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1.
Eur J Dermatol ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is a widely used technique, recommended in clinical practice guidelines worldwide for the early diagnosis of skin cancers. Intra-European disparities are reported for early detection and prognosis of skin cancers, however, no information exists about regional variation in patterns of dermoscopy use across Europe. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the regional differences in patterns of dermoscopy use and training among European dermatologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online survey of European-registered dermatologists regarding dermoscopy training, practice and attitudes was established. Answers from Eastern (EE) versus Western European (WE) countries were compared and their correlation with their respective countries' gross domestic product/capita (GDPc) and total and government health expenditure/capita (THEc and GHEc) was analysed. RESULTS: We received 4,049 responses from 14 WE countries and 3,431 from 18 EE countries. A higher proportion of WE respondents reported dermoscopy use (98% vs. 77%, p<0.001) and training during residency (43% vs. 32%) or anytime (96.5% vs. 87.6%) (p<0.001) compared to EE respondents. The main obstacles in dermoscopy use were poor access to dermoscopy equipment in EE and a lack of confidence in one's skills in WE. GDPc, THEc and GHEc correlated with rate of dermoscopy use and dermoscopy training during residency (Spearman rho: 0.5-0.7, p<0.05), and inversely with availability of dermoscopy equipment. CONCLUSIONS: The rates and patterns of dermoscopy use vary significantly between Western and Eastern Europe, on the background of economic inequalities. Regionally adapted interventions to increase access to dermoscopy equipment and training might enhance the use of this technique towards improving the early detection of skin cancers.

2.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909136

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Organ transplant recipients have over 100-fold higher risk of developing skin cancer than the general population and are in need of further preventive strategies. We assessed the possible preventive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake from food on the two main skin cancers, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in kidney and liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Adult kidney or liver transplant recipients transplanted for at least 1 year and at high risk of skin cancer were recruited from the main transplant hospital in Queensland, 2012-2014 and followed until mid-2016. We estimated their dietary total long-chain omega-3 PUFAs and α-linolenic acid intakes at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire and ranked PUFA intakes as low, medium, or high. Relative risks (RRsadj) of skin cancer adjusted for confounding factors with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: There were 449 transplant recipients (mean age, 55 years; 286 (64%) male). During follow-up, 149 (33%) patients developed SCC (median 2/person; range 1-40) and 134 (30%), BCC. Transplant recipients with high total long-chain omega-3 PUFA compared with low intakes showed substantially reduced SCC tumour risk (RRadj 0.33, 95% CI 0.18-0.60), and those with high α-linolenic acid intakes experienced significantly fewer BCCs (RRadj 0.40, 95% CI 0.22-0.74). No other significant associations were seen. CONCLUSION: Among organ transplant recipients, relatively high intakes of long-chain omega-3 PUFAs and of α-linolenic acid may reduce risks of SCC and BCC, respectively.

3.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889576

RESUMO

Various treatments of keratotic skin lesions and early skin cancers are performed in organ transplant recipients (OTRs) at high risk of skin malignancies but the frequency of their use is unknown. We prospectively assessed the frequency of use of cryotherapy, diathermy, and topical therapies and also investigated their associations with background incidence of histologically-confirmed squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in a cohort of OTRs in Queensland, Australia. Median follow-up ranged from 1.7 to 3.2 years across organ transplant groups. Among 285 kidney, 125 lung and 203 liver transplant recipients [382 (62%) male, 380 (62%) immunosuppressed > 5 years, 394 (64%) previously diagnosed with skin cancer], 306 (50%) reported treatment of skin lesions with major types of non-excision therapies during follow-up: 278 (45%) cryotherapy or diathermy; 121 (20%) topical treatments. Of these 306, 150 (49%) developed SCC at double the incidence of those who did not receive these treatments, as assessed by incidence rate ratio (IRR) adjusted for age, sex, type of organ transplant, skin color and history of skin cancer at baseline, calculated by multivariable Poisson regression (IRRadj = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-3.1). BCC incidence was not associated with these therapies. Skin lesions in OTRs that are treated with cryotherapy, diathermy, or topical treatment warrant judicious selection and careful follow-up.

