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1.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e1373, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a unique form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) that arises from obstruction of the pulmonary vessels by recanalized thromboembolic material. CTEPH has a wide range of radiologic presentations. Commonly, it presents as main pulmonary artery enlargement, peripheral vascular obstructions, bronchial artery dilations, and mosaic attenuation patterns. Nevertheless, other uncommon presentations have been described, such as lung cavities. These lesions may be solely related to chronic lung parenchyma ischemia but may also be a consequence of concomitant chronic infectious conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the different etiologies that cause lung cavities in CTEPH patients. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of the medical records of CTEPH patients in a single reference PH center that contained or mentioned lung cavities was conducted between 2013 and 2016. RESULTS: Seven CTEPH patients with lung cavities were identified. The cavities had different sizes, locations, and wall thicknesses. In two patients, the cavities were attributed to pulmonary infarction; in 5 patients, an infectious etiology was identified. CONCLUSION: Despite the possibility of being solely associated with chronic lung parenchyma ischemia, most cases of lung cavities in CTEPH patients were associated with chronic granulomatous diseases, reinforcing the need for active investigation of infectious agents in this setting.

2.
Chest ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has evolved substantially over the past two decades and varies according to etiology, functional class (FC), hemodynamic parameters, and other clinical factors. Current guidelines do not provide definitive recommendations regarding the use of oral prostacyclin pathway agents (PPAs) in PAH. To provide guidance on the use of these agents, an expert panel was convened to develop consensus statements for the initiation of oral PPAs in adults with PAH. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE. The established RAND/University of California Los Angeles appropriateness method, which incorporates the Delphi method and the nominal group technique, was used to create consensus statements. Idiopathic, heritable, repaired congenital heart defect, and drug- or toxin-induced PAH (IPAH+) was considered as one etiologic grouping. The process was focused on the use of oral treprostinil or selexipag in patients with IPAH+ or connective tissue disease-associated PAH and FC II or III symptoms receiving background dual endothelin receptor antagonist/phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy. RESULTS: The panel developed 14 consensus statements regarding the appropriate use of oral PPAs in the target population. The panel identified 13 clinical scenarios in which selexipag may be considered as a treatment option. CONCLUSIONS: The paucity of clinical evidence overall, and particularly from randomized trials in this setting, creates a gap in knowledge. These consensus statements are intended to aid physicians in navigating treatment options and using oral PPAs in the most appropriate manner in patients with PAH.

3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(3): 419-428, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621783

RESUMO

The finding of pulmonary hypertension (PH) by echocardiography is common and of concern. However, echocardiography is just a suggestive and non-diagnostic assessment of PH. When direct involvement of pulmonary circulation is suspected, invasive hemodynamic monitoring is recommended to establish the diagnosis. This assessent provides, in addition to the diagnostic confirmation, the correct identification of the vascular territory predominantly involved (arterial pulmonary or postcapillary). Treatment with specific medication for PH (phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists and prostacyclin analogues) has been proven effective in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, but its use in patients with PH due to left heart disease can even be damaging. In this review, we discuss the diagnosis criteria, how etiological investigation should be carried out, the clinical classification and, finally, the therapeutic recommendations for PH.

4.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 13: 1753466619878556, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558116

RESUMO

Most physicians understand venous thromboembolism (VTE) to be an acute and time-limited disease. However, pathophysiological and epidemiological data suggest that in most patients VTE recurrence risk is not resolved after the first 6 months of anticoagulation. Recurrence rates are high and potentially life-threatening. In these cases, it would make sense to prolong anticoagulation for an undetermined length of time. However, what about the bleeding rates, induced by prolonged anticoagulation? Would they not outweigh the benefit of reducing the VTE recurrent risk? How long should anticoagulation be continued, and should all patients suffering from VTE be provided with extended anticoagulation? This review will address the most recent data concerning extended anticoagulation in VTE secondary prophylaxis. The reviews of this paper are available via the supplementary material section.

5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 419-428, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1038559

RESUMO

Abstract The finding of pulmonary hypertension (PH) by echocardiography is common and of concern. However, echocardiography is just a suggestive and non-diagnostic assessment of PH. When direct involvement of pulmonary circulation is suspected, invasive hemodynamic monitoring is recommended to establish the diagnosis. This assessent provides, in addition to the diagnostic confirmation, the correct identification of the vascular territory predominantly involved (arterial pulmonary or postcapillary). Treatment with specific medication for PH (phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists and prostacyclin analogues) has been proven effective in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, but its use in patients with PH due to left heart disease can even be damaging. In this review, we discuss the diagnosis criteria, how etiological investigation should be carried out, the clinical classification and, finally, the therapeutic recommendations for PH.


