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1.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(9)2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575591

RESUMO

Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were employed as the nanoreinforcement of a retrograded starch/pectin (RS/P) excipient to optimize its colon-specific properties. Although starch retrogradation ranged from 32 to 73%, CNF addition discretely disfavored the RS yield. This result agrees with the finding that in situ CNF reduces the presence of the RS crystallinity pattern. A thermal analysis revealed that the contribution of pectin improves the thermal stability of the RS/CNF mixture. Through a complete factorial design, it was possible to optimize the spray-drying conditions to obtain powders with high yield (57%) and low moisture content (1.2%). The powders observed by Field Emission Gum Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM) had 1-10 µm and a circular shape. The developed methodology allowed us to obtain 5-aminosalicilic acid-loaded microparticles with high encapsulation efficiency (16-98%) and drug loading (1.97-26.63%). The presence of CNF in RS/P samples was responsible for decreasing the burst effect of release in simulated gastric and duodenal media, allowing the greatest mass of drug to be targeted to the colon. Considering that spray-drying is a scalable process, widely used by the pharmaceutical industry, the results obtained indicate the potential of these microparticles as raw material for obtaining other dosage forms to deliver 5-ASA to the distal parts of gastrointestinal tract, affected by inflammatory bowel disease.

2.
Gen Dent ; 69(4): 41-44, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185667

RESUMO

Severe tetracycline staining may affect the esthetics of teeth and the self-esteem of patients. This case report describes minimally invasive treatment with dental bleaching and direct restorations to improve the esthetics of tetracycline-stained teeth in a 44-year-old woman. All of the patient's teeth were affected by grayish brown staining, and the maxillary central incisors demonstrated incisal wear. The buccal angulation of the anterior teeth and the patient's Class II skeletal profile hindered the use of direct or indirect veneer restorations. The proposed treatment was home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide applied in a soft vinyl tray, which was worn overnight for the first 3 months and 2 hours daily for the next 3 months (total treatment time of 6 months). Afterward, a single session of in-office bleaching with 37% hydrogen peroxide was performed over resistant bands of staining observed at the cervical thirds of the teeth. Fourteen days after the in-office bleaching treatment, composite resin restorations were placed at the incisal areas of the maxillary central incisors and the cervical areas of the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines to treat the incisal wear and mask the remaining dental discoloration. In some cases, minimally invasive treatment with tooth bleaching might be indicated for the esthetic treatment of teeth severely stained by tetracycline, although this approach presents limitations. In the present case, the patient was satisfied with her smile after the treatment protocol was completed, and the results remained stable after 12 months. The patient reported an improved quality of life after treatment.


Assuntos
Clareamento Dental , Descoloração de Dente , Adulto , Estética Dentária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Coloração e Rotulagem , Tetraciclinas , Descoloração de Dente/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Am J Dent ; 34(3): 143-149, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143584

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical performance of Class II restorations made with bulk-fill or layering pure ormocer materials, as well as the time necessary to fill the preparations. METHODS: After ethics approval, a randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial was performed. 30 subjects were selected according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria, and two restorations were randomly performed in each first or second molar that presented caries, fracture, or cosmetic needs. One restoration was done with the bulk-fill material Admira Fusion x-tra, applied with increments up to 4 mm (intervention group), while the second was performed with the regular Admira Fusion, applied by a 2 mm layering technique (control group). The universal adhesive system Futurabond U was used for both groups. The subjects and examiners were blinded, and the examiners were previously calibrated. The restorations were evaluated according to FDI criteria, after 7 days, 6, 12 and 24 months, and the outcome was success rate based on esthetic, functional and biological properties. The time necessary for application of both materials into the preparations was also measured. RESULTS: After 24 months, 26 patients attended the recall and 52 restorations were evaluated. The Fisher's statistical analysis (α= 5%) showed non-significant differences between techniques for esthetic, biological and functional properties in all evaluations (P> 0.05). After 2 years, 96% of the subjects for both groups did not show any sign of post-operative sensitivity and 100% of the teeth were vital and without secondary caries. Around 70% of the restorations received score excellent for surface luster, more than 83% for surface staining and 63% for color match. In relation to marginal adaptation and marginal staining, more than 80% for the layering material and 63% for the bulk showed excellent scores. Only three restorations of the 60 performed showed small fractures, although not affecting the esthetics or function. The time for composite application was significantly shorter for the bulk material (P= 0.0454). After 24 months of intraoral service, the restorations made with both materials presented similar and excellent clinical performance for all parameters analyzed. The bulk-fill material required significantly less chair time to apply than the layering one, simplifying and accelerating the restorative technique. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The bulk-fill ormocer-based composite was an appropriate alternative to the conventional layering material, since similar clinical performance was observed after 2 years, with the advantage of shorter chair time, due to simplified operative procedures.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Resinas Compostas , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Adaptação Marginal Dentária , Humanos , Dente Molar , Cerâmicas Modificadas Organicamente
4.
Psicol. pesq ; 15(2): 1-20, abr.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1287694

