the longitudinal smooth muscle layer of rat ileum and tissue malondialdehyde levels, characterizing lipid peroxidation, as well as a decrease in the antioxidant activity. Thus, it was concluded that the consumption of a hypercaloric diet impairs rat intestinal contractility due to mechanisms involving modifications in the intestinal smooth muscle architecture triggered by redox disturbances.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tiobarbitúricos/metabolismo
10.
Front Physiol ; 9: 1522, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429798

RESUMO

Studies have shown that supplementation with Spirulina platensis improves vascular reactivity. However, it is unclear whether in association with strength training this effect can be enhanced. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effects of strength training and S. platensis on the reactivity of the aorta from Wistar rat and the possible mechanisms involved. The animals were supplemented with S. platensis and divided into sedentary (SG, SG50, SG150, and SG500) and trained groups (TG, TG50, TG150, and TG500). Nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant activity were determined by biochemical assays. To evaluate vascular response, cumulative concentration-response curves to phenylephrine (PHE) and acetylcholine (ACh) were constructed. L-NAME was used to assess the participation of nitric oxide (NO). It was observed that the PHE contractile potency was reduced in TG50, TG150, and TG500 groups compared to SG50, SG150, and SG500 groups, respectively. However, the presence of L-NAME increased the contractile response in all groups. Strength training potentiated the increase in relaxing activity induced by S. platensis, where the pCE50 values of ACh increased in TG150 and TG500. These responses were accompanied by increased nitrite production, MDA reduction and increased antioxidant activity in the aorta of both TG150 and TG500 groups. Thus, the present study demonstrated that combined with strength training, S. platensis potentiates vascular improvement through the participation of NO and reduction of oxidative stress.

11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 161: 260-269, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886313

RESUMO

Metal/metalloid accumulation in fish organs elicits biochemical responses indicating the overall fish and environmental health status. This study evaluated the bioaccumulation of metals and metalloid in relation to a suite of biochemical biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, Na+/K+-ATPase, H+-ATPase, acetylcholinesterase activities and the levels of glutathione, metallothionein, lipid peroxidation and oxidized protein) in different organs of fish, Centropomus parallelus, in Vitória Bay and Santa Cruz estuaries (State of Espírito Santo, Brazil) with distinct contamination levels. Metal and metalloid concentrations differ in each organ and were significantly higher in winter than in summer. Chemometric evaluation performed between metal/metalloid accumulation and the biomarkers revealed a complex scenario in which the biomarker responses depend on both metal accumulation and organ/tissue sensitivity. The metal levels in gills indicate fish contamination mainly via water and the low sensitivity of this organ to most metals. Biomarker responses suggested that the metal elimination pathway is through the gills and kidney. The hepatopancreas and kidneys were the most important detoxification organs while muscle was the less reactive tissue. In general, the finding suggested that, C. parallelus is partly able to tolerate such metal contamination. However, it is emphasized that the biomarker responses imply an energetic cost and may affect the growth rate and reproduction. Given the ecological and economic importance of C. parallelus, the level of toxic metals/metalloids in juvenile fish is an important early-warning for the maintenance, conservation and commercial use of this species.


Assuntos
Estuários , Metaloides/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brasil , Brânquias/enzimologia , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/enzimologia , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 640-641: 501-511, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864664

