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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004168

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Red cell transfusions are commonly used in management of hemorrhage in trauma patients. The appropriate indications and criteria for transfusion are still debated. Here, we summarize the recent findings on the use of red cell transfusion in trauma setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence continues to support the long-established link between allogeneic transfusion and worse clinical outcomes, reinstating the importance of more judicious use of allogeneic blood and careful consideration of benefits versus risks when making transfusion decisions. Studies support restrictive transfusion strategies (often based on hemoglobin thresholds of 7-8 g/dl) in most patient populations, although some argue more caution in specific populations (e.g. patients with traumatic brain injury) and more studies are needed to determine if these patients benefit from less restrictive transfusion strategies. It should be remembered that anemia remains an independent risk factor for worse outcomes and red cell transfusion does not constitute a lasting treatment. Anemia should be properly assessed and managed based on the cause and using hematinic medications as indicated. SUMMARY: Although the debate on hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion continues, clinicians should not overlook proper management of the underlying issue (anemia).

2.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(1): 26, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintaining adequate situation awareness is crucial for patient safety. Previous studies found that the use of avatar-based monitoring (Visual Patient Technology) improved the perception of vital signs compared to conventional monitoring showing numerical and waveform data; and was further associated with a reduction of perceived workload. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Visual Patient Technology on perceptive performance and perceived workload when monitoring multiple patients at the same time, such as in central station monitors in intensive care units or operating rooms. METHODS: A prospective, within-subject, computer-based laboratory study was performed in two tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland in 2018. Thirty-eight physician and nurse anesthetists volunteered for the study. The participants were shown four different central monitor scenarios in sequence, where each scenario displayed two critical and four healthy patients simultaneously for 10 or 30 s. After each scenario, participants had to recall the vital signs of the critical patients. Perceived workload was assessed with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load-Index (NASA TLX) questionnaire. RESULTS: In the 10-s scenarios, the median number of remembered vital signs significantly improved from 7 to 11 using avatar-based versus conventional monitoring with a mean of differences of 4 vital signs, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2 to 6, p < 0.001. At the same time, the median NASA TLX scores were significantly lower for avatar-based monitoring (67 vs. 77) with a mean of differences of 6 points, 95% CI 0.5 to 11, p = 0.034. In the 30-s scenarios, vital sign perception and workload did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS: In central monitor multiple patient monitoring, we found a significant improvement of vital sign perception and reduction of perceived workload using Visual Patient Technology, compared to conventional monitoring. The technology enabled improved assessment of patient status and may, thereby, help to increase situation awareness and enhance patient safety.

3.
Transfusion ; 60(1): 62-72, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately every third surgical patient is anemic. The most common form, iron deficiency anemia, results from persisting iron-deficient erythropoiesis (IDE). Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) is a promising parameter for diagnosing IDE, hitherto requiring blood drawing and laboratory workup. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Noninvasive ZnPP (ZnPP-NI) measurements are compared to ZnPP reference determination of the ZnPP/heme ratio by high-performance liquid chromatography (ZnPP-HPLC) and the analytical performance in detecting IDE is evaluated against traditional iron status parameters (ferritin, transferrin saturation [TSAT], soluble transferrin receptor-ferritin index [sTfR-F], soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR]), likewise measured in blood. The study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Frankfurt and Zurich. RESULTS: Limits of agreement between ZnPP-NI and ZnPP-HPLC measurements for 584 cardiac and noncardiac surgical patients equaled 19.7 µmol/mol heme (95% confidence interval, 18.0-21.3; acceptance criteria, 23.2 µmol/mol heme; absolute bias, 0 µmol/mol heme). Analytical performance for detecting IDE (inferred from area under the curve receiver operating characteristics) of parameters measured in blood was: ZnPP-HPLC (0.95), sTfR (0.92), sTfR-F (0.89), TSAT (0.87), and ferritin (0.67). Noninvasively measured ZnPP-NI yielded results of 0.90. CONCLUSION: ZnPP-NI appears well suited for an initial IDE screening, informing on the state of erythropoiesis at the point of care without blood drawing and laboratory analysis. Comparison with a multiparameter IDE test revealed that ZnPP-NI values of 40 µmol/mol heme or less allows exclusion of IDE, whereas for 65 µmol/mol heme or greater, IDE is very likely if other causes of increased values are excluded. In these cases (77% of our patients) ZnPP-NI may suffice for a diagnosis, while values in between require analyses of additional iron status parameters.

