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1.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388584

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Enteric-coated sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) can attenuate gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms following acute bicarbonate loading, although the subsequent effects on exercise performance have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of enteric-coated NaHCO3 supplementation on high-intensity exercise performance and GI symptoms. METHODS: Eleven trained male cyclists completed three 4 km time trials after consuming; a placebo or 0.3 g∙kg-1 body mass NaHCO3 in enteric-coated or gelatin capsules. Exercise trials were timed with individual peak blood bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3-]). Blood acid-base balance was measured pre-ingestion, pre-exercise, and post-exercise, whereas GI symptoms were recorded pre-ingestion and immediately pre-exercise. RESULTS: Pre-exercise blood [HCO3-] and potential hydrogen (pH) were greater for both NaHCO3 conditions (P < 0.0005) when compared to placebo. Performance time was faster with enteric-coated (- 8.5 ± 9.6 s, P = 0.044) and gelatin (- 9.6 ± 7.2 s, P = 0.004) NaHCO3 compared to placebo, with no significant difference between conditions (mean difference = 1.1 ± 5.3 s, P = 1.000). Physiological responses were similar between conditions, although blood lactate ion concentration was higher with gelatin NaHCO3 (2.4 ± 1.7 mmol∙L-1, P = 0.003) compared with placebo. Furthermore, fewer participants experienced GI symptoms with enteric-coated (n = 3) compared to gelatin (n = 7) NaHCO3. DISCUSSION: Acute enteric-coated NaHCO3 consumption mitigates GI symptoms at the onset of exercise and improves subsequent 4 km cycling TT performance. Athletes who experience GI side-effects after acute bicarbonate loading may, therefore, benefit from enteric-coated NaHCO3 supplementation prior to exercise performance.

2.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; : 1-7, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751936

RESUMO

Enteric-formulated capsules can mitigate gastrointestinal (GI) side effects following sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion; however, it remains unclear how encapsulation alters postingestion symptoms and acid-base balance. The current study aimed to identify the optimal ingestion form to mitigate GI distress following NaHCO3 ingestion. Trained males (n = 14) ingested 300 mg/kg body mass of NaHCO3 in gelatin (GEL), delayed-release (DEL), and enteric-coated (ENT) capsules or a placebo in a randomized cross-over design. Blood bicarbonate anion concentration, potential hydrogen, and GI symptoms were measured pre- and postingestion for 3 hr. Fewer GI symptoms were reported with ENT NaHCO3 than with GEL (p = .012), but not with DEL (p = .106) in the postingestion phase. Symptom severity decreased with DEL (4.6 ± 2.8 arbitrary units) compared with GEL (7.0 ± 2.6 arbitrary units; p = .001) and was lower with ENT (2.8 ± 1.9 arbitrary units) compared with both GEL (p < .0005) and DEL (p = .044) NaHCO3. Blood bicarbonate anion concentration increased in all NaHCO3 conditions compared with the placebo (p < .0005), although this was lower with ENT than with GEL (p = .001) and DEL (p < .0005) NaHCO3. Changes in blood potential hydrogen were reduced with ENT compared with GEL (p = .047) and DEL (p = .047) NaHCO3, with no other differences between the conditions. Ingestion of ENT NaHCO3 attenuates GI disturbances for up to 3 hr postingestion. Therefore, ENT ingestion forms may be favorable for those who report GI disturbances with NaHCO3 supplementation or for those who have previously been deterred from its use altogether.

3.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 50, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699159

RESUMO

Background In this Position Statement, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i) Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy, comprising a varied, food-first approach; ii) Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii) The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-to-high carbohydrate diet (i.e., ~ 60% of energy intake, 5-8 g·kg- 1·d- 1) to mitigate the negative effects of chronic, training-induced glycogen depletion; iv) Limiting carbohydrate intake before selected low-intensity sessions, and/or moderating daily carbohydrate intake, may enhance mitochondrial function and fat oxidative capacity. Nevertheless, this approach may compromise performance during high-intensity efforts; v) Protein intakes of ~ 1.6 g·kg- 1·d- 1 are necessary to maintain lean mass and support recovery from training, but amounts up to 2.5 g.kg- 1·d- 1 may be warranted during demanding training when calorie requirements are greater; Recommendations for Racing. vi) To attenuate caloric deficits, runners should aim to consume 150-400 Kcal·h- 1 (carbohydrate, 30-50 g·h- 1; protein, 5-10 g·h- 1) from a variety of calorie-dense foods. Consideration must be given to food palatability, individual tolerance, and the increased preference for savory foods in longer races; vii) Fluid volumes of 450-750 mL·h- 1 (~ 150-250 mL every 20 min) are recommended during racing. To minimize the likelihood of hyponatraemia, electrolytes (mainly sodium) may be needed in concentrations greater than that provided by most commercial products (i.e., > 575 mg·L- 1 sodium). Fluid and electrolyte requirements will be elevated when running in hot and/or humid conditions; viii) Evidence supports progressive gut-training and/or low-FODMAP diets (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol) to alleviate symptoms of gastrointestinal distress during racing; ix) The evidence in support of ketogenic diets and/or ketone esters to improve ultra-marathon performance is lacking, with further research warranted; x) Evidence supports the strategic use of caffeine to sustain performance in the latter stages of racing, particularly when sleep deprivation may compromise athlete safety.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Corrida/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Resistência Física , Corrida/classificação , Sociedades
4.
Front Nutr ; 6: 155, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632978

