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Molecules ; 25(11)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481516


Endohedral metal fullerene are potential nanopharmaceuticals for MRI; thus, it is important to study their effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. Superoxide anion radical is one of the key ROS. The reactivity of aqueous dispersions of pristine (non-functionalized) fullerenes and Gd@C82 endofullerene have been studied with respect to superoxide in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence system. It was found that C60 and C70 in aqueous dispersions react with superoxide as scavengers by a similar mechanism; differences in activity are determined by cluster parameters, primarily the concentration of available, acting molecules at the surface. Gd endofullerene is characterized by a significantly (one-and-a-half to two orders of magnitude) higher reactivity with respect to C60 and C70 and is likely to exhibit nanozyme (SOD-mimic) properties, which can be accounted for by the nonuniform distribution of electron density of the fullerene cage due to the presence of the endohedral atom; however, in the cell model, Gd@C82 showed the lowest activity compared to C60 and C70, which can be accounted for by its higher affinity for the lipid phase.

Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235534


Free radical reactions play an important role in biological functions of living systems. The balance between oxidants and antioxidants is necessary for the normal homeostasis of cells and organisms. Experimental works demonstrate the role of oxidative stress that is caused by influenza virus as well as the toxic effects of some antiviral drugs. Therefore, antiviral drugs should be characterized by its pro- and antioxidant activity, because it can affect its therapeutic efficiency. The aim of the study was to quantify the antioxidant capacity and propose the mechanism of the antioxidant effect of the antiviral drug Umifenovir (Arbidol®). The kinetic chemiluminescence with the 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride + luminol system was used to quantify the antioxidant capacity of Umifenovir relative to the standard compound Trolox. With computer simulation, the reaction scheme and rate constants were proposed. The antioxidant capacity of 0.9 µM Umifenovir (maximum concentration of Umifenovir in blood after oral administration of 200 mg) was as high as 1.65 ± 0.18 µM of Trolox. Thus, the total antioxidant capacity of Umifenovir is comparable to the antioxidant capacity of Trolox. Unlike Trolox, Umifenovir reacts with free radicals in two stages. For Trolox, the free radical scavenging rate constant was k = 2000 nM-1 min.-1, for Umifenovir k1 = 300 nM-1min.-1, k2 = 4 nM-1min.-1. Slower kinetics of Umifenovir provides the prolonged antioxidant effect when compared to Trolox. This phenomenon can make a serious contribution to the compensation of oxidative stress that is caused by a viral disease and the therapeutic effect of the drug.

Nanoscale ; 11(39): 18142-18149, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555787


Understanding the complex chemistry of functional nanomaterials is of fundamental importance. Controlled synthesis and characterization at the atomic level is essential to gain deeper insight into the unique chemical reactivity exhibited by many nanomaterials. Cerium oxide nanoparticles have many industrial and commercial applications, resulting from very strong catalytic, pro- and anti-oxidant activity. However, the identity of the active species and the chemical mechanisms imparted by nanoceria remain elusive, impeding the further development of new applications. Here, we explore the behavior of cerium oxide nanoparticles of different sizes at different temperatures and trace the electronic structure changes by state-of-the-art soft and hard X-ray experiments combined with computational methods. We confirm the absence of the Ce(iii) oxidation state at the surface of CeO2 nanoparticles, even for particles as small as 2 nm. Synchrotron X-ray absorption experiments at Ce L3 and M5 edges, combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and theoretical calculations demonstrate that in addition to the nanoceria charge stability, the formation of hydroxyl groups at the surface profoundly affects the chemical performance of these nanomaterials.