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1.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384681

RESUMO

Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events. The electrocardiography (ECG) has poor sensitivity, but it is commonly used to detect LVH. AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of known ECG indicators to recognize LVH in subgroups with different cardiovascular risk levels. Methods: 676 volunteers were included. RESULTS: We found that 10.2% of the analyzed population had LVH based on echocardiography. Individuals with LVH were older, had a higher body mass index, higher systolic blood pressure, lower heart rate, higher parameters of insulin resistance, higher cardiovascular risk, and android-type obesity. Variables that remained independently associated with LVH were QRS duration, left atrial volume index, troponin T, and hemoglobin A1c. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis of the Sokolow-Lyon index did not show a significant predictive ability to diagnose LVH in the whole study population including all cardiovascular risk classes. The ROC curves analysis of Cornell and Lewis indices showed a modest predictive ability to diagnose LVH in the general population and in a low cardiovascular class. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for new, simple methods to diagnose LVH in the general population in order to properly evaluate cardiovascular risk and introduce optimal medical treatment of concomitant disease.

2.
Cardiol J ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The highest priority in preventive cardiology is given to patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the study was to assess the current implementation of the guidelines for secondary prevention in everyday clinical practice by evaluating control of the main risk factors and the cardioprotective medication prescription rates in patients following hospitalization for CAD. METHODS: Fourteen departments of cardiology participated in the study. Patients (aged ≤ 80 years) hospitalized due an acute coronary syndrome or for a myocardial revascularization procedure were recruited and interviewed 6-18 months after the hospitalization. RESULTS: Overall, 947 patients were examined 6-18 months after hospitalization. The proportion of patients with high blood pressure (≥ 140/90 mmHg) was 42%, with high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C ≥ 1.8 mmol/L) 62%, and with high fasting glucose (≥ 7.0 mmol/L) 22%, 17% of participants were smokers and 42% were obese. The proportion of patients taking an antiplatelet agent 6-18 months after hospitalization was 93%, beta-blocker 89%, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or sartan 86%, and a lipid-lowering drug 90%. Only 2.3% patients had controlled all the 5 main risk factors well (non-smoking, blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg, LDL-C < 1.8 mmol/L and glucose < 7.0 mmol/L, body mass index < 25 kg/m²), while 17.9% had 1 out of 5, 40.9% had 2 out of 5, and 29% had 3 out of 5 risk factors uncontrolled. CONCLUSIONS: The documented multicenter survey provides evidence that there is considerable potential for further reductions of cardiovascular risk in CAD patients in Poland. A revision of the state funded cardiac prevention programs seems rational.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 2897827, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155477

RESUMO

Salivary gland tumours represent about 6% of head and neck neoplasms and about 0.5% of all malignancies in humans. Tumour growth and malignant transformation are complex processes involving various actions of molecules. Furthermore, some malignant salivary gland tumours are deemed to be caused by dedifferentiation or malignant transformation of benign tumours. The mechanisms of this transformation depend on a variety of different elements, such as cell cycle regulators, oncogenes, proteins, angiogenesis factors, and adipocytokines. The authors used PubMed, Medline, and Google websites to find and review the most significant papers related to malignant transformation in benign salivary gland tumours.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares , Humanos
5.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 243(9): 762-769, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763370

RESUMO

An increasing number of patients with parotid gland tumors have been observed in recent years. The relationship between the immune system and tumor formation is thoroughly investigated. However, newly discovered molecules offer a new insight into the pathophysiology of malignancies. It would be ideal to find an easily determinable biomarker of tumor existence, its malignant potential or a biomarker suggesting the probability of disease recurrence. Our study is the first to examine serum concentrations of IL-33 and its sST2 receptor in patients with various types of parotid gland tumors. Serum IL33, sST2, IL-4 and IL-10 concentrations were determined in patients with benign and malignant parotid gland tumors (pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin's tumor, myoepithelioma and acinic cell carcinoma). We observed for the first time that serum IL-33 level was significantly elevated in patients with various types of parotid gland tumors and sST2 levels were significantly higher in pleomorphic adenoma and acinic cell carcinoma patients compared to the controls. Our results demonstrate for the first time that serum IL-33 and its sST2 receptor may be important factors in the pathology of parotid gland tumors. Although our results are promising, further investigations are required to detect if serum concentrations of those molecules may be a biomarker in parotid gland tumors. Impact statement Parotid gland tumors seem to be an increasingly important medical challenge, mostly due to a noticeable increase in the incidence. It would be crucial to find an easily determinable biomarker of tumor existence, its recurrence or malignant potential. We observed for the first time that serum IL-33 level was significantly elevated in patients with various types of parotid gland tumors and its sST2 receptor levels were significantly higher in pleomorphic adenoma and acinic cell carcinoma patients compared to the controls. We believe that our study helps to understand the biology of the tumors and a potential role of a relatively newly identified cytokine IL-33 in the pathophysiology of the parotid gland tumors.