RESUMO

Ao levar em conta a sua importância tanto metapsicológica quanto social, este artigo traça um itinerário das noções de narcisismo e melancolia no escopo de "Psicologia das Massas e Análise do Eu". Neste sentido, ao promover uma reconstituição do caminho que se inicia em "Introdução ao Narcisismo" e "Luto e Melancolia" até a reaparição desses conceitos no texto sobre a psicologia das massas, pretende lançar luz sobre os processos de idealização, identificação e introjeção que, de acordo com Freud, ladrilham uma continuidade entre sujeito e sociedade. Conclusivamente, aponta possíveis conexões entre a cisão do Eu, a servidão melancólica e as tentativas de reaver um narcisismo mediante a imersão nas massas hodiernas.


Taking into account both its metapsychological and social importance, this article traces an itinerary of the notions of narcissism and melancholy within the scope of Freud's "Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego". Therefore, through a reconstitution of the path that begins in "On Narcissism: an introduction" and "Mourning and Melancholia" until the reappearance of these concepts in the text about the psychology of the masses, it intends to shed some light on the processes of idealization, identification and introjection that, according to Freud, tile a continuous line between subject and society. In conclusive terms, the present work points out some possible connections between the splitting of the Ego, the melancholic servitude and the attempts to recover a narcissism upon the immersion in the contemporary masses.


Al tener en cuenta su importancia metapsicológica como social, este artículo traza un itinerario de las nociones de narcisismo y melancolía en "Psicología de las Masas y el Análisis del Yo". En este sentido, a través de una reconstitución del camino que comienza en "Introducción al Narcisismo" y "Luto y Melancolía" hasta la reaparición de estos conceptos en el texto sobre Psicología de las masas, se pretende discutir los procesos de idealización, identificación e introyección que, según Freud, enmarca una continuidad entre el sujeto y la sociedad. En conclusión, el presente trabajo señala algunas posibles conexiones entre la división del Yo, la servidumbre melancólica y los intentos de recuperar un narcisismo que se expande por la inmersión en las masas contemporáneas.

5.
Int J Pharm ; 602: 120635, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895295

RESUMO

Infectious diseases related to the vagina include diseases caused by the imbalance of the vaginal flora and by sexually transmitted infections. Some of these present themselves as a public health problem due to the lack of efficient treatment that leads to their complete cure, and others due to the growing resistance to drugs used in therapy. In this sense, new treatment strategies are desirable, with vaginal administration rout being a great choice since can bypass first-pass metabolism and decrease drug interactions and adverse effects. However, it is worth highlighting limitations related to patient's discomfort at application time. Thereby, the use of poloxamer-based drug delivery systems is desirable due its stimuli-sensitive characteristic. Therefore, the present review reports a brief overview of poloxamer properties, biological behavior and advances in poloxamer applications in controlled drug release systems for infectious diseases related to the vagina treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Poloxâmero , Administração Intravaginal , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Vagina
6.
J Drug Target ; 29(10): 1029-1047, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729081

RESUMO

Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a common condition that is induced by acid and pepsin causing lesions in the mucosa of the duodenum and stomach. The pathogenesis of PUD is a many-sided scenario, which involves an imbalance between protective factors, such as prostaglandins, blood flow, and cell renewal, and aggressive ones, like alcohol abuse, smoking, Helicobacter pylori colonisation, and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The standard oral treatment is well established; however, several problems can decrease the success of this therapy, such as drug degradation in the gastric environment, low oral bioavailability, and lack of vectorisation to the target site. In this way, the use of strategies to improve the effectiveness of these conventional drugs becomes interesting. Currently, the use of drug delivery systems is being explored as an option to improve the drug therapy limitations, such as antimicrobial resistance, low bioavailability, molecule degradation in an acid environment, and low concentration of the drug at the site of action. This article provides a review of oral drug delivery systems looking for improving the treatment of PUD.

