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2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11657, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406159

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis is responsible for bovine tuberculosis in both animals and humans. Despite being one of the most important global zoonotic disease, data related to the ecology and pathogenicity of bovine tuberculosis is scarce, especially in developing countries. In this report, we examined the dynamics of M. bovis transmission among dairy cattle in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Animals belonging to 27 herds from 7 governorates were tested by the Single Intradermal Comparative Skin Tuberculin (SICST), as a preliminary screen for the presence of bovine tuberculosis. Positive SICST reactors were identified in 3% of the animals spread among 40% of the examined herds. Post-mortem examination of slaughtered reactors confirmed the presence of both pulmonary and/or digestive forms of tuberculosis in > 50% of the examined animals. Targeted and whole-genome analysis of M. bovis isolates indicated the emergences of a predominant spoligotype (SB0268) between 2013-2015, suggesting a recent clonal spread of this isolate within the Nile Delta. Surprisingly, 2 isolates belonged to M. bovis BCG group, which are not allowed for animal vaccination in Egypt, while the rest of isolates belonged to the virulent M. bovis clonal complex European 2 present in Latin America and several European countries. Analysis of strain virulence in the murine model of tuberculosis indicated the emergence of a more virulent strain (MBE4) with a specific genotype. More analysis is needed to understand the molecular basis for successful spread of virulent isolates of bovine tuberculosis among animals and to establish genotype/phenotype association.

3.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 135: 203-209, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880144

RESUMO

Large-scale changes in chromosome number have been associated with diversification rate shifts in many lineages of plants. For instance, several ancient rounds of polyploidization events have been inferred to promote genomic differentiation and/or isolation and, consequently, angiosperm diversification. Dysploidy, although less studied, has been suggested to also play an important role in angiosperm diversification. In this article, we aim to elucidate the role of chromosomal rearrangements on lineage diversification by analyzing a new comprehensive sedge (Cyperaceae) phylogenetic tree. Our null hypothesis is that the mode and tempo of chromosome evolution are to be homogeneous across the complete phylogeny. In order to discern patterns of diversification shifts and chromosome number changes within the family tree, we tested clade-specific chromosome evolution models for several subtrees according to previously reported increments of diversification rates. Results show that a complex, heterogeneous model composed of different clade-specific chromosome evolution transitions are significantly supported against the null hypothesis of a model with no chromosome number model transition events along the phylogeny. This could suggest a link between diversification and changes in chromosome number evolution although other possibilities are not discarded. Our methodological approach may allow identifying different patterns of chromosome evolution, as found for Cyperaceae, for other lineages at different evolutionary levels.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cyperaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia
4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4474, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872748

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) represents a significant challenge to public health authorities, especially with the emergence of drug-resistant (DR) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We sought to examine the genomic variations among recently isolated strains of M. tuberculosis in two closely related countries with different population demography in the Middle East. Clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis from both Egypt and Saudi Arabia were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic analysis on gene and genome-wide levels. Isolates with MDR phenotypes were highly prevalent in Egypt (up to 35%) despite its relatively stable population structure (sympatric pattern). MDR-TB isolates were not identified in the isolates from Saudi Arabia despite its active guest worker program (allopatric pattern). However, tuberculosis isolates from Saudi Arabia, where lineage 4 was more prevalent (>65%), showed more diversity than isolates from Egypt, where lineage 3 was the most prevalent (>75%). Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses indicated that lineages from Egypt were recently diverged (~78 years), whereas those from Saudi Arabia were diverged by over 200 years. Interestingly, DR isolates did not appear to cluster together or spread more widely than drug-sensitive isolates, suggesting poor treatment as the main cause for emergence of drug resistance rather than more virulence or more capacity to persist.

5.
Mol Ecol ; 28(8): 2046-2061, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614129

RESUMO

A proactive approach to conservation must be predictive, anticipating how habitats will change and which species are likely to decline or prosper. We use composite species distribution modelling to identify suitable habitats for 18 members of the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain Flora (ACPF) since the Last Glacial Maximum and project these into the future. We then use Scirpus longii (Cyperaceae), a globally imperiled ACPF sedge with many of the characteristics of extinction vulnerability, as a case study. We integrate phylogeographical and population genetic analyses and species distribution modelling to develop a broad view of its current condition and prognosis for conservation. We use genotyping-by-sequencing to characterize the genomes of 142 S. longii individuals from 20 populations distributed throughout its range (New Jersey to Nova Scotia). We measure the distribution of genetic diversity in the species and reconstruct its phylogeographical history using the snapp and rase models. Extant populations of S. longii originated from a single refugium south of the Laurentide ice sheet around 25 ka. The genetic diversity of S. longii is exceedingly low, populations exhibit little genetic structure and the species is slightly inbred. Projected climate scenarios indicate that nearly half of extant populations of S. longii will be exposed to unsuitable climate by 2070. Similar changes in suitable habitat will occur for many other northern ACPF species-centres of diversity will shift northward and Nova Scotia may become the last refuges for those species not extinguished.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Cyperaceae/genética , Genética Populacional , Filogeografia , Cyperaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Am J Bot ; 105(11): 1938-1950, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408151