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities including metal contamination create well-known problems in coastal mangrove ecosystems but understanding and linking specific pollution sources to distinct trophic levels within these environments is challenging. This study evaluated anthropogenic impacts on two contrasting mangrove food webs, by using stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, 87Sr/86Sr, 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) measured in sediments, mangrove trees (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia schaueriana), plankton, shrimps (Macrobranchium sp.), crabs (Aratus sp.), oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) and fish (Centropomus parallelus) from both areas. Strontium and Pb isotopes were also analysed in water and atmospheric particulate matter (PM). δ15N indicated that crab, shrimp and oyster are at intermediate levels within the local food web and fish, in this case C. parallelus, was confirmed at the highest trophic level. δ15N also indicates different anthropogenic pressures between both estuaries; Vitória Bay, close to intensive human activities, showed higher δ15N across the food web, apparently influenced by sewage. The ratio87Sr/86Sr showed the primary influence of marine water throughout the entire food web. Pb isotope ratios suggest that PM is primarily influenced by metallurgical activities, with some secondary influence on mangrove plants and crabs sampled in the area adjacent to the smelting works. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the effect of anthropogenic pollution (probable sewage pollution) on the isotopic fingerprint of estuarine-mangrove systems located close to a city compared to less impacted estuarine mangroves. The influence of industrial metallurgical activity detected using Pb isotopic analysis of PM and mangrove plants close to such an impacted area is also notable and illustrates the value of isotopic analysis in tracing the impact and species affected by atmospheric pollution.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cadeia Alimentar , Isótopos/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Avicennia/química , Isótopos de Estrôncio
13.
J Med Food ; 21(9): 841-848, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565713

RESUMO

Vitamin D (VD) deficiency is a growing problem, affecting a significant portion of the population in many countries. VD deficiency may be related to several diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to review the relationship between VD deficiency and AD. We describe the proteins involved in AD pathogenesis and how those proteins can be influenced by VD deficiency. We also investigated a relationship between AD death rate and solar radiation and we found an increased AD death rate in countries with low sunlight. It was also observed that amyloid precursor protein, ryanodine receptor, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, and receptor for advanced glycation end products are associated with a worse prognosis in AD. While the Klotho protein, phosphatase and tensin homologue, and VD receptor are associated with a better prognosis in the disease. The literature suggests that decline in VD concentrations may be involved in the establishment and progression of AD. According to sunlight data, we can conclude that countries with low average sunlight have high AD death rate.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Luz Solar , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo
14.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 48(5): 375-386, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431551

RESUMO

Lead is an important heavy metal used worldwide in several applications, especially in industry. People exposed to lead can develop a wide range of symptoms associated with lead poisoning. Many effects of lead poisoning are reported in the literature, showing a compromising of whole body health, with symptoms related to cardiovascular, immune, bone, reproductive, hematological, renal, gastrointestinal, and nervous system. However, the molecular lead targets as well as the pathways affected by lead poisoning are not completely described. The aim of this study was to construct a map of metabolic pathways impaired in lead poisoning by evaluating which biomolecules are directly affected by lead. Through manual literature curation, we identified proteins which physically interact with lead and subsequently determined the metabolic pathways those proteins are involved with. At total, we identified 23 proteins involved with heme synthesis, calcium metabolism, neurotransmission, among other biological systems, which helps to understand the wide range of lead-poisoning symptoms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Chumbo/farmacologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/fisiopatologia , Ligação Proteica
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 1547, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814952

RESUMO

Asthma is a heterogeneous disease of the airways characterized by chronic inflammation associated with bronchial and smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness. Currently, different murine models for the study of asthma show poor bronchial hyperresponsiveness due to a scarcity of smooth muscle and large airways, resulting in a failure to reproduce smooth muscle hyperreactivity. Thus, we aimed to standardize a guinea pig model of chronic allergic lung inflammation mimicking airway smooth muscle hyperreactivity observed in asthmatics (Asth). Animals were randomly divided into a control group (Ctrl), which received saline (0.9% NaCl), and the Asth group, subjected to in vivo sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA) nebulization. Morphological analysis was performed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was evaluated by nebulization time in the fifth, sixth, and seventh inhalations (NT5-7) and tracheal isometric contractions were assessed by force transducer. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and protein expression by Western blot. Histologically, the Asth group developed peribronchial cellular infiltrate, epithelial hyperplasia and smooth muscle thickening. After the fourth nebulization, the Asth group developed bronchial hyperreactivity. The trachea from the Asth group contracted after in vitro stimulation with OVA, differing from the Ctrl group, which showed no response. Additionally, airway smooth muscle hyperreactivity to carbachol and histamine was observed in the Asth group only in intact epithelium preparations, but not to KCl, and this effect was associated with an augmented production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, lung inflammation impaired the relaxant potency of isoproterenol only in intact epithelium preparations, without interfering with nifedipine, and it was found to be produced by transforming growth factor-ß negative modulation of ß adrenergic receptors and, furthermore, big-conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels. These effects were also associated with increased levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 or phosphorylation, and augmented α-actin content as well, explaining the increased smooth muscle mass. Furthermore, pulmonary antioxidant capacity was impaired in the Asth group. Therefore, we developed a standardized and easy-to-use, reproducible guinea pig model of lung inflammation that mimics airway smooth muscle hypercontractility, facilitating the investigation of the mechanisms of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma and new therapeutic alternatives.