4.
Transfusion ; 60(1): 197-205, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigates the impact of preoperative calculated rivaroxaban (RXA) plasma concentration on perioperative red blood cell (RBC) loss. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, we identified patients with RXA intake according to a preoperative determination of RXA levels within 96 hours before surgery. RXA plasma concentration at the beginning of surgery was then calculated from the last RXA intake using a single-compartment pharmacokinetic model with four categories of RXA concentration (≤20, 21-50, 51-100, and >100 µg/L). Patients were classified into surgery with high (≥500 mL) or low (<500 mL) expected blood loss. Perioperative bleeding was determined by calculating RBC loss. RESULTS: We analyzed 308 surgical interventions in 298 patients during the period from January 2012 to July 2018. Among patients undergoing surgery with low expected blood loss, RBC loss varied from 164 mL (standard deviation [SD], 189) to 302 mL (SD, 397) (p = 0.66), and no association of calculated RXA concentration with RBC loss was observed. In patients undergoing surgery with high expected blood loss, we found a significant correlation of calculated RXA concentration with RBC loss (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.29; p = 0.002). RBC loss increased with rising RXA concentration from 575 mL (SD, 365) at RXA concentration of 20 µg/L or less up to 1400 mL (SD, 1300) at RXA concentration greater than 100 µg/L. RXA concentration greater than 100 µg/L was associated with a significant increase of in RBC loss of 840 mL (95% confidence interval, 360-1300; p < 0.001). Transfusion of RBC and fresh frozen plasma units tended to increase in patients with RXA concentrations greater than 100 µg/L. The proportion of patients treated with prothrombin complex concentrate and coagulation factor XIII concentrate increased significantly with higher RXA concentrations. CONCLUSION: Only in surgery with high expected blood loss, a calculated RXA concentration of greater than 100 µg/L was associated with a significant increase of perioperative RBC loss.

5.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 25-34, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is frequent in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The relevance of iron deficiency, however, is ill defined. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the impact of iron deficiency (ferritin <100 µg L-1) with or without concomitant anaemia on clinical outcome after cardiac surgery. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 730 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were assigned into four groups according to their iron status and anaemia. Mortality, serious adverse events (SAEs), major cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), allogenic blood transfusion requirements, and length of hospital stay were assessed during a 90-day follow-up period. The effect of iron deficiency on these outcomes was first calculated in models adjusting for anaemia only, followed by two multivariate models adjusting for anaemia and either the EuroSCORE II or any possible confounders. RESULTS: The presence of iron deficiency (ferritin <100 µg L-1) was associated with an increase in 90-day mortality from 2% to 5% in patients without anaemia, and from 4% to 14% in patients with anaemia. Logistic regression resulted in an odds ratio of 3.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-8.4); P=0.004. The effect persisted in both multivariate models. Moreover, iron deficiency was associated with an increased incidence of SAEs, MACCEs, transfusion, and prolonged hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative iron deficiency (ferritin <100 µg L-1) was independently associated with increased mortality, more SAEs, and prolonged hospital stay after cardiac surgery. These findings underline the importance of preoperative iron deficiency screening in the context of a comprehensive patient blood management programme, and highlight its importance as a research topic in cardiac surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02031289.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Ferro/deficiência , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Anemia Ferropriva/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain is a frequent problem faced by emergency medical services (EMS) in pre-hospital settings. This large observational study aims to assess the prevalence of sufficiently provided analgesia and to analyze the efficacy of different analgesics. Moreover, we evaluated if quality of analgesia changed with an emergency physician on scene or depended on paramedics' gender. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of all pre-hospital medical charts from adults and adolescents treated by the municipal EMS Schutz & Rettung Zürich over a period of 4 years from 2013 to 2016. Inclusion criteria were age ≥16 years, initial GCS > 13, NACA score ≥I and ≤V, an initial numeric rating scale (NRS) ≥ I and a documented NRS at hospital admission. 20,978 out of 142,484 missions fulfilled the inclusion criteria and therefore underwent further investigation. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were applied. RESULTS: Initial NRS on scene was on average 5.2 ± 3.0. Mean NRS reduction after treatment was 2.2 ± 2.5 leading to a NRS at hospital admission of 3.0 ± 1.9. This resulted in sufficient analgesia for 77% of included patients. Among analgesics, the highest odds ratio for sufficient analgesia was observed for ketamine (OR 4.7, 95%CI 2.2-10.4, p < 0.001) followed by fentanyl (OR 1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.7, p = 0.004). Female paramedics provided better analgesia (OR 1.2, 95%CI 1.1-1.2; p < 0.001). Patient's sex had no influence on analgesia. In patients with a NACA score > 2, the presence of an emergency physician on scene improved the quality of analgesia significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-hospital analgesia is mostly adequate, especially when done with ketamine or fentanyl. Female paramedics provided better analgesia and in selected patients, an emergency physician on scene improved quality of analgesia in critical patients.

