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ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(3): 1242-1251, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586954


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). A large amount of proinflammatory cytokines is released in the CNS from the self-reactive T cells infiltrate, leading to the destruction of the myelin sheath and contributing to the development of MS. Several drugs have emerged in recent years to treat MS, and studies have shown that gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have anti-inflammatory properties in autoimmune diseases. Thus, the effects of GNP conjugation to ethylene dicysteine diethyl ester (ECD) were evaluated in C57BL/6 female mice exposed to experimental MS. Animals were exposed to experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55) in complete Freund's adjuvant supplemented with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The clinical and cerebral effects of the different doses of ECD-GNPs (0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 mg/kg) were first studied, and the results showed that the group treated with 0.6 mg/kg ECD-GNPs improved clinical symptoms, inflammatory infiltrate, and myelin integrity. In the following step, GNPs and ECD-GNPs (0.6 mg/kg) showed improvements in the clinical signs of the disease. Moreover, there was a reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in both groups compared to EAE, and only the isolated use of GNPs increased IL-4 expression. Both NF-κB and TGFß immunoexpression were significantly reduced following EAE + GNPs and EAE + ECD-GNPs treatment. In conclusion, GNPs and ECD-GNPs at 0.6 mg/kg attenuate the neurological signs of EAE likely due to inhibition of neuroinflammation induced by EAE.

Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Animais , Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Ésteres , Feminino , Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(10): 6180-6190, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384969


The photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been outstanding as a promising alternative for treating different carcinomas. However, the lack of detailed knowledge on the mechanisms of action prevents exploitation of the therapy full potential. Herein we shall evaluate not only the photodynamic efficiency but the mechanism of cell death triggered by the photoactivated erythrosine in oropharyngeal cancer cells (HEp-2). Cytotoxic assays were performed by MTT at distinct concentrations (10-3 to 10-6 mol/L) and incubation time (3, 24 and 48 h) of erythrosine in HEp-2 in vitro culture. In addition to the cytotoxic effect, the mechanisms of cell death were evaluated by flow cytometry following the annexin V/propidium iodide double staining protocol. Erythrosine was incorporated by HEp-2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent pathway. The incubation of erythrosine in dark has not shown any significant effect over the culture until 24 h and 1.25×10-6 mol/L concentration, from which a small portion (<25% and statistically significant) of the cell population have undergone apoptosis. On the other hand, 50% of cell viability is reduced mainly by necrosis when 10, 3.75 and 1.9×10-6 mol/L of erythrosine concentrations at 3, 24 and 48 h of incubation are photoactivated, respectively. Bioinspired models of tumor membrane based on Langmuir monolayers of 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (DOPS) mixture reveled that electrostatic interactions with the lipid head groups are the main driving forces allowing the erythrosine adsorption. Furthermore, light-induced hydroperoxidation significantly increased the surface area of the monolayers, which might be the origin of the necrotic pathway triggered in HEp-2 cells.

Carcinoma , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Fotoquimioterapia , Eritrosina/farmacologia , Humanos , Necrose , Xantenos
Rev. bras. ciênc. esporte ; 40(3): 273-280, jul.-set. 2018. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-977496


Resumo Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar os efeitos do exercício agudo com carga de trabalho relativa em gastrocnêmio de ratos Wistar com três e 18 meses. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos (n = 6): controle de três e 18 meses; exercício de três e 18 meses. Os grupos exercitados foram submetidos a uma única sessão de corrida na esteira com 60 minutos em velocidade de 0,8 km/h e 1,2 km/h. Foram analisados parâmetros do metabolismo (níveis de lactato, conteúdo de glicogênio, níveis de succinato desidrogenase, citocromo c oxidase e de estresse oxidativo (SOD, CAT e GPX). Os resultados mostraram um aumento nos marcadores metabólicos após o exercício agudo independentemente da idade dos animais e similaridade nos danos oxidativos apesar de as enzimas antioxidantes apresentarem modulação diferenciada nos animais mais velhos em comparação com animais jovens.