Resumo O achado de hipertensão pulmonar (HP) em avaliação ecocardiográfica é frequente e preocupante. No entanto, o ecocardiograma é apenas um exame sugestivo e não diagnóstico de HP. Quando se suspeita de acometimento direto da circulação pulmonar, está indicada medida hemodinâmica invasiva para estabelecer o diagnóstico. Essa avaliação permite, além da confirmação diagnóstica, a correta identificação do território vascular predominantemente acometido (arterial pulmonar ou pós-capilar). O tratamento com as medicações específicas de HP (inibidores da fosfodiestarese 5, antagonistas do receptor de endotelina, análogos da prostaciclina e estimulador da guanilil ciclase solúvel) é comprovadamente eficaz para pacientes com hipertensão arterial pulmonar, mas seu uso em pacientes com HP decorrente de doença cardíaca de câmaras esquerdas pode até mesmo ser prejudicial. Discutiremos nesta revisão o critério diagnóstico, a maneira de proceder a investigação etiológica, a classificação clínica e, finalmente, as recomendações terapêuticas na HP.

6.
Respiration ; 98(3): 253-262, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390642

RESUMO

Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) impairs hemodynamics, gas exchange, and lung mechanical capacity. Considering PE pathophysiology, most attention has been paid to hemodynamic impairment. However, the most prevalent symptoms in PE patients come from gas exchange alterations, which have not been in the spotlight for many years. Pulmonary physiology and consequent gas exchange impairment play a pivotal role in the high risk of death from PE. In this review, we will look at the pathophysiology of PE, from the vascular occlusion to the resultant heterogeneity in pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange impairment, discussing in detail its causes and consequences.

7.
Artif Organs ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437303

RESUMO

Congestive heart failure is a pathology of global incidence that affects millions of people worldwide. When the heart weakens and fails to pump blood at physiological rates commensurate with the requirements of tissues, two main alternatives are cardiac transplant and ventricular assist devices (VADs). This article presents the design strategy for development of a customized VAD electromagnetic actuator. Electromagnetic actuator is a brushless direct current motor customized to drive the pump impeller by permanent magnets located in rotor-stator coupling. In this case, ceramic pivot bearings support the VAD impeller. Electronic circuitry controls rotation switching current in stator coils. The proposed methodology consisted of analytical numerical design, tridimensional computational modeling, numerical simulations using Maxwell software, actuator prototyping, and validation in the dynamometer. The axial flow actuator was chosen by its size and high power density compared to the radial flow type. First step consisted of estimating the required torque to drive the pump. Torque was estimated at 2100 rpm and mean current of 0.5 A. Numerical analysis using finite element method mapped vectors and fields to build stator coils and actuator assemblage. After tests in the dynamometer, experimental results were compared with numerical simulation and validated the proposed model. In conclusion, the proposed methodology for designing of VAD electromechanical actuator was considered satisfactory in terms of data consistency, feasibility, and reliability.

8.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 25(5): 391-397, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365371

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the global distribution of different forms of pulmonary hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Different registries have explored the epidemiological characteristics of pulmonary hypertension. Interestingly, there is a clear difference in the prevalence of different forms of pulmonary hypertension in developed regions in comparison with less developed countries. This finding suggests not only that extrapolation of data should be avoided but also that the known prevalence of pulmonary hypertension might be underestimated. SUMMARY: Pulmonary hypertension might be more prevalent than what is currently believed. Specific forms of pulmonary hypertension distributed worldwide might characterize an unrecognized burden that still have to be properly approached. This highlights the heterogeneity of pulmonary hypertension around the world. It is clear that more epidemiological data are still needed as well as studies addressing management alternatives in these specific regions.