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We used spatial phylogenetics to analyze the assembly of the Wisconsin flora, linking processes of dispersal and niche evolution to spatial patterns of floristic and phylogenetic diversity and testing whether phylogenetic niche conservatism can account for these patterns. METHODS: We used digitized records and a new molecular phylogeny for 93% of vascular plants in Wisconsin to estimate spatial variation in species richness and phylogenetic α and ß diversity in a native flora shaped mainly by postglacial dispersal and response to environmental gradients. We developed distribution models for all species and used these to infer fine-scale variation in potential diversity, phylogenetic distance, and interspecific range overlaps. We identified 11 bioregions based on floristic composition, mapped areas of neo- and paleo-endemism to establish new conservation priorities and predict how community-assembly patterns should shift with climatic change. KEY RESULTS: Spatial phylogenetic turnover most strongly reflects differences in temperature and spatial distance. For all vascular plants, assemblages shift from phylogenetically clustered to overdispersed northward, contrary to most other studies. This pattern is lost for angiosperms alone, illustrating the importance of phylogenetic scale. CONCLUSIONS: Species ranges and assemblage composition appear driven primarily by phylogenetic niche conservatism. Closely related species are ecologically similar and occupy similar territories. The average level and geographic structure of plant phylogenetic diversity within Wisconsin are expected to greatly decline over the next half century, while potential species richness will increase throughout the state. Our methods can be applied to allochthonous communities throughout the world.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Traqueófitas/genética , Mudança Climática , Previsões , Filogeografia , Wisconsin
7.
Am J Bot ; 105(11): 1888-1910, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368769

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We present the first plastome phylogeny encompassing all 77 monocot families, estimate branch support, and infer monocot-wide divergence times and rates of species diversification. METHODS: We conducted maximum likelihood analyses of phylogeny and BAMM studies of diversification rates based on 77 plastid genes across 545 monocots and 22 outgroups. We quantified how branch support and ascertainment vary with gene number, branch length, and branch depth. KEY RESULTS: Phylogenomic analyses shift the placement of 16 families in relation to earlier studies based on four plastid genes, add seven families, date the divergence between monocots and eudicots+Ceratophyllum at 136 Mya, successfully place all mycoheterotrophic taxa examined, and support recognizing Taccaceae and Thismiaceae as separate families and Arecales and Dasypogonales as separate orders. Only 45% of interfamilial divergences occurred after the Cretaceous. Net species diversification underwent four large-scale accelerations in PACMAD-BOP Poaceae, Asparagales sister to Doryanthaceae, Orchidoideae-Epidendroideae, and Araceae sister to Lemnoideae, each associated with specific ecological/morphological shifts. Branch ascertainment and support across monocots increase with gene number and branch length, and decrease with relative branch depth. Analysis of entire plastomes in Zingiberales quantifies the importance of non-coding regions in identifying and supporting short, deep branches. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first resolved, well-supported monocot phylogeny and timeline spanning all families, and quantify the significant contribution of plastome-scale data to resolving short, deep branches. We outline a new functional model for the evolution of monocots and their diagnostic morphological traits from submersed aquatic ancestors, supported by convergent evolution of many of these traits in aquatic Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales).


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Genomas de Plastídeos , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia , DNA Intergênico , Zingiberales/genética
8.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 126: 293-302, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702214