Assuntos
Adenoma Pleomorfo/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Acinares/sangue , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/sangue , Interleucina-33/sangue , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias Parotídeas/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 4340871, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651432

RESUMO

Salivary gland tumors account for 3-6% of tumors of the head and neck. About 80% of salivary gland tumors occur in parotid glands. Oxidative stress (OS) is implicated in the origin, development, and whole-body effects of various tumors. There are no data on the occurrence of OS in the parotid gland tumors. The aim of this study was to ascertain if whole-body OS accompanies parotid gland tumors, based first of all on oxidative modifications of blood serum proteins and other markers of OS in the serum of the patients. The group studied included 17 patients with pleomorphic adenoma, 9 patients with Warthin's tumor, 8 patients with acinic cell carcinoma, and 24 age-matched controls. We found increased concentration of interleukin 4 in patients with acinic cell carcinoma, decreased plasma thiols, increased AOPP concentration, and decreased FRAP of blood serum in all groups of the patients while protein oxidative modifications assessed fluorimetrically, protein carbonyls, protein nitration, malondialdehyde concentration, and serum ABTS⁎-scavenging capacity were unchanged. These data indicate the occurrence of OS in patients with parotid gland tumors and point to various sensitivities of OS markers.


Assuntos
Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Interleucina-4/sangue , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Neoplasias Parotídeas/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Parotídeas/patologia , Projetos Piloto
7.
Cytokine ; 106: 40-44, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and IL-6 in patients with pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin's tumor and acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Venous blood samples were collected from 30 patients with pleomorphic adenoma, 21 patients with Warthin's tumor and 8 patients with acinic cell carcinoma. Serum adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, IL-6 and CRP concentrations were determined. RESULTS: Our results revealed significantly lower adiponectin serum levels in patients with malignant tumors compared to benign tumor individuals. Moreover, in benign cases the level was significantly higher compared to controls. Furthermore, serum leptin concentrations of benign tumor patients were higher compared to controls. Those differences, however, were observed only in males. The serum visfatin level was elevated in all tumor subjects compared to healthy individuals, whereas the serum IL-6 concentration was similar. CONCLUSIONS: We anticipate that adiponectin may play a potential protective role in salivary gland tumors. Also leptin and visfatin seem to play an important role in salivary gland tumor pathology, although in males and females leptin may act or be regulated in a different manner. The influence of visfatin on salivary gland tumors is probably independent of IL-6 production.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Glândula Parótida/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/sangue , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Adiponectina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/sangue
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 9195163, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250552

RESUMO

Sinonasal inverted papilloma is a relatively rare disease; however, it is prevalent enough for every ENT practitioner to encounter it several times throughout medical routines. Despite the developments in experimental and clinical medicine as well as surgical techniques, our knowledge of this disease is still inadequate. With improved imaging and better diagnostic techniques, proper diagnosis and qualification for surgical approaches leave no doubt. Although the endoscopic approach seems to be the gold standard for such condition, some cases may additionally require an external approach. Regardless of the type of surgery, postoperative management is crucial for both healing and long-term follow-up. Unfortunately, the procedures are still lacking in explicit and standardized postoperative management guidelines. Moreover, an important issue is still the need for a biomarker indicative of inverted papilloma and its malignant transformation. Several particles, within the spotlight of the researchers, have been SCCA, Ki-67, Bcl-2, Wnt proteins, and many more. Nevertheless, the topic requires further investigations.