9.
Food Chem ; 300: 125145, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330371

RESUMO

Rice geographical traceability requires analytical procedures and data evaluation capable of linking its composition to the producing area. In this work, major and trace elements in soil and rice grains and husk from 9 cities and 17 producers were evaluated. Arsenic species were measured solely in rice grains. The rice mineral profile evaluated by principal component analysis allowed the identification of controlling variables and origin fingerprints. Vectors controlling data variability were linked to the geographical area, to crop management, producers and in a lower extent to soil composition. Elemental discrimination through 3D models was proposed. Arsenic species in the grains and elemental husk composition were decisive to achieve the required discrimination. Rice discrimination was obtained by cities, producers and varieties. The present work model was compared with others from similar studies.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Geografia , Minerais/análise , Oryza/química , Solo/química , Grão Comestível/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise
10.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(5): e005095, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109190

RESUMO

Background Conducting randomized controlled trials to investigate survival in a rare disease like pulmonary arterial hypertension has considerable ethical and logistical constraints. In many studies, such as the Study with an Endothelin Receptor Antagonist in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension to Improve Clinical Outcome (SERAPHIN) randomized controlled trial, evaluating survival is further complicated by bias introduced by allowing active therapy among placebo-treated patients who clinically deteriorate. Methods and Results SERAPHIN enrolled and followed patients in the same time frame as the US Registry to Evaluate Early And Long-term PAH Disease Management, providing an opportunity to compare observed survival for SERAPHIN patients with predicted survival had they received real-world treatment as in the Registry to Evaluate Early And Long-term PAH Disease Management. From the Registry to Evaluate Early And Long-term PAH Disease Management (N=3515), 734 patients who met SERAPHIN eligibility criteria were selected and their data used to build a prediction model for time to death up to 3 years based on 10 baseline prognostic variables. The model was used to predict a survival curve for each of the 742 SERAPHIN patients via their baseline variables. The average of these predicted survival curves was compared with observed survival of the placebo (n=250) and macitentan 10 mg (n=242) groups using a log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model. Observed mortality risk for patients randomized to placebo, 62% of whom were taking background pulmonary arterial hypertension therapy, tended to be lower than that predicted for all SERAPHIN patients (16% lower; P=0.259). The observed placebo survival curve closely approximated the predicted survival curve for the first 15 months. Beyond that time, observed risk of mortality decreased compared with predicted mortality, potentially reflecting the impact of crossover of patients in the placebo group to active therapy. Over 3 years, risk of mortality observed with macitentan 10 mg was 35% lower than predicted mortality ( P=0.010). Conclusions These analyses show that, in a rare disease, real-world observational data can complement randomized controlled trial data to overcome some challenges associated with assessing survival in the setting of a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Trial Registration https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifiers: NCT00660179 and NCT00370214.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7096, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068600

RESUMO

HIV-infected subjects under virological control still exhibit a persistent proinflammatory state. Thus, chronic HIV infection changes the host homeostasis towards an adapted immune response that may affect the outcome of coinfections. However, little is known about the impact of HIV infection on inflammatory amplification and clinical presentation in dengue. Platelets have been shown to participate in immune response in dengue and HIV. We hypothesized that altered platelet responses in HIV-infected subjects may contribute to altered inflammatory milieu and disease progression in dengue. We prospectively followed a cohort of 84 DENV-infected patients of whom 29 were coinfected with HIV under virological control. We report that dengue and HIV coinfection progress with reduced inflammation and milder disease progression with lower risk of vascular instability. Even though the degree of thrombocytopenia and platelet activation were similar between dengue-infected and HIV plus dengue-coinfected patients, plasma levels of the platelet-derived chemokines RANTES/CCL5 and PF4/CXCL4 were lower in coinfection. Consistently, platelets from coinfected patients presented defective secretion of the stored-chemokines PF4 and RANTES, but not newly synthesized IL-1ß, when cultured ex vivo. These data indicate that platelets from HIV-infected subjects release lower levels of chemokines during dengue illness, which may contribute to milder clinical presentation during coinfection.