4.
Int J Dermatol ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880938

RESUMO

Smartphone applications (apps) are available to consumers for skin cancer prevention and early detection. This study aims to review changes over time in the skin cancer apps available to consumers as well as their functionality and costs. Apps for the prevention of skin cancer were searched on two major smartphone app stores (Android and iOS) in June 2019. The number, functionality, ratings, and price of the apps were described and compared to similar reviews of the skin cancer app market from 2014 to 2017. Overall, the June 2019 search identified 66 apps. Of 39 apps found in 2014, 30 were no longer available in 2019 representing an attrition rate of 77%; of 43 apps available in 2017, attrition was 46.5%. In 2019, 63.6% (n = 42/66) of apps were free to download compared to 53.5% (n = 23/43) in 2017. Input from clinician/professional bodies was evident for 47.0% (n = 31/66) of the apps in 2019 compared to 34.9% (15/43) in 2017. The most common app functionality offered in 2019 was monitoring/tracking of lesions at 48.5% (n = 32/66). Since 2014, there has been a steady increase in the number of apps available for the general public to support the prevention or early detection of skin cancers. There continues to be a high turnover of apps, and many apps still appear to lack clinician input and/or evidence for their safety and value.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966289

RESUMO

Amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma is a clinicopathologic subtype with absent or minimal melanin. This study assessed previously reported coding variants in albinism genes (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, SLC45A2, SLC24A5, LRMDA) and common intronic, regulatory variants of OCA2 in individuals with amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma, pigmented melanoma cases and controls. Exome sequencing was available for 28 individuals with amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma and 303 individuals with pigmented melanoma, which were compared to whole exome data from 1144 Australian controls. Microarray genotyping was available for a further 17 amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma, 86 pigmented melanoma, 147 melanoma cases (pigmentation unknown) and 652 unaffected controls. Rare deleterious variants in TYR/OCA1 were more common in amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma cases than pigmented melanoma cases (set mixed model association tests P = 0.0088). The OCA2 hypomorphic allele p.V443I was more common in melanoma cases (1.8%) than controls (1.0%, X2 P = 0.02), and more so in amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma (4.4%, X2 P = 0.007). No amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma cases carried an eye and skin darkening haplotype of OCA2 (including rs7174027), present in 7.1% of pigmented melanoma cases (P = 0.0005) and 9.4% controls. Variants in TYR and OCA2 may play a role in amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma susceptibility. We suggest that somatic loss of function at these loci could contribute to the loss of tumor pigmentation, consistent with this we found a higher rate of somatic mutation in TYR/OCA2 in amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma vs pigmented melanoma samples (28.6% vs 3.0%; P = 0.021) from The Cancer Genome Atlas Skin Cutaneous Melanoma collection.

7.
Cell Rep ; 31(9): 107702, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492418

RESUMO

To better understand the influence of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the initial steps of skin carcinogenesis, we examine patches of labeled keratinocytes as a proxy for clones in the interfollicular epidermis (IFE) and measure their size variation upon UVB irradiation. Multicolor lineage tracing reveals that in chronically irradiated skin, patches near hair follicles (HFs) increase in size, whereas those far from follicles do not change. This is explained by proliferation of basal epidermal cells within 60 µm of HF openings. Upon interruption of UVB, patch size near HFs regresses significantly. These anatomical differences in proliferative behavior have significant consequences for the cell of origin of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). Indeed, a UV-inducible murine BCC model shows that BCC patches are more frequent, larger, and more invasive near HFs. These findings have major implications for the prevention of field cancerization in the epidermis.

