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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371920

RESUMO

Nutraceuticals, including vitamin D, vitamin A, zinc, lactoferrin, polyphenols coenzyme Q, magnesium, and selenium, are implicated in the modulation of the complex molecular pathways involved in the immune response against viral pathogens. A common element of the activity of nutraceuticals is their ability to enhance the innate immune response against pathogens by acting on the major cellular subsets and inducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. In some cases, this action is accompanied by a direct antimicrobial effect, as evidenced in the specific case of lactoferrin. Furthermore, nutraceuticals act through complex molecular mechanisms to minimize the damage caused by the activation of the immune system against pathogens, reducing the oxidative damage, influencing the antigen presentation, enhancing the differentiation and proliferation of regulatory T cells, driving the differentiation of lymphocyte subsets, and modulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we review the main molecular mechanisms responsible for the immunomodulatory function of nutraceuticals, focusing on the most relevant aspects for the prevention and treatment of viral infections.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/imunologia , Vírus/patogenicidade
2.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 68, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 can induce an immune impairment and dysregulation, finally resulting in the massive release of inflammatory mediators (cytokine storm), strongly contributing to the pulmonary and systemic manifestations in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As a consequence, different drugs active on the immune system have been proposed for the treatment of the disease in adults. ROLE OF THE ANTI-RHEUMATIC AGENTS IN CHILDREN: Children are more likely to develop a mild disease course, as the severe form of COVID-19 is identified in less than 5% of the pediatric patients. Moreover, in children a peculiar disease phenotype, defined as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is observed, representing the most severe expression of the inflammatory dysregulation caused by SARS-CoV-2. The limited experience with the severe pediatric COVID-19 and MIS-C does not allow conclusions about the role of the immune pharmacological approach, and therefore the treatment of these conditions represents a considerable clinical challenge. The use of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and colchicine in the early disease stages is not sufficiently supported by evidence, and there is an increasing interest in the role of biologic agents, including anti-IL-1 and anti-IL-6 agents, in the prevention and treatment of the severe manifestations of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The therapeutic approach to pediatric COVID-19 is multidisciplinary, and anti-rheumatic agents have a prominent role in severe disease. This paper reviews the rationale for the use of anti-rheumatic agents in pediatric COVID-19 and MIS-C and the clinical experience with the single drugs. Finally, the areas of potential improvement in the use of anti-rheumatic agents, including the optimization of the drug choice and the timing of administration, are discussed.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(2): 331-339, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566457

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can present with a wide spectrum of severity. Elderly patients with cardiac, pulmonary and metabolic comorbidities are more likely to develop the severe manifestations of COVID-19, which are observed in less than 5% of the pediatric patients. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is able to induce an immune impairment and dysregulation, finally resulting in the massive release of inflammatory mediators, strongly contributing to the pulmonary and systemic manifestations in COVID-19. In children, the immune dysregulation following SARS-CoV-2 can also be responsible of a severe disease phenotype defined as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. As the immune system undergoes a complex process of maturation from birth to adult age, differences in the immune and inflammatory response could have a significant impact in determining the spectrum of severity of COVID-19. Indeed, children show a higher ability to respond to viral infections and a reduced baseline pro-inflammatory state compared with elderly patients. Age and comorbidities contribute to disease severity through immune-mediated mechanisms, since they are associated with a chronic increase of pro-inflammatory mediators, and cause an enhanced susceptibility to develop an immune dysregulation following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Also the expression of ACE2, the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, varies with age, and is linked to the immune and inflammatory response through a complex, and not completely elucidated, network. This paper reviews the peculiar immunopathogenic aspects of COVID-19, with a focus on the differences between adult and pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Imunidade Adaptativa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/biossíntese , COVID-19/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Lactente , Inflamação/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Virais/biossíntese , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 32, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the immune system and inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of the severe manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is well known. Currently, different therapies active on the immune system are used for the management of COVID-19. The involvement of the immune system also opens the opportunity for the use of nutritional supplements with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity. MAIN ASPECTS: Nutritional supplements with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity are promising therapeutic adjuvants for the treatment of COVID-19, and also for the prevention of viral spreading. In particular, the role of vitamin D, probiotics, lactoferrin, and zinc is of significant clinical interest, although there are only a few data on their use in COVID-19 patients. Their molecular actions, together with the results of studies performed on other respiratory infections, strongly suggest their potential utility in COVID-19. This article discusses the main properties of these nutritional supplements and their potential applicability in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The supplementation with vitamin D, probiotics, lactoferrin and zinc could have a role both in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and in mitigating the clinical course in infected patients, contributing in the prevention of immune-mediated organ damage.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Lactoferrina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico
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