7.
Perioper Med (Lond) ; 8: 15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832179

RESUMO

Background: While mainly larger hospitals have introduced routine anti-Xa assays for rivaroxaban (RXA), these are not readily available to smaller hospitals often relying on routine coagulation tests such as prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT).The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of RXA plasma concentration on the standard coagulation tests PT (Quick test and INR) and aPTT in a large group of real-life patients. We further assessed whether normal results of these standard coagulation assays are sufficient to exclude surgically relevant RXA plasma concentration, defined as > 50 mcg/l. Methods: This retrospective study included all patients between 2012 and 2016 where anti-Xa (calibrated for RXA), PT (Quick test and INR), and/or aPTT were determined from the same sample. PT is expressed as Quick value (% of normal plasma pool). In total, 1027 measurements in 622 patients were eligible for analysis: 752 measurements of 505 patients for Quick/INR and 594 measurements of 417 patients for aPTT. Results: A moderate correlation of PT/Quick (Pearson's correlation coefficient - 0.59; p < 0.001), INR (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.5; p < 0.001), and aPTT (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.53; p < 0.001) with RXA plasma concentration was observed. However, in 50% of all samples with a normal PT/Quick, in 25% of all samples with a normal INR and in 80% of all samples with a normal aPTT residual RXA plasma concentration was surgically relevant. Conclusion: Although a moderate correlation of RXA plasma concentration with PT/Quick, INR, and aPTT was observed, standard coagulation assays are not sufficient to exclude surgically relevant RXA plasma concentrations.

8.
Burns ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic blood transfusions are common in the treatment of severely burned patients as surgery may lead to major blood loss. However, transfusions are associated with a number of adverse events. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to investigate the impact of allogeneic blood transfusions on clinical outcomes in severely burned patients. METHODS: This retrospective study included all adult patients admitted to the burn center of the University Hospital Zurich between January 2004 and December 2014, with burn injuries greater than 10% of total body surface area and receiving both surgical and intensive care treatment. Primary Endpoints were infectious or thromboembolic complications and mortality and secondary endpoints were length of hospital and ICU stay. Simple and multivariable logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for injury severity and confounders, were applied. RESULTS: 413 patients met inclusion criteria of which 212 patients (51%) received allogenic blood products. After adjustment for injury severity and confounders, red blood cell transfusion was independently associated with wound infection (OR 13.5, 95% CI 1.7-107, p = 0.014), sepsis (OR 8.3, 4.2-16.3; p < 0.001), pneumonia (OR 4.7, 2.2-10.0; p < 0.001), thrombosis (OR 3.0, 1.2-7.4; p = 0.015), central line infection (OR 34.7, 4.6-260; p = 0.001) and a longer ICU and hospital stay (difference 17.7, CI 12.1-23.4, p < 0.001 and 22.0, 15.8-28.2, p < 0.001, respectively). Fresh frozen plasma transfusion was independently associated with a longer ICU and hospital stay (difference 13.7, 95% CI 5.5-21.8, p = 0.001 and 13.5, 4.6-22.5, p = 0.003, respectively). Platelet transfusion was independently associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (OR 4.5, 1.3-15.5; p = 0.018) and mortality (OR 5.8, 2.1-16.0; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Transfusion of allogeneic blood products is associated with an increased infection rate and thromboembolic morbidity and a longer hospital stay in severely burned patients.