Assuntos
Papiloma Invertido , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Fatores de Risco
9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2017: 7905148, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181127

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease involving oxidative stress (OS). This study was aimed at examination of the effect of melatonin supplementation on OS parameters, especially oxidative protein modifications of blood serum proteins, in MS patients. The study included 11 control subjects, 14 de novo diagnosed MS patients with the relapsing-remitting form of MS (RRMS), 36 patients with RRMS receiving interferon beta-1b (250 µg every other day), and 25 RRMS patients receiving interferon beta-1b plus melatonin (5 mg daily). The levels of N'-formylkynurenine, kynurenine, dityrosine, carbonyl groups, advanced glycation products (AGEs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and malondialdehyde were elevated in nontreated RRSM patients. N'-Formylkynurenine, kynurenine, AGEs, and carbonyl contents were decreased only in the group treated with interferon beta plus melatonin, while dityrosine and AOPP contents were decreased both in the group of patients treated with interferon beta and in the group treated with interferon beta-1b plus melatonin. These results demonstrate that melatonin ameliorates OS in MS patients supporting the view that combined administration of interferon beta-1b and melatonin can be more effective in reducing OS in MS patients than interferon beta-1b alone.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon beta/farmacologia , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo
10.
Neurol Sci ; 38(3): 389-398, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28078565

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, and is an important cause of disability in young adults. In genetically susceptible individuals, several environmental factors may play a partial role in the pathogenesis of MS. Some studies suggests that high-salt diet (>5 g/day) may contribute to the MS and other autoimmune disease development through the induction of pathogenic Th17 cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines in both humans and mice. However, the precise mechanisms of pro-inflammatory effect of sodium chloride intake are not yet explained. The purpose of this review was to discuss the present state of knowledge on the potential role of environmental and dietary factors, particularly sodium chloride on the development and course of MS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Cloreto de Sódio/imunologia , Animais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Camundongos , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/imunologia
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 22: 2484-91, 2016 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27420299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is currently unknown, but it is thought that oxidative damage and iron metabolism mechanisms are involved. The aim of this study was to examine ceruloplasmin concentration in MS patients based on various immunomodifying therapies and to test the effect of antioxidative melatonin on ceruloplasmin levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study included 102 MS patients and 15 healthy controls. Patients were divided into groups according to different immunomodifying therapies: interferons beta 1a, interferons beta 1b, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, and immunomodifying pre-treatment (A, B, G, Mx, and P groups, respectively), and the relapse R group. MS patients were supplemented with melatonin for 3 months. Serum ceruloplasmin concentrations, EDSS, brain MRI, serum C-reactive protein level, and white blood cell count were examined. RESULTS The results indicated significantly increased levels of ceruloplasmin in MS patients. No differences in ceruloplasmin concentrations between the relapse group and controls were observed. In A and G groups, ceruloplasmin levels before and after melatonin were similar to levels in controls. In group B, ceruloplasmin concentration was significantly higher vs. control and relapse groups. After melatonin administration in group B, ceruloplasmin levels decreased. Ceruloplasmin concentrations in the Mx group were significantly higher compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS We found for the first time that ceruloplasmin concentration in MS patients varies depending on different immunomodulatory treatment and decrease after 3 months of melatonin administration. Ceruloplasmin could be a valuable serum marker for the chronic demyelinating process participating in oxidative stress mechanisms, as well as a neurodegenerative marker, but not a marker of acute-phase MS.


Assuntos
Ceruloplasmina/metabolismo , Imunomodulação , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon beta/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 4570351, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28078290

RESUMO

The role of nitric oxide and its reactive derivatives (NO x ) is well known in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, which is an inflammatory disease while NO x seems to be important in coordinating inflammatory response. The purpose of the present study was to assess serum NO x as one of the nitrogen species and inflammatory parameters in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and to compare the effectiveness of various types of disease-modifying therapies that reduce nitric oxide and inflammatory biomarkers. Elevated NO x level was observed in patients who received the first-line disease-modifying therapy (interferons beta-1a and beta-1b) in comparison with the subjects treated with the second-line disease-modifying therapy (natalizumab; fingolimod) and healthy controls without significant differences in C-reactive protein and interleukin-1 beta. A negative correlation was observed between serum NO x level and the duration of multiple sclerosis confirmed in the whole study population and in subjects treated with the first-line agents. Only serum NO x , concentration could reveal a potential efficacy of disease-modifying therapy with a better reduction in NO x level due to the second-line agents of disease-modifying therapy.