Abstract The effects of exercise on the generation of reactive oxygen species and the response to muscle oxidative stress determines longevity. This study compares the effects of acute exercise with similar relative workload in rats with 3 and 18 months. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 6): control 3-months; exercise 3-months; control 18-months and exercise 18-months. Exercised groups underwent to a single bout of running with 60 minutes in the speed 0.8 km/h (18 months) and 1.2 km/h (3 months). Metabolic parameters (lactate levels, glycogen content, succinate dehydrogenase levels, cytochrome c oxidase) and oxidative stress (activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase). The results showed an increase in metabolic markers after acute exercise regardless of the age and similarity in oxidative damage even if the antioxidant enzymes are age-dependent. These results suggest that the effects of acute exercise at moderate intensity, affects the metabolism independent of age, and, that the differential response in enzymatic antioxidant system between groups do not promote protection against oxidative damage.

Este estudio ha tenido como objetivo comparar los efectos del ejercicio agudo con carga de trabajo relativamente similar en el gastrocnemio de ratas Wistar con 3 y 8 meses. Se separó a los animales en cuatro grupos (n = 6): control de 3 y 18 meses, y ejercicio de 3 y 18 meses. Se sometió a los grupos de ejercicio a una sola sesión de carrera en la cinta durante 60 minutos con una velocidad de 0,8 km/h y 1,2 km/h. Se analizaron algunos parámetros del metabolismo (niveles de lactato, contenido de glucógeno, niveles de succionato-deshidrogenasa, citocromo c-oxidasa e de estrés oxidativo [superóxido-dismutasa, catalasa y glutatión-peroxidasa]). Los resultados mostraron un aumento de los marcadores metabólicos después del ejercicio agudo independientemente de la edad de los animales y la similitud de los daños oxidativos aunque las enzimas antioxidantes presentan modulación diferenciada en animales viejos en comparación con animales jóvenes.

Mol Neurobiol ; 54(6): 4723-4737, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27447807


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by demyelination, immune cell infiltration, and axonal damage. Herein, we sought to investigate the influence of physical exercise on mice experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a reported MS model. Data show that both strength and endurance training protocols consistently prevented clinical signs of EAE and decreased oxidative stress, an effect which was likely due to improving genomic antioxidant defense-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)/antioxidant response elements (ARE) pathway-in the CNS. In addition, physical exercise inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-17, and IL-1ß in the spinal cord of mice with EAE. Of note, spleen cells obtained from strength training group incubated with MOG35-55 showed a significant upregulation of CD25 and IL-10 levels, with a decrease of IL-6, MCP-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production, mainly, during acute and chronic phase of EAE. Moreover, these immunomodulatory effects of exercise were associated with reduced expression of adhesion molecules, especially of platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1). Finally, physical exercise also restored the expression of tight junctions in spinal cord. Together, these results demonstrate that mild/moderate physical exercise, when performed regularly in mice, consistently attenuates the progression and pathological hallmarks of EAE, thereby representing an important non-pharmacological intervention for the improvement of immune-mediated diseases such as MS. Graphical Abstract Schematic diagram illustrating the beneficial effects of physical exercise during experimental model of MS. Physical exercise, especially strength (ST) and endurance (ET) training protocols, inhibits the development and progression of disease, measured by the mean maximal clinical score (1.5 and 1.0, respectively), with inhibition of 30 % and 50 %, respectively, based on the AUC, compared with EAEuntreated group. In addition, ST and ET decreased oxidative stress, possibly, through genomic antioxidant defense, Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway, in the CNS. Physical exercise inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-1ß in the spinal cord after EAE induction, as well as spleen cells obtained from ST group showed a significant upregulation of regulatory T cell markers, such as CD25 and IL-10 levels, and blocked IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α production, mainly, during acute and chronic phase of EAE. Finally, these immunomodulatory effects of exercise were associated with inhibition of adhesion molecules and reestablishment of tight junctions expression in spinal cord tissue, thereby limiting BBB permeability and transmigration of autoreactive T cells to the CNS. NO, nitric oxide; GPx, glutathione peroxidase, GSH, glutathione; Nrf2, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; CNS, central nervous system; BBB, blood-brain barrier; IFN-g, interferon-gamma; IL-17, interleukin 17; IL-1b, interleukin-1beta.

Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo , Permeabilidade , Resistência Física , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 28(5): 833-41, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26620674


Age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength is associated with oxidative stress and Ca(2+) homeostasis disturbance. Exercise should be considered a viable modality to combat aging of skeletal muscle. This study aimed to investigate whether continuous and fractionated training could be useful tools to attenuate oxidative damage and retain calcium-handling proteins. We conducted the study using 24-month-old male Wistar rats, divided into control, continuous, and fractionated groups. Animals ran at 13 m min(-1) for five consecutive days (except weekends) for 6 weeks, for a total period of 42 days. Each session comprised 45 min of exercise, either continuous or divided into three daily sessions of 15 min each. Metabolic and oxidative stress markers, protein levels of mitochondrial transcription factors, and calcium-handling proteins were analyzed. Continuous exercise resulted in reduced ROS production as well as showed a decrease in TBARS levels and carbonyl content. On the other hand, fractionated training increased the antioxidant enzyme activities. The ryanodine receptor and phospholamban protein were regulated by continuous training while sodium calcium exchange protein was increased by the fractionated training. These data suggest that intracellular Ca(2+) can be modulated by various training stimuli. In addition, the modulation of oxidative stress by continuous and fractionated training may play an important regulatory role in the muscular contraction mechanism of aged rats, due to changes in calcium metabolism.

Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Oxirredução , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
Autoimmunity ; 49(2): 132-42, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26703077


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent episodes of T cell-mediated immune attack on central nervous system (CNS) myelin, leading to axon damage and progressive disability. The existing therapies for MS are only partially effective and are associated with undesirable side effects. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been clinically used to treat inflammation, and to induce tissue healing and repair processes. However, there are no reports about the effects and mechanisms of LLLT in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of MS. Here, we report the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of LLLT (AlGaInP, 660 nm and GaAs, 904 nm) irradiated on the spinal cord during EAE development. EAE was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. Our results showed that LLLT consistently reduced the clinical score of EAE and delayed the disease onset, and also prevented weight loss induced by immunization. Furthermore, these beneficial effects of LLLT seem to be associated with the down-regulation of NO levels in the CNS, although the treatment with LLLT failed to inhibit lipid peroxidation and restore antioxidant defense during EAE. Finally, histological analysis showed that LLLT blocked neuroinflammation through a reduction of inflammatory cells in the CNS, especially lymphocytes, as well as preventing demyelination in the spinal cord after EAE induction. Together, our results suggest the use of LLLT as a therapeutic application during autoimmune neuroinflammatory responses, such as MS.

Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Doenças Desmielinizantes/imunologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/patologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Feminino , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/metabolismo , Camundongos , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2015: 261809, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26448816


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two different protocols for physical exercise (strength and aerobic training) on mitochondrial and inflammatory parameters in the 6-OHDA experimental model of Parkinson's disease. Six experimental groups were used (n = 12 per group): untrained + vehicle (Sham), strength training + vehicle (STR), treadmill training + vehicle (TTR), untrained + 6-OHDA (U + 6-OHDA), strength training + 6-OHDA (STR + 6-OHDA), and treadmill training + 6-OHDA (TTR + 6-OHDA). The mice were subjected to strength or treadmill training for 8 weeks. PD was induced via striatal injection of 6-OHDA 24 h after the last exercise session. Mice were euthanized by cervical dislocation and the striatum and hippocampus were homogenized to determine levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) by western blot; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-17, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) levels by ELISA; NO content; and complex I (CI) activity. STR + 6-OHDA mice had higher TH levels and CI activity and lower NF-κB p65 and IFN-γ levels in the striatum compared to U + 6-OHDA mice, while TTR + 6-OHDA mice had higher Sirt1 levels and CI activity in both the striatum and the hippocampus, compared to U + 6-OHDA mice. Strength training increased CI activity and TH and Sirt1 levels and reduced NO, NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, and TGF-ß1 levels in 6-OHDA mice, while treadmill exercise increased CI activity and NO, TH, and Sirt1 levels and reduced NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1ß levels. Our results demonstrated that both treadmill training and strength training promote neuroprotection, possibly by stimulating Sirt1 activity, which may in turn regulate both mitochondrial function and neuroinflammation via deacetylation of NF-κB p65. Changes in nitric oxide levels may also be a mechanism by which 6-OHDA-induced inflammation is controlled.

Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Teóricos
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 41(1): 151-62, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25438848


The aim of the study described here was to investigate the effects of pulsed ultrasound and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on behavioral, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in an experimental model of overuse. Wistar rats performed 21 d of exercise on a treadmill at different intensities and were exposed to ultrasound in the presence or absence of AuNPs. The overuse model promoted behavioral changes and increased creatine kinase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, as well as the levels of superoxide, nitrotyrosine, nitric oxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, carbonyl, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6. These values were significantly decreased by AuNPs and by AuNPs plus ultrasound. Catalase activity remained unchanged and the glutathione level increased significantly after exposure to AuNPs plus ultrasound. These results suggest a susceptibility to anxiety as well as elevated levels of oxidative stress. However, therapeutic interventions with AuNPs plus ultrasound reduced the production of oxidants and oxidative damage and improved the anti-oxidant defense system.

Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/imunologia , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/terapia , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Doenças Musculares/imunologia , Doenças Musculares/terapia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia , Terapia por Ultrassom/métodos , Animais , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo , Fonoforese/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Resultado do Tratamento
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 44: 380-5, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25280718


The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of microcurrent and gold nanoparticles on oxidative stress parameters and the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the healing of skin wounds. Thirty 60-day old male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups (N=6): Control; Burn wounds; Microcurrent (MIC); Gold nanoparticle gel (GNP gel) and Microcurrent+Gold nanoparticle gel (MIC+GNP gel). The microcurrent treatment was applied for five consecutive days at a dose of 300 µA. The results demonstrate a significant decrease in the activity of complexes I, II-III and IV in the Burn Wounds group compared to the control, and the MIC+GNP gel group was able to reverse this inhibition in complexes I, III and IV. Furthermore, a significant reduction in oxidative damage parameters and a significant increase in the levels of antioxidant defence enzymes were induced in the MIC+GNP gel group compared to the Burn Wounds group. The data strongly indicate that the group receiving treatment with MIC+GNP gel had improved mitochondrial functioning and oxidative stress parameters, which contributed to tissue repair.

Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Ouro/farmacologia , Iontoforese/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Géis/química , Géis/farmacologia , Ouro/química , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
Cell Biochem Funct ; 29(1): 43-9, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21264889


Infrequent exercise, typically involving eccentric actions, has been shown to cause oxidative stress and to damage muscle tissue. High taurine levels are present in skeletal muscle and may play a role in cellular defences against free radical-mediated damage. This study investigates the effects of taurine supplementation on oxidative stress biomarkers after eccentric exercise (EE). Twenty-four male rats were divided into the following groups (n = 6): control; EE; EE plus taurine (EE + Taurine); EE plus saline (EE + Saline). Taurine was administered as a 1-ml 300 mg kg(-1) per body weight (BW) day(-1) solution in water by gavage, for 15 consecutive days. Starting on the 14th day of supplementation, the animals were submitted to one 90-min downhill run session and constant velocity of 1·0 km h(-1) . Forty-eight hours after the exercise session, the animals were killed and the quadriceps muscles were surgically removed. Production of superoxide anion, creatine kinase (CK) levels, lipoperoxidation, carbonylation, total thiol content and antioxidant enzyme were analysed. Taurine supplementation was found to decrease superoxide radical production, CK, lipoperoxidation and carbonylation levels and increased total thiol content in skeletal muscle, but it did not affect antioxidant enzyme activity after EE. The present study suggests that taurine affects skeletal muscle contraction by decreasing oxidative stress, in association with decreased superoxide radical production.

Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Creatina Quinase/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Superóxidos/análise , Superóxidos/metabolismo
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 16(2): 126-129, mar.-abr. 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-552099


O presente estudo investigou o efeito de quatro e oito semanas de treinamento físico sobre a atividade dos complexos da cadeia transportadora de elétrons (CTE) e os marcadores de estresse oxidativo em fígado de camundongos. Vinte e um camundongos (CF1, 30-35g) foram distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: não treinado (NT); treinado quatro semanas (T4); treinado oito semanas (T8). Quarenta e oito horas após a última sessão de treinamento os animais foram mortos por decapitação e o fígado foi retirado e estocado em -70ºC para posterior análise. Atividade da succinato desidrogenase (SDH), dos complexos I,II,III e IV da CTE, carbonilação de proteína, conteúdo total de tióis e a atividade da superóxido dismutase foram mensurados. Os resultados demonstram que apenas oito semanas de treinamento aumentam a atividade da SDH, dos quatro complexos da CTE, da superóxido dismutase, e o conteúdo total de tióis em relação ao grupo não treinado. Houve ainda diminuição na carbonilação de proteína no respectivo grupo em relação ao NT. Em conclusão, são necessárias oito semanas de treinamento para que ocorram aumento no funcionamento mitocondrial e melhora nos marcadores de estresse oxidativo em fígado de camundongos.

The present study investigated mitochondrial adaptations and oxidative stress markers after four and eight weeks of running training in liver of mice. Twenty-one male mice (CF1, 30-35g) were distributed into the following groups (n=7): untrained (UT); trained - four weeks (T4); trained - eight weeks (T8). Forty-eight hours after the last training session the animals were killed by decapitation and livers were removed and stored at -70ºC. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), complexes I, II, II-III and IV, protein carbonyls (PC), total thiol content and superoxide dismutase activity were measured. The results show that endurance training (8-wk) increases the SDH activity and complexes (I, II, III, IV), superoxide dismutase and total thiol content in liver when compared to untrained animals. Decrease in protein carbonylation in the respective group in relation to UT was also observed. It could be concluded that eight weeks of running training are necessary for mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities increase and improvement in oxidative stress markers in liver of mice.

Animais , Camundongos , Transporte de Elétrons , Fígado , Estresse Oxidativo , Treinamento Resistido
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 22(6): 567-73, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19683592


Studies have shown that the oxidative power of cigarettes is related to the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases and that regular physical exercise contributes significantly to reducing the deleterious effects of cigarettes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of physical exercise on histological and oxidative stress markers in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. Thirty-six male, eight-week-old C57BL-6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 9 for each group): control, exercise, cigarette smoke, and cigarette smoke plus exercise. The cigarette smoke (CS) groups were exposed to cigarette smoke 3 times/day (4 cigarettes/session) for 60 consecutive days. The exercise groups were submitted to swimming physical training 5 days/week for eight weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last exercise and cigarette exposure, the animals were sacrificed using cervical traction. The right lung was removed, processed, and stored for future analysis. In addition to the analysis of collagen content (hydroxyproline), oxidant production (anion superoxide), antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT), and lipid and protein oxidative damage (TBARS and Carbonylation), histological and morphological studies were performed. The results revealed that the animals exposed to cigarette smoke showed enlargement and destruction of the alveolar septum and increases in the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils, as well as in the amount of collagen. Our results also showed a decrease in the volume density of elastic fibers and an increase in the volume density of airspaces. However, physical exercise partially improved these markers. Additionally, physical exercise decreased oxidant production and increased the activity of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, but did not reverse lipid and protein oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke. These results suggest that physical training partially improves histological and oxidative stress parameters in the lungs of animals chronically exposed to cigarette smoke and that other therapies can contribute to potentiate these effects.

Pulmão/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Fumar/patologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
Fisioter. pesqui ; 16(1): 70-75, jan.-mar. 2009. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-541972