7.
Crit Rev Microbiol ; 47(4): 435-460, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725462

RESUMO

Due to the high adaptability of Helicobacter pylori and the low targeting specificity of the drugs normally used in pharmacological therapy, the strains are becoming increasingly resistant to these drugs, making it difficult to eradicate the infection. Thus, the search for new therapeutic approaches has been considered urgent. The incorporation of drugs in advanced drug delivery systems, such as nano and microparticles, would allow the improvement of the retention time in the stomach and the prolongation of drug release rates at the target site. Because of this, the present review article aims to highlight the use of micro and nanoparticles as important technological tools for the treatment of H. pylori infections, focussing on the main nanotechnological systems, including nanostructured lipid carriers, liposomes, nanoemulsion, metallic nanoparticles, and polymeric nanoparticles, as well as microtechnological systems such as gastroretentive dosage forms, among them mucoadhesive, magnetic and floating systems were highlighted.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 261: 117919, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766328

RESUMO

Vaginal administration is a promising route for the local treatment of infectious vaginal diseases since it can bypass the first-pass metabolism, drug interactions, and adverse effects. However, the commercial products currently available for topical vulvovaginal treatment have low acceptability and do not adequately explore this route. Mucoadhesive systems can optimize the efficacy of drugs administered by this route to increase the retention time of the drug in the vaginal environment. Several polymers are used to develop mucoadhesive systems, among them chitosan, a natural polymer that is highly biocompatible and technologically versatile. Thus, the present review aimed to analyze the studies that used chitosan to develop mucoadhesive systems for the treatment of local vaginal infections. These studies demonstrated that chitosan as a component of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (DDS) is a promising device for the treatment of vaginal infectious diseases, due to the intrinsic antimicrobial activity of this biopolymer and because it does not interfere with the effectiveness of the drugs used for the treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Quitosana/química , Portadores de Fármacos , Infecções do Sistema Genital/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Vaginais/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravaginal , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacocinética , Materiais Biocompatíveis/síntese química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacocinética , Quitosana/síntese química , Quitosana/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/síntese química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Infecções do Sistema Genital/metabolismo , Doenças Vaginais/metabolismo
9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 256: 117504, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483027

RESUMO

Oral administration of insulin (INS) would represent a revolution in the treatment of diabetes, considering that this route mimics the physiological dynamics of endogenous INS. Nano- and microencapsulation exploiting the advantageous polysaccharides properties has been considered an important technological strategy to protect INS against harsh conditions of gastrointestinal tract, in the same time that improve the permeability via transcellular and/or paracellular pathways, safety and in some cases even selectivity for targeting delivery of INS. In fact, some polysaccharides also give to the systems functional properties such as pH-responsiveness, mucoadhesiveness under specific physiological conditions and increased intestinal permeability. In general, all polysaccharides can be functionalized with specific molecules becoming more selective to the cells to which INS is delivered. The present review highlights the advances in the past 10 years on micro- and nanoencapsulation of INS exploiting the unique natural properties of polysaccharides, including chitosan, starch, alginate, pectin, and dextran, among others.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Insulina/farmacocinética , Nanopartículas/química , Administração Oral , Alginatos/química , Animais , Quitosana/química , Dextranos/química , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Pectinas/química , Permeabilidade , Amido/química
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403438

RESUMO

The availability of an increasing collection of sequencing data provides the opportunity to study genetic variation with an unprecedented level of detail. There is much interest in uncovering the role of rare variants and their contribution to disease. However, detecting associations of rare variants with small minor allele frequencies (MAF) and modest effects remains a challenge for rare variant association methods. Due to this low signal-to-noise ratio, most methods are underpowered to detect associations even when conducting rare variant association tests at the gene level. We present a new method for detecting rare variant associations. The algorithm consists of two steps. In the first step, a genetic algorithm searches for a promising genomic region containing a collection of genes with causal rare variants. In the second step, a genetic algorithm aims at removing false positives from the located genomic region. We tested the proposed method with a collection of datasets obtained from real exome data. The proposed method possesses sufficient power for detecting associations of rare variants with complex phenotypes. This method can be used for studying the contribution of rare variants with complex disease, particularly in cases where single-variant or gene-based tests are underpowered.