8.
Nat Med ; 26(8): 1229-1234, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572267

RESUMO

The rapid increase in telemedicine coupled with recent advances in diagnostic artificial intelligence (AI) create the imperative to consider the opportunities and risks of inserting AI-based support into new paradigms of care. Here we build on recent achievements in the accuracy of image-based AI for skin cancer diagnosis to address the effects of varied representations of AI-based support across different levels of clinical expertise and multiple clinical workflows. We find that good quality AI-based support of clinical decision-making improves diagnostic accuracy over that of either AI or physicians alone, and that the least experienced clinicians gain the most from AI-based support. We further find that AI-based multiclass probabilities outperformed content-based image retrieval (CBIR) representations of AI in the mobile technology environment, and AI-based support had utility in simulations of second opinions and of telemedicine triage. In addition to demonstrating the potential benefits associated with good quality AI in the hands of non-expert clinicians, we find that faulty AI can mislead the entire spectrum of clinicians, including experts. Lastly, we show that insights derived from AI class-activation maps can inform improvements in human diagnosis. Together, our approach and findings offer a framework for future studies across the spectrum of image-based diagnostics to improve human-computer collaboration in clinical practice.

9.
Australas J Dermatol ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422683

RESUMO

Telemedicine is rapidly becoming ubiquitous as the medical profession adjusts its practice to provide optimal care to patients in the context of the COVID19 pandemic. The ability to provide accurate dermatological advice via telemedicine is dependent on the receipt of high-quality clinical images and accurate clinical context, on which clinicians receive little education during medical school and subsequent training. Clinicians can improve their capture, delivery and storage of images using the CLOSE-UP acronym, which encapsulates important considerations in the clinical photography process.

10.
Australas J Dermatol ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our metropolitan hospital provides a real-time videoconference teledermatology clinic to enable patients in rural and remote Queensland to access a specialist for dermatology care. METHODS: Retrospective clinical audit of all patient referrals to the videoconference teledermatology clinic for a two-year period. RESULTS: A total of 483 consultations for 178 patients were conducted by the teledermatology clinic. Most patients were from remote and very remote regions of Queensland with a mean distance from our metropolitan hospital to the patient's town of residence of 1295 km. The most common reason for referral, as per the referral form, was rash (32%), followed by acne (12%) and dermatitis (11%). Most (78%) referrals came from general practitioners. Around 8% of patients seen in the teledermatology clinic were converted to in-person review; 81% of patients were managed via teledermatology, and 10% of patients did not attend the scheduled teleconsultation. CONCLUSION: The outpatient teledermatology clinic run through the Telehealth Centre of a metropolitan hospital is an effective way of delivering a general dermatology consultation service to rural and remote patients in a timely manner.

11.
Australas J Dermatol ; 61(3): e293-e302, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363572

RESUMO

Despite the potential of teledermatology to increase access to dermatology services and improve patient care, it is not widely practised in Australia. In an effort to increase uptake of teledermatology by Australian dermatologists and support best practice, guidelines for teledermatology for the Australian context have been developed by The University of Queensland's Centre for Online Health in collaboration with The Australasian College of Dermatologists' E-Health Committee. The guidelines are presented in two sections: 1. Guidelines and 2. Notes to support their application in practice, when feasible and appropriate. Content was last updated March 2020 and includes modalities of teledermatology; patient selection and consent; imaging; quality and safety; privacy and security; communication; and documentation and retention of clinical images. The guidelines educate dermatologists about the benefits and limitations of telehealth while articulating how to enhance patient care and reduce risk when practicing teledermatology.

12.
Australas J Dermatol ; 61(2): e174-e183, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232852

RESUMO

Despite the potential of teledermatology to increase access to dermatology services and improve patient care, it is not widely practised in Australia. In an effort to increase uptake of teledermatology, Australian-specific practice guidelines for teledermatology are being developed by the Australasian College of Dermatologist. This paper reports finding from literature reviews that were undertaken to inform the development of these guidelines. Results cover the following sections: Modalities of teledermatology; Patient selection and consent; Imaging; Quality and safety; Privacy and security; Communication; and Documentation and retention. The document educates providers about the benefits and limitations of telehealth while articulating how to enhance patient care and reduce risk when practicing teledermatology.