Na prática fisioterapêutica, pressupõe-se que alterações posturais do membro inferior influenciem a biomecânica e função dos demais complexos durante o movimento. No entanto, a literatura sobre a relação entre desalinhamentos estáticos do joelho e possíveis alterações dinâmicas ainda é escassa e inconclusiva. Assim, buscou-se avaliar o efeito do alinhamento frontal estático do joelho sobre a distribuição da pressão plantar durante a marcha. Foram avaliados inicialmente 44 adultos jovens assintomáticos. Por fotogrametria digital, mediu-se o ângulo frontal do joelho, classificado como normal (170° a 175°), valgo <170º e varo >175°. Dado o baixo número de valgos, foram analisados dois grupos: de joelhos normais (n=18) e de joelhos varos (n=23). A distribuição da pressão plantar foi avaliada durante a marcha em cinco áreas. Os grupos mostraram-se estatistica-mente semelhantes em todas as variáveis cinéticas avaliadas em todas as áreas plantares. Joelhos normais apresentaram significativa correlação com o tempo de contato no antepé lateral e médio-pé; e os varos, correlação com a área e tempo de contato em duas e três áreas plantares, e com a pressão integral no antepé lateral. Os resultados mostraram que o desalinhamento frontal de 3° do joelho, embora com moderada correlação, não influencia a distribuição de cargas na superfície plantar durante a marcha. Sugere-se pois que a avaliação clínica não se limite à avaliação articular estática do joelho, mas inclua atividades dinâmicas...

In physical therapy practice, it is assumed that lower-limb posture changes may influence other complexes’ biomechanics or function during movement. However, literature on the relationship between static knee alignment and possible dynamic changes is still scarce and inconclusive. This study assessed the effect of static frontal knee alignment on plantar pressure distribution during gait. At first 44 young asymptomatic adults were evaluated. Front knee angles were measured by digital photogrammetry and classified as normal (170° to 175°), valgus <170°, or varus >175°. Given the low number of valgus found, two groups were analysed: normal knees (n=18) and varus knees (n=23). Plantar pressure distribution was measured during gait in five plantar surface areas. Groups were found to be statistically similar in all kinetic variables assessed in all plantar surface areas. Normal knees showed significant correlation with the contact time at lateral forefoot and midfoot. Varus knees showed correlation with contact area and time at respectively two and three plantar areas, and with full pressure at lateral forefoot. Results thus show that a 3° frontal knee malalignment, though with moderate correlation, does not influence pressure distribution on plantar surface during gait. It is hence suggested that clinical evaluation should not be limited to static knee assessment, but rather include dynamic activities.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha , Articulação do Joelho , Equilíbrio Postural , Postura
Rev. bras. crescimento desenvolv. hum ; 17(1): 76-83, abr. 2007. tab
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: psi-54811


OBJETIVO: descrever o desenvolvimento do arco longitudinal medial (ALM) do pé de crianças obesas e verificar a concordância entre 5 índices da impressão plantar que caracterizam este arco. MÉTODOS: 156 crianças obesas, ambos os sexos, idade entre 4 e 10 anos, pertencentes a escolas pública e privada da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. As crianças classificadas como obesas foram selecionadas entre 1535 crianças estudantes de cinco escolas, com idade entre 4 e 10 anos. Em seguida foram coletadas as impressões plantares de cada criança e calculados índices que caracterizaram o ALM: índice de Cavanagh e Rodgers - CR, índice de Staheli - IS1 e IS2, índice de Chipaux-Smirak ICS e ângulo alfa de Clarke - AA. RESULTADOS: CR, IS e ICS mostraram que a grande alteração na forma do ALM ocorre na transição dos 8 para os 9 anos e o AA mostra dois momentos, passagem dos 6 para os 7 anos e dos 8 para os 9 anos. De uma maneira geral, a classificação IS1 foi a mais discrepante para classificar o ALM nessas crianças e o CR a mais constante. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se que o ALM se forma mais tardiamente em crianças obesas (8 para 9 anos) em relação às crianças não obesas (5 para 6 anos). Quanto aos índices, houve semelhança na descrição do desenvolvimento do ALM entre CR, ICS e AA, sendo que o IS merece maior cuidado e restrição em seu uso(AU)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the development of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) ofthe foot of obese children and verify the concordance between 5 footprint indexes whichcharacterize such arch. METHODS: 156 obese children, both genders, between 4 and 10 yearsold, belonging to both public and private schools of the city of S„o Paulo, Brazil. The childrenwere classified as obese according to Cole et al (2000) and selected among 1535 studentsbetween 4 and 10 years old from 5 different schools. Afterwards, the footprints of each obesechild were collected and then the indexes that characterize the MLA were calculated: Cavanaghand Rodgers index - CR, Staheli index - IS1 and IS2, Chipaux-Smirak index - ICS, andfootprint angle - AA. RESULTS: CR, IS and ICS showed that a remarkable change in the MLAshape takes place in the transition from 8 to 9 years of age and the AA showed two transitionranges, from 6 to 7 and from 8 to 9 years of age. Generally speaking, the largest discrepancywas noticed in the IS1 classification when evaluating the MLA for those children and the CRone proved to be the most stable. CONCLUSION: It was observed that the MLA is formed later inobese children (8 to 9 years of age) comparing to non-obese children (5 to 6 years of age).Regarding the indexes, there was a similarity in the description of the MLA developmentbetween CR, ICS and AA. The IS needs more caution and its use should be restricted.(AU)