9.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768924

RESUMO

Patient monitoring requires constant attention and may be particularly vulnerable to distractions, which frequently occur during perioperative work. In this study, we compared anesthesia providers' perceptive performance and perceived workload under distraction for conventional and avatar-based monitoring, a situation awareness-based technology that displays patient status as an animated patient model. In this prospective, multicenter study with a within-subject design, 38 participants evaluated scenarios of 3- and 10-s durations using conventional and avatar-based monitoring, under standardized distraction in the form of a simple calculation task. We quantified perceptual performance as the number of vital signs correctly remembered out of the total of 11 vital signs shown. We quantified perceived workload using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index score. Anesthesia providers remembered more vital signs under distraction using the avatar monitoring technology in the 3-s scenario: 6 (interquartile range [IQR] 5-7) vs. 3 (IQR 2-4), p < 0.001, mean of differences (MoD): 3 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1 to 4), and in the 10-s monitoring task: 6 (IQR 5-8) vs. 4 (IQR 2-7), p = 0.028, MoD: 1 (95% CI 0.2 to 3). Participants rated perceived workload lower under distraction with the avatar in the 3-s scenario: 65 (IQR 40-79) vs. 75 (IQR 51-88), p = 0.007, MoD: 9 (95% CI 3 to 15), and in the 10-s scenario: 68 (IQR 50-80) vs. 75 (IQR 65-86), p = 0.019, MoD: 10 (95% CI 2 to 18). Avatar-based monitoring improved anesthesia providers' perceptive performance under distraction and reduced perceived workload. This technology could help to improve caregivers' situation awareness, especially in high-workload situations.

10.
Transfus Med Hemother ; 46(4): 282-293, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700511

RESUMO

Background: Due to increasing use of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs), clinicians are faced more and more frequently with clinical issues related to these drugs. Objective: The objective of this publication is to make practical suggestions for the perioperative management of NOACs as well as for their handling in overdoses and bleedings. Recommendations: In elective surgery and creatinine clearance ≥ 50 ml/min, a NOAC should be discontinued 24-36 h before the intervention, and even earlier in case of reduced kidney function. In emergency interventions that cannot be delayed, the management is dependent on the NOAC plasma levels. With levels ≤ 30 ng/ml, surgery can be performed. With levels >30 ng/ml, reversal agents should be considered. In low bleeding risk surgery, NOACs can be re-started 24 h after the intervention, which is prolonged to 48-72 h after surgery with high bleeding risk. In case of NOAC overdose and minor bleedings, temporary discontinuation and supportive care are usually sufficient to control the situation. In severe or life-threatening bleedings, nonspecific and specific reversal agents should be considered.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399306