13.
Nat Genet ; 52(5): 494-504, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341527

RESUMO

Most genetic susceptibility to cutaneous melanoma remains to be discovered. Meta-analysis genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 36,760 cases of melanoma (67% newly genotyped) and 375,188 controls identified 54 significant (P < 5 × 10-8) loci with 68 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms. Analysis of risk estimates across geographical regions and host factors suggests the acral melanoma subtype is uniquely unrelated to pigmentation. Combining this meta-analysis with GWAS of nevus count and hair color, and transcriptome association approaches, uncovered 31 potential secondary loci for a total of 85 cutaneous melanoma susceptibility loci. These findings provide insights into cutaneous melanoma genetic architecture, reinforcing the importance of nevogenesis, pigmentation and telomere maintenance, together with identifying potential new pathways for cutaneous melanoma pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
15.
Dermatology ; 236(2): 90-96, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional research indicates high acceptance of mobile teledermoscopy-enhanced skin self-examination (SSE) by consumers based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) domains: perceived usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, attitude and intention, subjective norms, facilitator, and trust. However, no study has assessed this outcome longitudinally among people who actually used the technology in their own homes. METHODS: Participants were living in Brisbane, Australia, aged 18 years or older, and at high risk of skin cancer. Participants randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 98) completed a self-administered questionnaire on mobile teledermoscopy acceptance for skin cancer detection both before use and after performing mobile teledermoscopy-enhanced SSE in their homes. The survey included a 25-item scale assessing seven TAM domains. Item scores ranged from 5 (strongly agree) to 1 (strongly disagree). Participants also answered survey questions on satisfaction with use of teledermoscopy, and a 9-item "thoughts about melanoma" scale that measures cancer worry. RESULTS: Participants were 19-73 years old, had high skin cancer risk, blue or grey eyes (53.1%), fair or very fair skin (88.8%), and previous skin cancer treatments (61.2%). Participants were more accepting of mobile teledermoscopy at baseline: mean TAM score of 4.15 (SE 0.05); their level of acceptance decreased significantly after teledermoscopy use: mean score 3.94 (SE 0.05; p = 0.001). In linear regression analysis, the decrease in TAM scores was similar across demographic and skin cancer risk categories. Ninety-two percent (n = 90) of participants agreed that mobile teledermoscopy was easy to use. The mean score of the "thoughts about melanoma" scale did not change significantly from baseline to follow-up. CONCLUSION: Consumers had high TAM scores before they used mobile teledermoscopy within a randomised control trial. At the end of the intervention period, TAM scores decreased, although participants' average score still indicated "agreement" that mobile teledermoscopy was acceptable.

16.
Dermatology ; 236(2): 97-104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermoscopy is a rapidly advancing technology that promotes early detection and management of skin cancers. Whilst the use of teledermoscopy has proven to be effective and has a role in the detection of skin cancers, patients' attitudes towards the multiple ways in which this technology can be utilised has not been explored. METHODS: Data were obtained from a large randomised controlled trial comparing mobile teledermoscopy-enhanced skin self-examinations (SSEs) with naked-eye SSE. A semi-structured interview guide was developed by the investigators with questions focusing on people's previous skin screening behaviours and 2 of the major pathways which can be utilised in mobile teledermoscopy: (i) direct-to-consumer and (ii) doctor-to-doctor. All interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was undertaken by 2 independent researchers. RESULTS: Twenty-eight participants were interviewed. Eighty-six percent of participants (n = 24/28) had previously had a clinical skin examination. Only 18% of participants (n = 5/28) visited the same doctor for each clinical skin examination. Five main themes were identified in the interviews that affected how people felt about the integration of mobile teledermoscopy into skin screening pathways: history of clinical skin examinations, continuity of the doctor-patient relationship, convenience of the direct-to-consumer teledermoscopy, expedited review enhancing the doctor-to-doctor setting and mobile teledermoscopy as a partner-assisted task. CONCLUSIONS: Overall mobile teledermoscopy was viewed positively for both direct-to-consumer and doctor-to-doctor interaction. Continuity of care in the doctor-patient relationship was not found to be a priority for clinical skin examination with most participants visiting several doctors throughout their clinical skin examination history.