RESUMO

The integration of genomics and phylogenetics allows new insight into the structure of gene tree discordance, the relationships among gene position, gene history, and rate of evolution, as well as the correspondence of gene function, positive selection, and gene ontology enrichment across lineages. We explore these issues using the tribe Capsiceae (Solanaceae), which is comprised of the genera Lycianthes and Capsicum (peppers). In combining the annotated genomes of Capsicum with newly sequenced transcriptomes of four species of Lycianthes and Capsicum, we develop phylogenies for 6747 genes, and construct a backbone species tree using both concordance and explicit phylogenetic network approaches. We quantify phylogenetic discordance among individual gene trees, measure their rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution, and test whether they were positively selected along any branch of the phylogeny. We then map these genes onto the annotated Capsicum genome and test whether rates of evolution, gene history, and gene ontology vary significantly with gene position. We observed substantial discordance among gene trees. A bifurcating species tree placing Capsicum within a paraphyletic Lycianthes was supported over all phylogenetic networks. Rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution varied 41-fold and 130-fold among genes, respectively, and were significantly lower in pericentromeric regions. We found that results of concordance tree analyses vary depending on the subset of genes used, and that genes within the pericentromeric regions only capture a portion of the observed discordance. We identified 787 genes that have been positively selected throughout the diversification history of Capsiceae, and discuss the importance of these genes as targets for investigation of economically important traits in the domesticated peppers.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Solanaceae/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Mol Ecol ; 27(3): 723-736, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29319892

RESUMO

Theory postulates that dietary specialization in mammalian herbivores is enabled by a specialized set of liver enzymes that process the high concentrations of similar plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in the diets of specialists. To investigate whether qualitative and quantitative differences in detoxification mechanisms distinguish dietary specialists from generalists, we compared the sequence diversity and gene copy number of detoxification enzymes in two woodrat species: a generalist, the white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula) and a juniper specialist, Stephens' woodrat (N. stephensi). We focused on enzymes in the cytochrome P450 subfamily 2B (CYP2B), because previous research suggests this subfamily plays a key role in the processing of PSMs. For both woodrat species, we obtained and sequenced CYP2B cDNA, generated CYP2B phylogenies, estimated CYP2B gene copy number and created a homology model of the active site. We found that the specialist possessed on average ~5 more CYP2B gene copies than the generalist, but the specialist's CYP2B sequences were less diverse. Phylogenetic analysis of putative CYP2B homologs resolved woodrat species as reciprocally monophyletic and suggested evolutionary convergence of distinct homologs on similar key amino acid residues in both species. Homology modelling of the CYP2B enzyme suggests that interspecific differences in substrate preference and function likely result from amino acid differences in the enzyme active site. The characteristics of CYP2B in the specialist, that is greater gene copy number coupled with less sequence variation, are consistent with specialization to a narrow range of dietary toxins.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Dieta , Dosagem de Genes , Variação Genética , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Sigmodontinae/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Haploidia , Mutação/genética , Filogenia , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína
10.
Ecol Evol ; 6(10): 3367-79, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27103991

RESUMO

The amphicarpic annual legume Amphicarpaea bracteata is unusual in producing aerial and subterranean cleistogamous flowers that always self-fertilize and, less commonly, aerial chasmogamous flowers that outcross. Although both morphologic and genetic variants are known in this highly selfing species, debate continues over whether this variation is continuous, reflecting the segregation of standing genetic variation, or discontinuous, reflecting distinct taxa that rarely intercross. We characterized SNP variation in 128 individuals in southern Wisconsin to assess within- and among-population variation at 3928 SNPs. We also assessed genotype and leaf morphology in an additional 76 individuals to connect phenotypic variation with genetic variation. Genetic variation maps onto three strongly divergent and highly inbred genetic groups showing little relation to site location. Each group has a distinct phenotype, but the divergence of these groups differs from the varietal divisions previously identified based on morphological characters. Like previous authors, we argue that the taxonomy of this species should be revised. Despite extensive sympatry, estimates of among-group migration rates are low, and hybrid individuals were at low frequency (<2%) in our dataset. Restricted gene flow likely results from high selfing rates and partial reproductive incompatibility as evidenced by the U-shaped distribution of pairwise F ST values reflecting "islands" of genomic divergence. These islands may be associated with hybrid incompatibility loci that arose in allopatry. The coexistence of lineages within sites may reflect density-dependent attack by species-specific strains of pathogenic fungi and/or root-nodulating bacteria specializing on distinct genotypes.

11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 95: 183-95, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26702956

RESUMO

The role of geography and ecology in speciation are often discussed in the context of phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC), the propensity of lineages to retain ancestral niche related traits. However, a recent paradigm shift focuses instead on measuring divergence of these traits in conjunction with patterns of speciation. Under this framework, we analyzed the diversification of North America's third most diverse family, Cyperaceae ("sedges"), using a modified Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity approach to identify floristic regions and ordination statistics to quantify species distribution in a continuous manner. Utilizing over 200,000 georeferenced specimens, we characterized the geographical distribution and climatic and edaphic niche space occupied by each species. We constructed a supermatrix phylogeny of the North American sedge flora, aided in part by the sequencing of all sedges of Wisconsin, and employed a multifaceted approach to assess the role of geographical and ecological divergence on lineage diversification. In addition to measuring phylogenetic signal for these traits, we also measured pairwise phylogenetic distance of species within floristic regions, calculated rates of speciation, and tested for correlations of speciation rate to tempo of geographical and ecological evolution. Our analyses consistently show that evolutionarily related species tend to be geographically unrelated. Rates of geographical and ecological diversification are closely linked to tempo of speciation, and exploration of geographical place coincides with divergence in ecological niche space. We highlight the benefits of treating geography in a continuous manner, and stress the importance of employing a diverse suite of analytical approaches in testing hypotheses regarding the evolution of range and niche.