RESUMO

Anemia is common in patients with cardiac disease. Iron deficiency is the cause of anemia in about 80% of all cases. Preoperative anemia is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The risk of receiving red blood cell transfusions, which are potentially associated with severe side effects, is very high in these patients. Patient Blood Management (PBM) is a multidisciplinary approach to manage anemia, minimize unnecessary blood loss, and optimize transfusion therapy. PBM comprises 3 pillars: (1) detection and treatment of preoperative anemia, (2) reduction of perioperative blood loss, and (3) optimization of allogeneic blood therapy. The World Health Organization has urged all Member States to implement PBM. This narrative review focuses on pre-, intra-, and postoperative strategies to detect, prevent, and treat anemia as part of PBM in cardiac surgery.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(7): e13041, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous patient monitoring has been described by the World Health Organization as extremely important and is widely used in anesthesia, intensive care medicine, and emergency medicine. However, current state-of-the-art number- and waveform-based monitoring does not ideally support human users in acquiring quick, confident interpretations with low cognitive effort, and there are additional problematic aspects such as alarm fatigue. We developed a visualization technology (Visual Patient), specifically designed to help caregivers gain situation awareness quickly, which presents vital sign information in the form of an animated avatar of the monitored patient. We suspected that because of the way it displays the information as large, colorful, moving graphic objects, caregivers might be able to perform patient monitoring using their peripheral vision, which may facilitate quicker detection of anomalies, independently of acoustic alarms. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that avatar-based monitoring, when observed with peripheral vision only, increases the number of perceptible changes in patient status as well as caregivers' perceived diagnostic confidence compared with a high-fidelity simulation of conventional monitoring, when observed with peripheral vision only. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter comparative study with a within-participant design in which anesthesiologists with their peripheral field of vision looked at 2 patient-monitoring scenarios and tried to identify changes in patient status. To ensure the best possible experimental conditions, we used an eye tracker, which recorded the eye movements of the participants and confirmed that they only looked at the monitoring scenarios with their peripheral vision. RESULTS: Overall, 30 participants evaluated 18 different patient status changes with each technology (avatar and conventional patient monitoring). With conventional patient monitoring, participants could only detect those 3 changes in patient status that are associated with a change in the auditory pulse tone display, that is, tachycardia (faster beeping), bradycardia (slower beeping), and desaturation (lower pitch of beeping). With the avatar, the median number of detected vital sign changes quadrupled from 3 to 12 (P<.001) in scenario 1, and more than doubled from 3 to 8 (P<.001) in scenario 2. Median perceived diagnostic confidence was confident for both scenarios with the avatar and unconfident in scenario 1 (P<.001), and very unconfident in scenario 2 (P=.024) with conventional monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: This study introduces the concept of peripheral vision monitoring. The test performed showed clearly that an avatar-based display is superior to a standard numeric display for peripheral vision. Avatar-based monitoring could potentially make much more of the patient monitoring information available to caregivers for longer time periods per case. Our results indicate that the optimal information transmission would consist of a combination of auditory and avatar-based monitoring.

14.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 19(1): 87, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient monitoring is critical for perioperative patient safety as anesthesiologists routinely make crucial therapeutic decisions from the information displayed on patient monitors. Previous research has shown that today's patient monitoring has room for improvement in areas such as information overload and alarm fatigue. The rationale of this study was to learn more about the problems anesthesiologists face in patient monitoring and to derive improvement suggestions for next-generation patient monitors. METHODS: We conducted a two-center qualitative/quantitative study. Initially, we interviewed 120 anesthesiologists (physicians and nurses) about the topic: common problems with patient monitoring in your daily work. Through deductive and inductive coding, we identified major topics and sub themes from the interviews. In a second step, a field survey, a separate group of 25 anesthesiologists rated their agree- or disagreement with central statements created for all identified major topics. RESULTS: We identified the following six main topics: 1. "Alarms," 2. "Artifacts," 3. "Software," 4. "Hardware," 5. "Human Factors," 6. "System Factors," and 17 sub themes. The central statements rated for the major topics were: 1. "problems with alarm settings complicate patient monitoring." (56% agreed) 2. "artifacts complicate the assessment of the situation." (64% agreed) 3. "information overload makes it difficult to get an overview quickly." (56% agreed) 4. "problems with cables complicate working with patient monitors." (92% agreed) 5. "factors related to human performance lead to critical information not being perceived." (88% agreed) 6. "Switching between monitors from different manufacturers is difficult." (88% agreed). The ratings of all statements differed significantly from neutral (all p < 0.03). CONCLUSION: This study provides an overview of the problems anesthesiologists face in patient monitoring. Some of the issues, to our knowledge, were not previously identified as common problems in patient monitoring, e.g., hardware problems (e.g., cable entanglement and worn connectors), human factor aspects (e.g., fatigue and distractions), and systemic factor aspects (e.g., insufficient standardization between manufacturers). An ideal monitor should transfer the relevant patient monitoring information as efficiently as possible, prevent false positive alarms, and use technologies designed to improve the problems in patient monitoring.