11.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(11): 3322-3330, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between ultra-processed food consumption and early childhood caries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cluster randomised controlled study. Outcomes included the prevalence of children with non-cavitated and cavitated caries. The main exposure was the total daily consumption of ultra-processed foods (up to three times and four times or more), assessed through a FFQ. Potential confounders were socio-demographic characteristics of the child and caregiver/family, child breast-feeding, oral hygiene and use of dental services. Poisson regression using robust variance adjustment was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and their respective 95 % CI. SETTING: Primary Healthcare Centers in an urban area of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 0-3 years (n 309). RESULTS: Consumption of ultra-processed foods four times or more a day was found in 67·6 % of children; 24·4 and 12·0 % presented non-cavitated and cavitated caries, respectively. After adjustment, children who consumed ultra-processed foods four times or more a day were more likely to present both non-cavitated caries (PR 2·25, 95 % CI 1·19, 4·27, P = 0·013) and cavitated caries (PR 3·48, 95 % CI 1·18, 10·30, P = 0·024) compared with those who have consumed them up to three times a day. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of ultra-processed foods is associated with early childhood caries. Interventions aiming at reducing ultra-processed food consumption should be implemented to improve children's oral health.

13.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(12)2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327588

RESUMO

Metronidazole (MT) is an important drug available for Helicobacter pylori infection treatment. However, in the past few years, this drug has presented effective reduction for infection control, one of the most important reasons is attributed to the reduction of retention time in the stomach environment. Mucoadhesive nanostructured polyelectrolyte complexes (nano PECs) based on chitosan (CS) and hypromellose phthalate (HP) were rationally developed using a full factorial design (21 × 21 × 31), for the incorporation of MT based on the enhancement of the antimicrobial potential against active Helicobacter pylori, in the stomach. Different mass ratios of CS:HP (w/w) were tested, reaching the most promising ratios of 1:0.1, 1:0.5, and 1:1, and two methods of polymers addition (pouring-I and drip-II) were also evaluated. From method I, the obtained particles presented a diameter in the range of 811-1293 nm (Z-average) and a polydispersity index (PDI) between 0.47 and 0.88. By method II, there was a significant reduction in diameter and PDI to 553-739 nm and 0.23 at 0.34, respectively. The drug incorporation also resulted in a reduction in the diameter and PDI of the nano PECs. All samples showed positive zeta potential, about 20 mV, and a high percentage of MT incorporation (±95%). The method factor presented a greater influence on the nano PECs characteristics. Interactions in the system constituents were indicated by the FTIR data. Nano PECs mucoadhesiveness was observed and the composition and charge density were responsible for this phenomenon. MT dissolution evaluation showed the similarity of the dissolution profiles of free and loaded MT, in which almost 100% of the drug was in the simulated gastric medium in 120 min of testing. The in vitro antimicrobial potential against H. pylori of loaded nano PECs were measured and the minimum inhibitory concentration observed for free MT was >2000 µg/mL, while for the incorporated MT lower values were observed, showing an increase in the encapsulated MT activity.

14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 250: 116968, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049864

RESUMO

Chitosan-based particles are widely proposed as biocompatible drug delivery systems with mucoadhesive and permeation enhancing properties. However, strategies on how to modulate the intended biological responses are still scarce. Considering that particle properties affect the biological outcome, the rational design of the synthesis variables should be proposed to engineer drug delivery systems with improved biological performance. The purpose of this review is to establish a deeper understanding of possible correlations between these variables and the particle properties from theoretical and experimental perspectives. The fundamental physicochemical knowledge of chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexation and surface modification is discussed focusing on chitosan-TPP, polyelectrolyte complexes, and chitosan-surface modified PLGA or lipid particles. A set of design considerations is proposed to enable future investigation in the development of chitosan particles with modulated properties. The approach presented here contributes to the rational design of chitosan-based particles that meet different requirements for biological activities.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Polieletrólitos/química , Nanopartículas/química
15.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 549-554, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515427