12.
Eur Respir Rev ; 28(151)2019 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918022

RESUMO

Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) is a condition in which relevance has been increasingly recognised both for physicians that deal with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and for oncologists. It is currently estimated that the annual incidence of VTE in patients with cancer is 0.5% compared to 0.1% in the general population. Active cancer accounts for 20% of the overall incidence of VTE. Of note, VTE is the second most prevalent cause of death in cancer, second only to the progression of the disease, and cancer is the most prevalent cause of deaths in VTE patients. Nevertheless, CAT presents several peculiarities that distinguish it from other VTE, both in pathophysiology mechanisms, risk factors and especially in treatment, which need to be considered. CAT data will be reviewed in this review.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prevalência , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Br J Haematol ; 185(2): 317-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739309

RESUMO

Pulmonary complications are frequent in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), but few studies have described lung pathology in SCD. We studied the lung tissue of 30 deceased SCD patients (1994-2012). Demographics, genotype, clinical characteristics, cause of death and associated conditions are presented. We quantified the presence of pulmonary arterial changes, thrombosis and venous thickening. Alveolar capillary abnormalities were demonstrated using CD34 expression and confocal microscopy. Autopsy and echocardiography reports were reviewed to classify heart abnormalities. Tissue expression of markers of endothelial activation (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor) was quantified in pulmonary vessels. Median age was 33 years; genotype was SS in 19, SC in 7 and Sß in 4, and there were 18 males. Hypertensive arterial changes were present in 76% of the patients, recent thrombosis in 80% and old thrombosis in 43%. Venous thickening was present in 23% and pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis foci in 87%. Ten percent of the patients presented right ventricular hypertrophy. There was no increased expression of endothelial activation markers when compared to controls. SCD affects the whole pulmonary vascular tree and reflects the multiple burden on lung vasculature imposed by the disease upon time.

14.
Eur Respir J ; 53(1)2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545968

RESUMO

Since the 1st World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension (WSPH) in 1973, pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been arbitrarily defined as mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) ≥25 mmHg at rest, measured by right heart catheterisation. Recent data from normal subjects has shown that normal mPAP was 14.0±3.3 mmHg. Two standard deviations above this mean value would suggest mPAP >20 mmHg as above the upper limit of normal (above the 97.5th percentile). This definition is no longer arbitrary, but based on a scientific approach. However, this abnormal elevation of mPAP is not sufficient to define pulmonary vascular disease as it can be due to an increase in cardiac output or pulmonary arterial wedge pressure. Thus, this 6th WSPH Task Force proposes to include pulmonary vascular resistance ≥3 Wood Units in the definition of all forms of pre-capillary PH associated with mPAP >20 mmHg. Prospective trials are required to determine whether this PH population might benefit from specific management.Regarding clinical classification, the main Task Force changes were the inclusion in group 1 of a subgroup "pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) long-term responders to calcium channel blockers", due to the specific prognostic and management of these patients, and a subgroup "PAH with overt features of venous/capillaries (pulmonary veno-occlusive disease/pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis) involvement", due to evidence suggesting a continuum between arterial, capillary and vein involvement in PAH.

18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(5): 350-351, Sept.-Oct. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-975945
19.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 556, 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract of humans. This bacterium has also been isolated from various animals, such as fish and cattle. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) can act as regulators of gene expression in bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. However, little is known about the genomic distribution of ncRNAs and RNA families in S. agalactiae. RESULTS: Comparative genome analysis of 27 S. agalactiae strains showed more than 5 thousand genomic regions identified and classified as Core, Exclusive, and Shared genome sequences. We identified 27 to 89 RNA families per genome distributed over these regions, from these, 25 were in Core regions while Shared and Exclusive regions showed variations amongst strains. We propose that the amount and type of ncRNA present in each genome can provide a pattern to contribute in the identification of the clonal types. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of RNA families provides an insight over ncRNAs, sRNAs and ribozymes function, that can be further explored as targets for antibiotic development or studied in gene regulation of cellular processes. RNA families could be considered as markers to determine infection capabilities of different strains. Lastly, pan-genome analysis of GBS including the full range of functional transcripts provides a broader approach in the understanding of this pathogen.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , RNA não Traduzido/classificação
20.
J Bras Pneumol ; : 0, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898007

RESUMO

Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APTE) is a highly prevalent condition (104-183 cases per 100,000 person-years) and is potentially fatal. Approximately 20% of patients with APTE are hypotensive, being considered at high risk of death. In such patients, immediate lung reperfusion is necessary in order to reduce right ventricular afterload and to restore hemodynamic stability. To reduce pulmonary vascular resistance in APTE and, consequently, to improve right ventricular function, lung reperfusion strategies have been developed over time and widely studied in recent years. In this review, we focus on advances in the indication and use of systemic thrombolytic agents, as well as lung reperfusion via endovascular and classical surgical approaches, in APTE.

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