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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28904552

RESUMO

In tropical America, principally in Northeastern Brazil, the leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale is traditionally used for treatment of different diseases. However, chemical and biological properties and activities of Anacardium occidentale are poorly investigated and known. Here, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities "in vitro" of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale. Our results show that leaf extract exhibits antioxidant activity when used to treat RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant effects were observed by decrease in oxidative damage in macrophage cells treated with 0.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL of leaf extract. Moreover, leaf extract reversed oxidative damage and inflammatory parameters induced in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Leaf extract at 0.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL was able to inhibit release of TNF-α and IL-1ß in LPS-stimulated cells. Taken together, our results indicate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale and reveal the positive effects that intake of these products can mediate in biological system.

2.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 8795, 2017 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28821831

RESUMO

The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor associated with inflammation in most cell types. RAGE up-regulates the expression of proinflammatory mediators and its own expression via activation of NF-kB. Recent works have proposed a role for RAGE in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we used the multimodal blocker of RAGE FPS-ZM1, which has become available recently, to selectively inhibit RAGE in the substantia nigra (SN) of rats intracranially injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). FPS-ZM1 (40 µg per rat), injected concomitantly with 6-OHDA (10 µg per rat) into the SN, inhibited the increase in RAGE, activation of ERK1/2, Src and nuclear translocation of NF-kB p65 subunit in the SN. RAGE inhibition blocked glial fibrillary acidic protein and Iba-1 upregulation as well as associated astrocyte and microglia activation. Circulating cytokines in serum and CSF were also decreased by FPS-ZM1 injection. The loss of tyrosine hydroxylase and NeuN-positive neurons was significantly inhibited by RAGE blocking. Finally, FPS-ZM1 attenuated locomotory and exploratory deficits induced by 6-OHDA. Our results demonstrate that RAGE is an essential component in the neuroinflammation and dopaminergic denervation induced by 6-OHDA in the SN. Selective inhibition of RAGE may offer perspectives for therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Oxidopamina/efeitos adversos , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/antagonistas & inibidores , Substância Negra/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Ratos , Substância Negra/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância Negra/patologia , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
3.
Brain Behav Immun ; 62: 124-136, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088642

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation induces transient or permanent dysfunction in the brain by exposing it to soluble inflammatory mediators. The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) binds to distinct ligands mediating and increasing inflammatory processes. In this study we used an LPS-induced systemic inflammation model in rats to investigate the effect of blocking RAGE in serum, liver, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra). Intraperitoneal injection of RAGE antibody (50µg/kg) was followed after 1h by a single LPS (5mg/kg) intraperitoneal injection. Twenty-four hours later, tissues were isolated for analysis. RAGE antibody reduced LPS-induced inflammatory effects in both serum and liver; the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß) were decreased and the phosphorylation/activation of RAGE downstream targets (ERK1/2, IκB and p65) in liver were significantly attenuated. RAGE antibody prevented LPS-induced effects on TNF-α and IL-1ß in CSF. In striatum, RAGE antibody inhibited increases in IL-1ß, Iba-1, GFAP, phospho-ERK1/2 and phospho-tau (ser202), as well as the decrease in synaptophysin levels. These effects were caused by systemic RAGE inhibition, as RAGE antibody did not cross the blood-brain barrier. RAGE antibody also prevented striatal lipoperoxidation and activation of mitochondrial complex II. In conclusion, blockade of RAGE is able to inhibit inflammatory responses induced by LPS in serum, liver, CSF and brain.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/farmacologia , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
J Med Food ; 19(10): 922-930, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27602660

RESUMO

In South America, particularly in the Northeastern regions of Brazil, Turnera subulata leaf extract is used as an alternative traditional medicine approach for several types of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, chronic pain, and general inflammation. Despite its widespread use, little is known about the medicinal properties of the plants of this genus. In this study, we evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory of T. subulata leaf extract in an in vitro model of inflammation, using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW-264.7 macrophage cell line. We observed that cotreatment with T. subulata leaf extract was able to reduce the oxidative stress in cells due to inflammatory response. More importantly, we observed that the leaf extract was able to directly modulate inflammatory response by altering activity of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Our results demonstrate for the first time that T. subulata have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which warrant further investigation of the medicinal potential of this species.

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