Assuntos
Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon beta-1a/administração & dosagem , Interferon beta-1a/metabolismo , Interferon beta-1b/administração & dosagem , Interferon beta-1b/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Natalizumab/administração & dosagem , Óxido Nítrico/sangue
13.
Endokrynol Pol ; 66(5): 412-6, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26457495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgery of the thyroid gland remains the main cause of bilateral vocal cord palsy (VCP). Ventilation problem is the main problem in such situations. There are a couple of corrective surgical procedures in the case of VCP. The aim of our study was to show the possibility of widening of the glottis, and to evaluate the techniques and effects of surgical treatments due to bilateral VCP resulting from thyroid gland surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five methods of surgical treatment were used: laser-assisted posterior cordectomy, according to Denis and Kashima; laser-assisted bilateral medial arytenoidectomy, as proposed by Crumley; laser-assisted posterior ventriculocordectomy, as described by Pia; laser-assisted total arytenoidectomy with posterior cordectomy, as presented by Ossoff; and laterofixation, according to Lichtenberger. The postoperative patient's subjective improvement was assessed using visual analogue scale. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2014 we operated on 270 patients with bilateral VCP. Paresis occurred as the result of the iatrogenic effect of thyroid gland surgery in 255 patients (94.4%) vs. 15 (7.6%) from other causes. The majority of our patients (77.6%) had undergone laser arytenoidectomy with posterior partial cordectomy, and in 13.7% of them Lichtenberger laterofixation had been performed. Ossoff 's surgery gives good ventilation results: successful decannulation (62.9% after first surgery; 97.6% final rate) and significant subjective ventilation improvement in 96% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ossoff 's laser arytenoidectomy with posterior cordectomy is a safe procedure that gives acceptable ventilation improvement. Patients report satisfactory quality of life and the possibility of returning to active professional life. Laterofixation should be considered as an alternative for tracheotomy rather than permanent procedure.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Neurosci ; 125(5): 344-51, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24946203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In Poland, no national registry of MS patients has yet been introduced. So far, no demographic studies have been conducted in patients with MS in Upper Silesia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, a selected demographic and clinical parameters in MS patients from the Upper Silesia region and compare these characteristics with previously published data from other regions of Poland. MATERIALS & METHODS: 640 patients with clinically defined MS, were prospectively and randomly selected for the study. Social, socio-economic, and demographic data were obtained through a questionnaire study. All subjects performed a self-assessment of their health condition using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS version questionnaires. RESULTS: The ratio of women to men was 2.18. The average age of onset was 29.6 ± 11.1 years; the disease duration was 7.9 ± 4.5 years. The relapsing-remitting form of MS was diagnosed in 73.12%. In 71.25% the onset was monofocal and in 28.75% multifocal disease onset was observed. Among the studied population 339 (52.97%) patients were still employed. A mean EQ-VAS score of 66.11 ± 20.12 was calculated. CONCLUSIONS: Results from our study identify for the first time the demographic and clinical characteristics of the Upper Silesia MS population.


Assuntos
Demografia , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Escolaridade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Valores de Referência , Sistema de Registros , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Postepy Dermatol Alergol ; 31(2): 77-83, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25097472

RESUMO

Atopic disorders are a major global health problem. The prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis has been increasing over the last four decades, both in the industrialized and developing countries. It seems to be related to changes in the social structure, increasing industrialization, pollution and dietary changes. Many hypotheses link the allergy epidemic to stringent hygiene, dominance of a westernized lifestyle and an accelerated pace of life. Dietary antioxidants, lipids, sodium, vitamin D seem also to be implicated. We endeavour to review the most relevant theories with a special emphasis on the hygiene, antioxidative, lipid and air pollution hypotheses. It is however important to note that none of them explains all the aspects of unprecedented rise in the prevalence of allergic disorders. A complex interplay between host's immune response, invading pathogens, diversity of environmental factors and genetic background seems to be of a particular importance. Current allergy epidemic is multifactorial and basic and epidemiologic studies are warranted to further our understanding of this phenomenon.