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of post-exercise sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion (0.3 g.kg-1 body mass) on the recovery of acid-base balance (pH, HCO 3 - , and the SID) and subsequent exercise performance in elite boxers. Seven elite male professional boxers performed an initial bout of exhaustive exercise comprising of a boxing specific high-intensity interval running (HIIR) protocol, followed by a high-intensity run to volitional exhaustion (TLIM1). A 75 min passive recovery then ensued, whereby after 10 min recovery, participants ingested either 0.3 g.kg-1 body mass NaHCO3, or 0.1 g.kg-1 body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Solutions were taste matched and administered double-blind. Participants then completed a boxing specific punch combination protocol, followed by a second high-intensity run to volitional exhaustion (TLIM2). Both initial bouts of TLIM1 were well matched between PLA and NaHCO3 (ICC; r = 0.94, p = 0.002). The change in performance from TLIM1 to TLIM2 was greater following NaHCO3 compared to PLA (+164 ± 90 vs. +73 ± 78 sec; p = 0.02, CI = 45.1, 428.8, g = 1.0). Following ingestion of NaHCO3, pH was greater prior to TLIM2 by 0.11 ± 0.02 units (1.4%) (p < 0.001, CI = 0.09, 0.13, g = 3.4), whilst HCO 3 - was greater by 8.8 ± 1.5 mmol.l-1 (26.3%) compared to PLA (p < 0.001, CI = 7.3, 10.2, g = 5.1). The current study suggests that these significant increases in acid base balance during post-exercise recovery facilitated the improvement in the subsequent bout of exercise. Future research should continue to explore the role of NaHCO3 supplementation as a recovery aid in boxing and other combat sports.

5.
J Sports Sci ; 37(13): 1464-1471, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668281

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of two separate doses of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on 4 km time trial (TT) cycling performance and post-exercise acid base balance recovery in hypoxia. Fourteen club-level cyclists completed four cycling TT's, followed by a 40 min passive recovery in normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 14.5%) following one of either: two doses of NaHCO3 (0.2 g.kg-1 BM; SBC2, or 0.3 g.kg-1 BM; SBC3), a taste-matched placebo (0.07 g.kg-1 BM sodium chloride; PLA), or a control trial in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures and crossover design study. Compared to PLA, TT performance was improved following SBC2 (p = 0.04, g = 0.16, very likely beneficial), but was improved to a greater extent following SBC3 (p = 0.01, g = 0.24, very likely beneficial). Furthermore, a likely benefit of ingesting SBC3 over SBC2 was observed (p = 0.13, g = 0.10), although there was a large inter-individual variation. Both SBC treatments achieved full recovery within 40 min, which was not observed in either PLA or CON following the TT. In conclusion, NaHCO3 improves 4 km TT performance and acid base balance recovery in acute moderate hypoxic conditions, however the optimal dose warrants an individual approach.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipóxia , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue , Percepção , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/sangue , Esforço Físico , Bicarbonato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/sangue , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sports Med Open ; 5(1): 4, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a well-established nutritional ergogenic aid, though gastrointestinal (GI) distress is a common side-effect. Delayed-release NaHCO3 may alleviate GI symptoms and enhance bicarbonate bioavailability following oral ingestion, although this has yet to be confirmed. METHODS: In a randomised crossover design, pharmacokinetic responses and acid-base status were compared following two forms of NaHCO3, as were GI symptoms. Twelve trained healthy males (mean ± SD age 25.8 ± 4.5 years, maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) 58.9 ± 10.9 mL kg min-1, height 1.8 ± 0.1 m, body mass 82.3 ± 11.1 kg, fat-free mass 72.3 ± 10.0 kg) underwent a control (CON) condition and two experimental conditions: 300 mg kg-1 body mass NaHCO3 ingested as an aqueous solution (SOL) and encased in delayed-release capsules (CAP). Blood bicarbonate concentration, pH and base excess (BE) were measured in all conditions over 180 min, as were subjective GI symptom scores. RESULTS: Incidences of GI symptoms and overall severity were significantly lower (mean difference = 45.1%, P < 0.0005 and 47.5%, P < 0.0005 for incidences and severity, respectively) with the CAP than with the SOL. Symptoms displayed increases at 40 to 80 min post-ingestion with the SOL that were negated with CAP (P < 0.05). Time to reach peak bicarbonate concentration, pH and BE were significantly longer with CAP than with the SOL. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, CAP can mitigate GI symptoms induced with SOL and should be ingested earlier to induce similar acid-base changes. Furthermore, CAP may be more ergogenic in those who experience severe GI distress with SOL, although this warrants further investigation.