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Resin infiltration may be a barrier for bleaching gels. The aim of this study was to compare dental bleaching effectiveness using low-concentration gels on heavily or mildly stained teeth that were or were not treated with resin infiltration agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty bovine enamel surfaces were submitted to demineralisation, after which two staining protocols were performed. Twenty specimens were immersed in a staining broth for 24 h (Lab 1) or 7 days (Lab 2). Ten specimens of each group received resin infiltrant application following the manufacturer's recommendation. All specimens were bleached using 15% carbamide peroxide gel for 14 days (8 h daily). Colour measurement was performed using a reflectance spectrophotometer at three time points: baseline, after staining, and after bleaching. Data (CIEDE00) were analysed using Student's t-test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were observed in Lab 1 (p = 0.560). For Lab 2, statistically significant differences were detected (p = 0.031). Once bleaching was achieved to some degree (Lab 2), the resin infiltrant may have behaved as a semipermeable barrier to the carbamide peroxide gels. CONCLUSION: Bleaching treatment was effective on mildly pigmented tooth surfaces. On the other hand, in comparison to the control group, the heavily pigmented surfaces bleached less in the presence of the resin infiltrant, possibly due to the lack of free radicals penetrating into the substrate.


Assuntos
Clareadores Dentários , Clareamento Dental , Descoloração de Dente , Animais , Peróxido de Carbamida , Bovinos , Esmalte Dentário , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Resinas Vegetais
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 159: 804-822, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425271

RESUMO

The development of gastroretentive systems have been growing lately due to the high demand for carriers that increase drug bioavailability and therapeutic effectiveness after oral administration. Most of systems reported up to now are based on chitosan (CS) due to its peculiar properties, such as cationic nature, biodegradability, biocompatibility and important mucoadhesiveness, which make CS a promising biopolymer to design effective gastroretentive systems. In light of this, we reported in this review the CS versatility to fabricate different types of nano- and microstructured gastroretentive systems. For a better understanding of the gastric retention mechanisms, we highlighted expandable, density-based, magnetic, mucoadhesive and superporous systems. The biological and chemical properties of CS, anatomophysiological aspects related to gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and some applications of these systems are also described here. Overall, this review may assist researchers to explore new strategies to design safe and efficient gastroretentive systems in order to popularize them in the treatment of diseases and clinical practices.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Algoritmos , Animais , Quitina/química , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Modelos Biológicos , Estrutura Molecular , Estômago/anatomia & histologia , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Nano Lett ; 20(5): 3828-3835, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267711

RESUMO

To exploit the high-temperature superinsulation potential of anisotropic thermal management materials, the incorporation of ceramic aerogel into the aligned structural networks is indispensable. However, the long-standing obstacle to exploring ultralight superinsulation ceramic aerogels is the inaccessibility of its mechanical elasticity, stability, and anisotropic thermal insulation. In this study, we report a recoverable, flexible ceramic fiber-aerogel composite with anisotropic lamellar structure, where the interfacial cross-linking between ceramic fiber and aerogel is important in its superinsulation performance. The resulting ultralight aerogel composite exhibits a density of 0.05 g/cm3, large strain recovery (over 50%), and low thermal conductivity (0.0224 W m-1 K-1), while its hydrophobicity is achieved by in situ trichlorosilane coating with the water contact angle of 135°. The hygroscopic tests of such aerogel composites demonstrate a reversible thermal insulation. The mechanical elasticity and stability of the anisotropic composites, with its soundproof performance, shed light on the low-cost superelastic aerogel manufacturing with scalability for energy saving building applications.