16.
Postepy Dermatol Alergol ; 31(3): 159-63, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25097487

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The complicated etiology of chronic sinusitis with polyps and frequent allergy to mould is established. AIM: We aimed to investigate the frequency of the IgE-dependent hypersensitivity in this group of patients and prove the need of surgery in allergic chronic rhinosinusitis patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two patients (19 females, 23 males) aged 34-73 years (55 ±12.6 years), with chronic sinusitis with polyps were included into the study. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery, laryngological examination, sinus computed tomography scans, and smear from maxillary sinus for microbiological examination were done in all patients. Skin prick tests with common perennial and seasonal inhalant allergens, tIgE and sIgE against moulds were required. RESULTS: Thirty-two of 42 patients (71.4%) were allergic to at least one inhalant allergen. A mean concentration of total IgE was 241.2 ±186.3 kU/l (35.0-708.0 kU/l) and was lower in patients with fungal culture found in sinus mucin than in patients without fungal presence 75.1 ±54.6 kU/l vs. 284.3 ±204.1 kU/l. We found no difference in the number of positive skin prick tests in a group with and without fungal culture. None of patients with fungal culture found in sinuses presented a detectable level of mold sIgE. All patients with fungal vegetation in sinuses required at least two polypectomy procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The total IgE concentration was significantly lower in patients with fungal presence in sinuses. Nasal polyps occurred more frequently in patients with fungal presence in sinuses.

17.
Drugs ; 74(11): 1195-207, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25022952

RESUMO

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) are the most abundant circulating steroid hormones in humans. In animal studies, their low levels have been associated with age-related involuntary changes, including reduced lifespan. Extrapolation of animal data to humans turned DHEA into a 'superhormone' and an 'anti-aging' panacea. It has been aggressively marketed and sold in large quantities as a dietary supplement. Recent double-blind, placebo-controlled human studies provided evidence to support some of these claims. In the elderly, DHEA exerts an immunomodulatory action, increasing the number of monocytes, T cells expressing T-cell receptor gamma/delta (TCRγδ) and natural killer (NK) cells. It improves physical and psychological well-being, muscle strength and bone density, and reduces body fat and age-related skin atrophy stimulating procollagen/sebum production. In adrenal insufficiency, DHEA restores DHEA/DHEAS and androstenedione levels, reduces total cholesterol, improves well-being, sexual satisfaction and insulin sensitivity, and prevents loss of bone mineral density. Normal levels of CD4+CD25(hi) and FoxP3 (forkhead box P3) are restored. In systemic lupus erythematosus, DHEA is steroid-sparing. In an unblinded study, it induced remission in the majority of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. DHEA modulates cardiovascular signalling pathways and exerts an anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxant and anti-remodelling effect. Its low levels correlate with increased cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. DHEA/DHEAS appear protective in asthma and allergy. It attenuates T helper 2 allergic inflammation, and reduces eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity. Low levels of DHEAS accompany adrenal suppression. It could be used to screen for the side effects of steroids. In women, DHEA improves sexual satisfaction, fertility and age-related vaginal atrophy. Many factors are responsible for the inconsistent/negative results of some studies. Overreliance on animal models (DHEA is essentially a human molecule), different dosing protocols with non-pharmacological doses often unachievable in humans, rapid metabolism of DHEA, co-morbidities and organ-specific differences render data interpretation difficult. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence supports the notion that DHEA is not just an overrated dietary supplement but a useful drug for some, but not all, human diseases. Large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed to fine-tune the indications and optimal dosing protocols before DHEA enters routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Desidroepiandrosterona/administração & dosagem , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Adrenal/sangue , Insuficiência Adrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Desidroepiandrosterona/química , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/sangue , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Neurochem Res ; 39(8): 1585-93, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24974099