17.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(2): 111-115, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190955

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A Melanoma Screening Summit was held in Brisbane, Australia, to review evidence regarding current approaches for early detection of melanomas and explore new opportunities. RESULTS: Formal population-based melanoma screening is not carried out in Australia, but there is evidence of considerable opportunistic screening as well as early detection. Biopsy rates are rising and most melanomas are now diagnosed when in situ. Based on evidence review and expert opinion, the Summit attendees concluded that there is currently insufficient information in terms of comparative benefits, harms and costs to support change from opportunistic to systematic screening. Assessment of gains in precision and cost-effectiveness of integrating total body imaging, artificial intelligence algorithms and genetic risk information is required, as well as better understanding of clinical and molecular features of thin fatal melanomas. CONCLUSIONS: Research is needed to understand how to further optimise early detection of melanoma in Australia. Integrating risk-based population stratification and more precise diagnostic tests is likely to improve the balance of benefits and harms of opportunistic screening, pending assessment of cost-effectiveness. Implications for public health: The Summit Group identified that the personal and financial costs to the community of detecting and treating melanoma are rising, and this may be mitigated by developing and implementing a more systematic process for diagnosing melanoma.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Austrália , Consenso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
19.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1391-1396, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067220

RESUMO

There is little long-term follow-up information about how the number of melanoma deaths and case fatality vary over time according to the measured thickness of melanoma at diagnosis. This population-based longitudinal cohort study examines patterns and trends in case fatality among 44,531 people in Queensland (Australia) diagnosed with a single invasive melanoma (International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third revision [ICD-O-3], C44, Morphology 872-879) between 1987 and 2011, including 11,883 diagnosed between 1987 and 1996, with up to 20 years follow-up (to December 2016). The 20-year case fatality increased by thickness, with the percentage of melanoma deaths within 20 years of diagnosis being up to 4.8% for melanomas with measured thickness <0.80 mm, 10.6% for tumors 0.8 to <1.0 mm and generally more than 30% for melanomas measuring 3 mm and more. For melanomas <1.0 mm, most deaths occurred between 5 and 20 years after diagnosis, whereas for thicker melanomas the reverse was true with most deaths occurring within the first 5 years. Five-year case fatality decreased over successive calendar time periods for melanomas <1.0 mm, but not for melanomas ≥1.0 mm. These findings demonstrate that the time course for fatal melanomas varies markedly according to tumor thickness at diagnosis. Improved understanding of the patient factors and characteristics of melanomas, in addition to tumor thickness, which increase the likelihood of progression, is needed to guide clinical diagnosis, communication with patients and ongoing surveillance pathways of patients with potentially fatal lesions.

20.
Telemed J E Health ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058835

RESUMO

Background: Technological advances have given rise to virtual health care services, resulting in a shift in how traditional health care services are being delivered. Consumers are increasingly demanding efficient access to health care information and services irrespective of time and distance, which is further driving the digitization of health care. This digital economy has created new opportunities for innovative new business models to meet the needs of these new markets. This study explores several in-use business models of virtual health care service platforms that incorporate mobile teledermoscopy (MTD) technologies. By comparing the different building blocks of these commercial ventures, we provide insights on business model choices and discuss the elements that contribute to economically sustainable and viable service offerings incorporating MTD applications. Materials and Methods: We searched the literature on teledermatology, complemented by searches using Google and other mobile app store platforms, and identified seven commercial ventures using teledermoscopy. We analyzed the building blocks of each business model by using an adapted version of Ash Maurya's Lean Canvas and Alexander Osterwalder's Business Model Canvas. Results: We identified three business elements that support the viability, sustainability, and growth of online dermatology services: developing key partnerships, clinician involvement in the design and implementation process, and managing the medico-legal risks and liabilities that are relevant for each country. Conclusions: Leveraging mobile technologies to deliver virtual health care present new business opportunities for health care providers. A better understanding of the business features associated with existing commercial ventures may increase uptake and improve financial viability of MTD applications as a complementary tool to traditional patient care models.

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