16.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 514, 2017 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Galetin 3,6-dimethyl ether (FGAL) is a flavonoid isolated from aerial parts of Piptadenia stipulacea. Previously, FGAL was shown to inhibit both carbachol- and oxytocin-induced phasic contractions in the rat uterus, which was more potent with oxytocin. Thus, in this study, we aimed to investigate the tocolytic action mechanism of FGAL on the rat uterus. METHODS: Segments of rat uterus ileum were suspended in organ bath containing modified Locke-Ringer solution at 32 °C, bubbled with carbogen mixture under a resting tension of 1 g. Isotonic contractions were registered using kymographs and isometric contractions using force transducer. RESULTS: FGAL was more potent in relaxing uterus pre-contracted with oxytocin than with KCl. Additionally, FGAL shifted oxytocin-induced cumulative contractions curves to the right in a non-parallel manner, with Emax reduction, indicating a pseudo-irreversible noncompetitive antagonism of oxytocin receptors (OTR) or a downstream pathway target. Moreover, FGAL shifted CaCl2-induced cumulative contraction curves to the right in a non-parallel manner in depolarizing medium, nominally without Ca2+, with Emax reduction, suggesting the inhibition of Ca2+ influx through CaV. The relaxant potency of FGAL was reduced by CsCl, a non-selective K+ channel blocker, suggesting positive modulation of these channels. Furthermore, in presence of apamin, 4-aminopyridine, glibenclamide or 1 mM TEA+, the relaxant potency of FGAL was attenuated, indicating the participation of SKCa, KV, KATP and highlighting BKCa. Aminophylline, a non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) blocker, did not affect the FGAL relaxant potency, excluding the modulation of cyclic nucleotide PDEs pathway by FGAL. CONCLUSION: Tocolytic effect of FGAL on rat uterus occurs by pseudo-irreversible noncompetitive antagonism of OTR and activation of K+ channels, primarily BKCa, leading to calcium influx reduction through CaV.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Tocolíticos/farmacologia , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Fabaceae/química , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tocolíticos/química , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Front Physiol ; 8: 760, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085300

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by an excessive increase in body mass, leading to endothelial damage that may favor the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is defined as the inability to achieve or maintain a penile erection long enough to have a sexual intercourse. In this context, different ED models were developed, however the high price of special animals or the long period to establish the disease has limited studies in this field. Therefore, this study proposed to establish and characterize a novel model of ED in rats associated to a hypercaloric diet consumption. Animals were randomly divided into control group (CG), which received a standard diet, and obese group (OG), fed with a hypercaloric diet during 8 weeks. Rat's erectile function was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Food and caloric intake of OG were reduced compared to CG, due to an increased diet energy efficiency. However, OG presented an increased body mass, inguinal, retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues, as well as body adiposity index at the end of experimental protocol. In erectile function analysis, there was a decrease in the number and the latency of penile erections in OG. Additionally, the contractile reactivity of corpus cavernosum was increased in OG, favoring penile detumescence and related to a reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and an increased in contractile prostaglandins levels as a consequence of endothelial damage. Moreover, the endothelium-relaxation reactivity of corpus cavernosum was attenuated in OG associated to the oxidative stress. Thus, it was provided a model for advances in sexual dysfunction field and drug discovery for ED treatment.