Assuntos
Carex (Planta)/classificação , Carex (Planta)/genética , Evolução Molecular , Especiação Genética , Cyperaceae/classificação , Cyperaceae/genética , Ecossistema , Geografia , América do Norte , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Estados Unidos
12.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 95: 116-36, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26585030

RESUMO

We examine the eudicot order Myrtales, a clade with strong Gondwanan representation for most of its families. Although previous phylogenetic studies greatly improved our understanding of intergeneric and interspecific relationships within the order, our understanding of inter-familial relationships still remains unresolved; hence, we also lack a robust time-calibrated chronogram to address hypotheses (e.g., biogeography and diversification rates) that have implicit time assumptions. Six loci (rbcL, ndhF, matK, matR, 18S, and 26S) were amplified and sequenced for 102 taxa across Myrtales for phylogenetic reconstruction and ten fossil priors were utilized to produce a chronogram in BEAST. Combretaceae is identified as the sister clade to all remaining families with moderate support, and within the latter clade, two strongly supported groups are seen: (1) Onagraceae+Lythraceae, and (2) Melastomataceae+the Crypteroniaceae, Alzateaceae, Penaeaceae clade along with Myrtaceae+Vochysiaceae. Divergence time estimates suggest Myrtales diverged from Geraniales ∼124Mya during the Aptian of the Early Cretaceous. The crown date for Myrtales is estimated at ∼116Mya (Albian-Aptian). BioGeoBEARS showed significant improvement in the likelihood score when the "jump dispersal" parameter was added. South America and/or Africa are implicated as important ancestral areas in all deeper nodes. BAMM analyses indicate that the best configuration included three significant shifts in diversification rates within Myrtales: near the crown of Melastomataceae (∼67-64Mya), along the stem of subfamily Myrtoideae (Myrtaceae; ∼75Mya), and along the stem of tribe Combreteae (Combretaceae; ∼50-45Mya). Issues with conducting diversification analyses more generally are examined in the context of scale, taxon sampling, and larger sets of phylogenetic trees.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Especiação Genética , Magnoliopsida/classificação , África , Sequência de Bases , Fósseis , Lythraceae/classificação , Lythraceae/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Melastomataceae/classificação , Melastomataceae/genética , Myrtaceae/classificação , Myrtaceae/genética , Onagraceae/classificação , Onagraceae/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , América do Sul
13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 282(1814)2015 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26311671

RESUMO

Orchids are the most diverse family of angiosperms, with over 25 000 species,more than mammals, birds and reptiles combined. Tests of hypotheses to account for such diversity have been stymied by the lack of a fully resolved broad-scale phylogeny. Here,we provide such a phylogeny, based on 75 chloroplast genes for 39 species representing all orchid subfamilies and 16 of 17 tribes, time-calibrated against 17 angiosperm fossils. Asupermatrix analysis places an additional 144 species based on three plastid genes. Orchids appear to have arisen roughly 112 million years ago (Mya); the subfamilies Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae diverged from each other at the end of the Cretaceous; and the eight tribes and three previously unplaced subtribes of the upper epidendroids diverged rapidly from each other between 37.9 and 30.8 Mya. Orchids appear to have undergone one significant acceleration of net species diversification in the orchidoids, and two accelerations and one deceleration in the upper epidendroids. Consistent with theory, such accelerations were correlated with the evolution of pollinia, the epiphytic habit, CAM photosynthesis, tropical distribution (especially in extensive cordilleras),and pollination via Lepidoptera or euglossine bees. Deceit pollination appears to have elevated the number of orchid species by one-half but not via acceleration of the rate of net diversification. The highest rate of net species diversification within the orchids (0.382 sp sp(-1) My(-1)) is 6.8 times that at the Asparagales crown.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Abelhas , Cloroplastos/genética , Decepção , Genoma de Planta , Lepidópteros , Fotossíntese , Polinização/genética , Fatores de Tempo
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