18.
J Clin Virol ; 126: 104307, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterovirus (EV) A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) A16 were the most frequent serotypes involved in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks throughout Asia. In the past 5 years, however, CV-A6 has emerged as a new important pathogen worldwide, and more severe and extensive dermatologic presentations has been reported. OBJECTIVES: Identify the clinical spectrum for atypical HFMD and enterovirus serotypes in Belém, Pará, Amazon region of northern Brazil. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective ambulatory clinic-based surveillance conducted from January to June 2019, involving patients under 15 years with symptoms of HFMD. Stool, serum, oropharyngeal, and skin swab samples were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to detect the viral genome of enteroviruses. Positive specimens were submitted to semi-nested PCR. Physical examinations and demographic data were recorded on a standardized form. RESULTS: 48 patients with symptoms of HFMD were included in the study and collected all samples according to protocol. Enteroviruses were detected in 83 % of patients. An atypical form of HFMD with vesiculobullous exanthema was present in 70 % (28/40); desquamation of the palms and soles detected in 90 % (36/40) and onychomadesis in 30 % (12/40) of patients. The serotype was identified in 22 patients, CV- A6 occurred in 81.8 % of them. CONCLUSION: This is the first ambulatory surveillance and virologic investigation involving HFMD performed in outpatients from Amazon region, Brazil. The detection of CV-A6 was related to atypical forms HFMD. Desquamation of the palms and soles and nail changes occurred with frequency, such as a late sequel in the HFMD disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/genética , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sorogrupo , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/virologia
19.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 31: e3168, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134759

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Although Physical Education has historically been based on teaching strategies predominantly directives, it is possible speculate that less directive methodologies might contribute more effectively to learning. The aim of this study was to compare the possible implications of using different teaching styles for learning volleyball game. Thus end, 27 teenagers divided into three groups (Directive Group; Indirective group and control group) took part for an intervention program of eight meetings aimed at teaching procedural volleyball contents. Overall, the results suggest that indirective teaching styles contribute more effectively to participation decision, which causes a reflection on the need to revisit the teaching strategies used by teachers and the need for a more systemic approach to teaching games.


RESUMO Embora a Educação Física escolar tenha historicamente se baseado em estratégias de ensino predominantemente diretivas, é possível especular que metodologias menos diretivas possam contribuir de forma mais efetiva para o aprendizado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar as possíveis implicações da utilização de diferentes estilos de ensino na aprendizagem do jogo da modalidade esportiva voleibol. Para tanto, 27 adolescentes divididos em três grupos (Grupo Diretivo; Grupo Indiretivo e Grupo Controle) foram submetidos a um programa de intervenção de oito encontros voltados ao ensino de conteúdos procedimentais do voleibol. De modo geral, os resultados encontrados sugerem que estilos de ensino indiretivos contribuem de forma mais efetiva para a participação no jogo e para a tomada de decisão, o que provoca uma reflexão sobre a necessidade de se revisitar as estratégias de ensino utilizadas pelos professores e pela necessidade de uma abordagem mais sistêmica para o ensino de jogos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Ensino/educação , Modelos Educacionais , Voleibol/educação , Educação Física e Treinamento , Esportes/educação , Tomada de Decisões , Professores Escolares , Aprendizagem
20.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(2,supl): 1-10, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1100194

RESUMO

The current outbreak of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) challenges how professional standards have been defined so far. In Dentistry, biosafety measures already taken by professionals have been intensified, aiming to offer the patient urgent and emergency treatment with safety for both. In this context, Restorative Dentistry is responsible for the care of patients with caries injuries, with or without symptoms and, fractures of teeth and existing restorations. This article guides professionals, during the pandemic period, on the risks involved in adult and pediatric dental care for patients with restorative needs. It also discusses strategies to optimize clinical practice, reducing risks of contamination and virus transmission. (AU)


O atual surto de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19), fez com que muitos profissionais repensassem sua postura de trabalho. Na Odontologia, medidas de biossegurança já realizadas pelos profissionais, foram intensificadas, com o objetivo de oferecer ao paciente um tratamento de urgência e emergência com segurança para ambos. Neste contexto, a Odontologia Restauradora é responsável pelo atendimento de pacientes com lesões de cárie, com ou sem sintomatologia, e fraturas de dentes e restaurações já existentes. Este trabalho orienta os profissionais quanto aos riscos envolvidos no atendimento odontológico, adulto e pediátrico, de paciente com necessidades restauradoras durante o período de pandemia. O artigo também discute estratégias para otimizar o atendimento, diminuindo riscos de contaminação e transmissão do vírus. (AU)


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Odontologia , Pandemias
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