15.
Singapore Med J ; 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044255

RESUMO

Preoperative anaemia is common in the Asia-Pacific. Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a risk factor that can be addressed under patient blood management (PBM) Pillar 1, leading to reduced morbidity and mortality. We examined PBM implementation under four different healthcare systems, identified challenges and proposed several measures. (a) Test for anaemia once patients are scheduled for surgery. (b) Inform patients about risks of preoperative anaemia and benefits of treatment. (c) Treat IDA and replenish iron stores before surgery, using intravenous iron when oral treatment is ineffective, not tolerated or rapid iron replenishment is needed; transfusion should not be the default management. (d) Harness support from multiple medical disciplines and relevant bodies to promote PBM implementation. (e) Demonstrate better outcomes and cost savings from reduced mortality and morbidity. Although PBM implementation may seem complex and daunting, it is feasible to start small. Implementing PBM Pillar 1, particularly in preoperative patients, is a sensible first step regardless of the healthcare setting.

16.
Lancet ; 393(10187): 2201-2212, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia and iron deficiency are frequent in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. This study assessed whether immediate preoperative treatment could result in reduced perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and improved outcome. METHODS: In this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group controlled study, patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with anaemia (n=253; haemoglobin concentration (Hb) <120 g/L in women and Hb <130 g/L in men) or isolated iron deficiency (n=252; ferritin <100 mcg/L, no anaemia) were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) with the use of a computer-generated range minimisation (allocation probability 0·8) to receive either placebo or combination treatment consisting of a slow infusion of 20 mg/kg ferric carboxymaltose, 40 000 U subcutaneous erythropoietin alpha, 1 mg subcutaneous vitamin B12, and 5 mg oral folic acid or placebo on the day before surgery. Primary outcome was the number of RBC transfusions during the first 7 days. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02031289. FINDINGS: Between Jan 9, 2014, and July 19, 2017, 1006 patients were enrolled; 505 with anaemia or isolated iron deficiency and 501 in the registry. The combination treatment significantly reduced RBC transfusions from a median of one unit in the placebo group (IQR 0-3) to zero units in the treatment group (0-2, during the first 7 days (odds ratio 0·70 [95% CI 0·50-0·98] for each threshold of number of RBC transfusions, p=0·036) and until postoperative day 90 (p=0·018). Despite fewer RBC units transfused, patients in the treatment group had a higher haemoglobin concentration, higher reticulocyte count, and a higher reticulocyte haemoglobin content during the first 7 days (p≤0·001). Combined allogeneic transfusions were less in the treatment group (0 [IQR 0-2]) versus the placebo group (1 [0-3]) during the first 7 days (p=0·038) and until postoperative day 90 (p=0·019). 73 (30%) serious adverse events were reported in the treatment group group versus 79 (33%) in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: An ultra-short-term combination treatment with intravenous iron, subcutaneous erythropoietin alpha, vitamin B12, and oral folic acid reduced RBC and total allogeneic blood product transfusions in patients with preoperative anaemia or isolated iron deficiency undergoing elective cardiac surgery. FUNDING: Vifor Pharma and Swiss Foundation for Anaesthesia Research.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Eritropoetina/administração & dosagem , Compostos Férricos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Maltose/análogos & derivados , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Maltose/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Acta Haematol ; 142(1): 21-29, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970362