RESUMO

The relationship between the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and sunlight's ultraviolet radiation was proved. Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenic traits of MS. Melatonin possesses antioxidative properties and regulates circadian rhythms. Sleep disturbances in MS patients are common and contribute to daytime fatigue. The aim of study was to evaluate 5 mg daily melatonin supplementation over 90 days on serum total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and its influence on sleep quality and depression level of MS patients. A case-control prospective study was performed on 102 MS patients and 20 controls matched for age and sex. The Kurtzke's Expanded Disability Status Scale, magnetic resonance imaging examinations, Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Beck Depression Inventory questionnaires were completed. Serum TOS and TAC levels were measured. We observed higher serum levels of TOS in all MS groups, while after melatonin treatment the TOS levels significantly decreased. The TAC level was significantly lower only in mitoxantrone-treated group and it increased after melatonin supplementation. A strong positive correlation between T1Gd(+) number lesions and TAC level in interferon-beta-1A group was observed. AIS group mean score above 6 defining insomnia were observed in interferon-beta-1B-group, glatiramer acetate-group and mitoxantrone-group: 6.62 ± 2.88, 8.45 ± 2.07, 11.1 ± 3.25, respectively. After melatonin treatment the AIS mean scores decrease in glatiramer acetate-group and mitoxantrone-group achieving 5.25 ± 1.14 and 7.08 ± 2.39, respectively (p < 0.05). Finding from our study suggest that melatonin can act as an antioxidant and improves reduced sleep quality in MS patients.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/sangue , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 732: 12-8, 2014 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24681056

RESUMO

Haemorrhagic shock is a life threatening condition, and, as such, it is important to understand the mechanisms taking part in its reversal. In the 1990s, it was shown that activation of serotonin 1A receptors is responsible for the circulatory decompensation and development of the sympathoinhibitory phase. In previous reports, it was demonstrated that activation of serotonin 1A receptors induces resuscitative effects in haemorrhaged rats. However, the effectory mechanisms still require further investigation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the sympathetic nervous system participates in the effects of serotonin through central serotonin 1A receptors in haemorrhagic shock in rats. In order to determine the role of the sympathetic nervous system alpha-1-, alpha-2-, and beta-adrenergic receptor agonists - prazosin, yohimbine and propranolol, respectively, were used. We found that stimulation of the central serotonin 1A receptors by the administration of a selective agonist - 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-aminopropane (8-OH-DPAT) into the lateral brain ventricle is connected with the activation of compensation mechanisms leading to the increase in the heart rate and blood pressure. The current results demonstrate that the stimulation of peripheral alpha-1-, alpha-2- and beta-adrenergic receptors plays an essential role in the resuscitative effect triggered by the stimulation of central serotonin 1A receptors.


Assuntos
Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/fisiologia , Ressuscitação , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Choque Hemorrágico/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , 8-Hidroxi-2-(di-n-propilamino)tetralina/administração & dosagem , 8-Hidroxi-2-(di-n-propilamino)tetralina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Injeções Intraventriculares , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/fisiologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/fisiologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/fisiologia , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia
20.
Postepy Dermatol Alergol ; 30(4): 246-51, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24278082

RESUMO

Optical radiation extends between microwaves and X-rays of the electromagnetic radiation and includes ultraviolet (UV), visible light (VL) and infrared (IR) components. The dose of radiation that reaches the skin is influenced by the ozone layer, position of the Sun, latitude, altitude, cloud cover and ground reflections. The photobiological effects of UV, VL and IR bands depend on their wavelength, frequency and mechanism of action. They are modified by the thickness, structure, vasculature and pigmentation of skin's stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Following absorption, IR affects the body mainly through transfer of thermal energy to tissues. Visible light and skin interact either thermally or photochemically, whereas UV acts mainly photochemically. Optical radiation in the form of sunlight therapy had been used already in ancient times. Nowadays IR, VL and UV are widely applied in the therapy of allergic, dermatological, cardiovascular, respiratory, rheumatic, neonatal, pediatric and psychiatric disorders.

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