Rev. bras. crescimento desenvolv. hum ; 17(1): 76-83, jan.-mar. 2007. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-462457


Objetivo: descrever o desenvolvimento do arco longitudinal medial (ALM) do pé de crianças obesas e verificar a concordância entre 5 índices da impressão plantar que caracterizam este arco. Métodos: 156 crianças obesas, ambos os sexos, idade entre 4 e 10 anos, pertencentes a escolas pública e privada da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. As crianças classificadas como obesas foram selecionadas entre 1535 crianças estudantes de cinco escolas, com idade entre 4 e 10 anos. Em seguida foram coletadas as impressões plantares de cada criança e calculados índices que caracterizaram o ALM: índice de Cavanagh e Rodgers - CR, índice de Staheli - IS1 e IS2, índice de Chipaus-Smirak ICS e ângulo alfa de Clarke - AA. Resultados: CR, IS e ICS mostraram que a grande alteração na forma do ALM ocorre na transição dos 8 para os 9 anos e o AA mostra dois momentos, passagem dos 6 para os 7 anos e dos 8 para os 9 anos. De uma maneira geral, a classificação IS1 foi a mais discrepante para classificar o ALM nessas crianças e o CR a mais constante. Conclusões: observou-se que o ALM se forma mais tardiamente em crianças obesas (8 para 9 anos) em relação às crianças não obsesas (5 para 6 anos). Quanto aos índices houve semelhança na descrição do desenvolvimento do ALM entre CR, ICS e AA, sendo que o IS merece maior cuidado e restrição em seu uso.

Criança , Humanos , Antropometria , Criança , Obesidade
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 13(4): 65-78, 2005.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-524589


A proposta deste estudo foi analisar por uma visão cinesiológica e biomecânica alguns exercícios do método Pilates e compará–los entre si para uma melhor descrição do método e dos benefícios desta atividade. Duas professoras do método foram fotografadas realizando tais exercícios nos aparelhos Mat, Cadillac, Chair e Reformer e, posteriormente os músculos trabalhados, de forma concêntrica e excêntrica, e os alongados foram comparados com os ângulos articulares mensurados no programa Corel Draw. Para o cálculo dos torques resistentes a partir do modelo ntropométrico de Dempster, foi aplicado o método segmentar nas fotografias digitalizadas para determinar os centros de gravidade dos segmentos do corpo. Concluímos que há uma grande variação dos torques resistentes em função do posicionamento dos membros superiores e inferiores, tronco e cabeça nos exercícios analisados e que a musculatura abdominal é o principal grupo muscular trabalhado.

The purpose of this study was to describe some of the Pilates technique’s exercises under biomechanical and kinesiological considerations. Two subjects (Pilates technique teachers) were photographed while performing the exercises in different equipments – Mat, Cadillac, Chair and Reformer. The relationship among the articular angles – analyzed in the Corel Draw – and the muscles working eccentrically or concentrically, or that were elongated has been established. The segmental model was applied on the digitalized photos in order to locate the gravity center and the resistant torques were calculated by Dempster´s anthropometric model. We concluded that there is a great variation of the resistant torques in relation to upper limbs, lower limbs, head and trunk positions in the exercises and the abdominal muscles are the main group functioning in the exercises analyzed.

Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Terapia por Exercício , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Postura/fisiologia