18.
Chemosphere ; 184: 309-317, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601664

RESUMO

Biological process treatment of landfill leachate produces a significant amount of sludge, characterized by high levels of organic matter from which humic acids are known to activate several enzymes of energy metabolism, stimulating plant growth. This study aimed to characterize humic acids extracted from landfill sludge and assess the effects on plants exposed to different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mM C L-1) by chemical and biological analysis, to elucidate the influence of such organic material and minimize potential risks of using sludge in natura. Landfill humic acids showed high carbon and nitrogen levels, which may represent an important source of nutrients for plants. Biochemical analysis demonstrated an increase of enzyme activity, especially H+-ATPase in 2 mM C L-1 landfill humic acid. Additionally, cytogenetic alterations were observed in meristematic and F1 cells, through nuclear abnormalities and micronuclei. Multivariate statistical analysis provided integration of physical, chemical and biological data. Despite all the nutritional benefits of humic acids and their activation of plant antioxidant systems, the observed biological effects showed concerning levels of mutagenicity.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Adenosina Trifosfatases/análise , Carbono/análise , Análise Citogenética , Substâncias Húmicas/toxicidade , Mutagênese , Nitrogênio/análise , Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(11): 10855-10868, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28293825

RESUMO

Assessment of water resources requires interdisciplinary studies that include multiple ecosystem aspects. This study evaluated the water quality of Juara Lagoon (ES, Brazil) based on physical and chemical variables, cytogenetic responses in Allium cepa and phytoplankton dynamics. Three sampling sites were defined and water samples were collected during two sampling periods. Analyses such as determination of photic zone, conductivity, and concentrations of nutrients and metals were conducted as well as cytotoxic, mutagenic, and genotoxic potentials using A. cepa test. The main attributes of phytoplankton community, such as total richness, total density, density by class, dominance, and diversity, were also evaluated. Results have revealed that Juara Lagoon has signs of artificial eutrophication at two sampling sites due to high levels of total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen. Cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic potentials were detected as well as high concentrations of Fe and Mn. Furthermore, 165 phytoplankton taxa were recorded, with highest richness in Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae classes. In addition, Cyanophyceae presented as the highest density class. A. cepa test and phytoplankton community evaluation indicated that the ecological quality of Juara Lagoon is compromised.


Assuntos
Fitoplâncton/classificação , Qualidade da Água , Brasil , Eutrofização , Estações do Ano
20.
Environ Pollut ; 215: 302-313, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27213571

RESUMO

Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle were experimentally exposed to increasing levels of iron (0, 10, 20 and 100 mg L(-1) added Fe(II) in Hoagland's nutritive medium). The uptake and translocation of iron from roots to stems and leaves, Fe-secretion through salt glands (Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa) as well as anatomical and histochemical changes in plant tissues were evaluated. The main goal of this work was to assess the diverse capacity of these plants to detect mangroves at risk in an area affected by iron pollution (Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil). Results show that plants have differential patterns with respect to bioaccumulation, translocation and secretion of iron through salt glands. L. racemosa showed the best environmental sensing capacity since the bioaccumulation of iron in both Fe-plaque and roots was higher and increased as the amount of added-iron rose. Fewer changes in translocation factors throughout increasing added-iron were observed in this species. Furthermore, the amount of iron secreted through salt glands of L. racemosa was strongly inhibited when exposed to added-iron. Among three studied species, A. schaueriana showed the highest levels of iron in stems and leaves. On the other hand, Rhizophora mangle presented low values of iron in these compartments. Even so, there was a significant drop in the translocation factor between aerial parts with respect to roots, since the bioaccumulation in plaque and roots of R. mangle increased as iron concentration rose. Moreover, rhizophores of R. mangle did not show changes in bioaccumulation throughout the studied concentrations. So far, we propose L. racemosa as the best species for monitoring iron pollution in affected mangroves areas. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report on the response of these plants to increasing iron concentration under controlled conditions, complementing existing data on the behavior of the same plants under field exposure.


Assuntos
Avicennia/metabolismo , Combretaceae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Rhizophoraceae/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Brasil , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo
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