RESUMO

Preoperative anemia affects 30-40% of patients undergoing major surgery and is an independent risk factor for perioperative blood transfusion, morbidity, and mortality. Absolute or functional iron deficiency is its leading cause. Nonanemic hematinic deficiencies are also prevalent and may hamper preoperative hemoglobin optimization and/or recovery from postoperative anemia. As modifiable risk factors, anemia and hematinic deficiencies should be detected and corrected prior to major surgical procedures. Postoperative anemia is even more common (up to 80-90%) due to surgery-associated blood loss, inflammation-induced blunted erythropoiesis, and/or preexisting anemia. Preoperative oral iron may have a role in mild-to-moderate anemia, provided there is sufficient time (6-8 weeks) and adequate tolerance of oral preparations. Postoperative oral iron is of little value and rife with gastrointestinal adverse events. Intravenous iron should preferentially be used in cases of moderate-to-severe iron deficiency anemia, concomitant use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, short time to surgery or nonelective procedures, and for postoperative anemia management. Minor infusion reactions to intravenous iron are rare, the incidence of severe anaphylactic reactions is extremely low, and there is no increase in infections with intravenous iron. Currently available intravenous iron formulations allowing administration of large single doses are preferred.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/patologia , Artroplastia de Substituição , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Eritropoetina/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Humanos , Ferro/efeitos adversos , Assistência Perioperatória
18.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 98, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe traumatic injury continues to present challenges to healthcare systems around the world, and post-traumatic bleeding remains a leading cause of potentially preventable death among injured patients. Now in its fifth edition, this document aims to provide guidance on the management of major bleeding and coagulopathy following traumatic injury and encourages adaptation of the guiding principles described here to individual institutional circumstances and resources. METHODS: The pan-European, multidisciplinary Task Force for Advanced Bleeding Care in Trauma was founded in 2004, and the current author group included representatives of six relevant European professional societies. The group applied a structured, evidence-based consensus approach to address scientific queries that served as the basis for each recommendation and supporting rationale. Expert opinion and current clinical practice were also considered, particularly in areas in which randomised clinical trials have not or cannot be performed. Existing recommendations were re-examined and revised based on scientific evidence that has emerged since the previous edition and observed shifts in clinical practice. New recommendations were formulated to reflect current clinical concerns and areas in which new research data have been generated. RESULTS: Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of post-traumatic coagulopathy have supported improved management strategies, including evidence that early, individualised goal-directed treatment improves the outcome of severely injured patients. The overall organisation of the current guideline has been designed to reflect the clinical decision-making process along the patient pathway in an approximate temporal sequence. Recommendations are grouped behind the rationale for key decision points, which are patient- or problem-oriented rather than related to specific treatment modalities. While these recommendations provide guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of major bleeding and coagulopathy, emerging evidence supports the author group's belief that the greatest outcome improvement can be achieved through education and the establishment of and adherence to local clinical management algorithms. CONCLUSIONS: A multidisciplinary approach and adherence to evidence-based guidance are key to improving patient outcomes. If incorporated into local practice, these clinical practice guidelines have the potential to ensure a uniform standard of care across Europe and beyond and better outcomes for the severely bleeding trauma patient.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Guias como Assunto , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Encefalocele/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/tendências , Humanos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Ann Surg ; 269(5): 805-807, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614875
20.
Blood Transfus ; 17(2): 137-145, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418128

RESUMO

Absolute or functional iron deficiency is the most prevalent cause of anaemia in surgical patients, and its correction is a fundamental strategy within "Patient Blood Management" programmes. Offering perioperative oral iron for treating iron deficiency anaemia is still recommended, but intravenous iron has been demonstrated to be superior in most cases. However, the long-standing prejudice against intravenous iron administration, which is thought to induce anaphylaxis, hypotension and shock, still persists. With currently available intravenous iron formulations, minor infusion reactions are not common. These self-limited reactions are due to labile iron and not hypersensitivity. Aggressively treating infusion reactions with H1-antihistamines or vasopressors should be avoided. Self-limited hypotension during intravenous iron infusion could be considered to be due to hypersensitivity or vascular reaction to labile iron. Acute hypersensitivity reactions to current intravenous iron formulation are believed to be caused by complement activation-related pseudo-allergy. However, though exceedingly rare (<1:250,000 administrations), they should not be ignored, and intravenous iron should be administered only at facilities where staff is trained to evaluate and manage these reactions. As preventive measures, prior to the infusion, staff should inform all patients about infusion reactions and identify those patients with increased risk of hypersensitivity or contraindications for intravenous iron. Infusion should be started at a low rate for a few minutes. In the event of a reaction, the very first intervention should be the immediate cessation of the infusion, followed by evaluation of severity and treatment. An algorithm to scale the intensity of treatment to the clinical picture and/or response to therapy is presented.


Assuntos
Administração Intravenosa/efeitos adversos , Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Ferro/efeitos adversos , Anafilaxia/prevenção & controle , Anafilaxia/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Hipotensão/terapia , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco
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