7.
J Sports Sci ; 37(11): 1270-1279, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558487

RESUMO

Wrist-based accelerometers are now common in assessing physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) in population-based studies, but there is a scarcity of raw acceleration cutpoints in older adults. The study aimed to determine and evaluate wrist-based GENEActiv (GA) and hip-based ActiGraph GT3X+ (AG) raw acceleration cutpoints for SB and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in older adults ≥60 years of age. A laboratory-based calibration analyses of 34 healthy older adults involved receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to determine raw acceleration cutpoints for SB and MVPA. ROC analysis revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 for GA SB and MVPA, and 0.90 for AG SB and 0.94 for AG MVPA. Sensitivity optimised SB and specificity optimised MVPA GA cutpoints of 57 mg and 104 mg, and AG cutpoints of 15 mg and 69 mg were also generated, respectively. Cross-validation analysis revealed moderate agreement for GA and AG SB cutpoints, and fair to substantial agreement for GA and AG MVPA cutpoints, respectively. The resultant cutpoints can classify older adults as engaging in SB or not engaging in MVPA but the sensitivity optimised SB cutpoints should be interpreted with a degree of caution due to their modest cross-validation results.


Assuntos
Actigrafia/métodos , Actigrafia/normas , Exercício Físico , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Quadril/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Punho/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Calibragem , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 118(12): 2489-2498, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196448

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exacerbated hydrogen cation (H+) production is suggested to be a key determinant of fatigue in acute hypoxic conditions. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of NaHCO3 ingestion on repeated 4 km TT cycling performance and post-exercise acid-base balance recovery in acute moderate hypoxic conditions. METHODS: Ten male trained cyclists completed four repeats of 2 × 4 km cycling time trials (TT1 and TT2) with 40 min passive recovery, each on different days. Each TT series was preceded by supplementation of one of the 0.2 g kg-1 BM NaHCO3 (SBC2), 0.3 g kg-1 BM NaHCO3 (SBC3), or a taste-matched placebo (0.07 g kg-1 BM sodium chloride; PLA), administered in a randomized order. Supplements were administered at a pre-determined individual time to peak capillary blood bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3-]). Each TT series was also completed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber set at 14.5% FiO2 (~ 3000 m). RESULTS: Performance was improved following SBC3 in both TT1 (400.2 ± 24.1 vs. 405.9 ± 26.0 s; p = 0.03) and TT2 (407.2 ± 29.2 vs. 413.2 ± 30.8 s; p = 0.01) compared to PLA, displaying a very likely benefit in each bout. Compared to SBC2, a likely and possible benefit was also observed following SBC3 in TT1 (402.3 ± 26.5 s; p = 0.15) and TT2 (410.3 ± 30.8 s; p = 0.44), respectively. One participant displayed an ergolytic effect following SBC3, likely because of severe gastrointestinal discomfort, as SBC2 still provided ergogenic effects. CONCLUSION: NaHCO3 ingestion improves repeated exercise performance in acute hypoxic conditions, although the optimal dose is likely to be 0.3 g kg-1 BM.


Assuntos
Alcalose/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Adulto , Alcalose/tratamento farmacológico , Bicarbonatos/sangue , Carbonatos/administração & dosagem , Carbonatos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; : 1-7, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757047

RESUMO

The nutritional intake of ultraendurance athletes is often poorly matched with the requirements of the sport. Nutrition knowledge is a mediating factor to food choice that could correct such imbalances. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the nutrition knowledge of ultraendurance athletes. Nutritional knowledge was assessed using a modified sports nutrition knowledge questionnaire (ULTRA-Q). Four independent assessors with specialization in sports nutrition confirmed the content validity of the ULTRA-Q. Registered sports nutritionists, registered dietitians, and those without nutrition training completed the ULTRA-Q on two separate occasions. After the first completion, a significant difference in nutrition scores between groups (p ≤ .001) provided evidence of construct validity. After the second completion, intraclass correlation coefficients comparing nutrition scores between time points (.75-.95) provided evidence of test-retest reliability. Subsequently, experienced ultraendurance athletes (male: n = 74 and female: n = 27) completed the ULTRA-Q. Athletes also documented their sources of nutrition knowledge for ultraendurance events. The total nutrition knowledge score for ultraendurance athletes was 68.3% ± 9.5%, and there were no significant differences in knowledge scores between males and females (67.4% ± 9.6% and 70.7% ± 9.3%, respectively) or between runners and triathletes (69.1% ± 9.7% and 65.1% ± 9.4%, respectively). In general, it appeared that ultraendurance athletes favored other athletes (73%) over nutrition experts (8%) as a source of nutritional information. The findings of this study indicate that ultraendurance athletes had a reasonable level of nutrition knowledge, but interathlete variability suggests a need for targeted nutrition education.

10.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 118(3): 607-615, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344729

RESUMO

Acute moderate hypoxic exposure can substantially impair exercise performance, which occurs with a concurrent exacerbated rise in hydrogen cation (H+) production. The purpose of this study was therefore, to alleviate this acidic stress through sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation and determine the corresponding effects on severe-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eleven recreationally active individuals participated in this randomised, double-blind, crossover study performed under acute normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO2% = 14.5%). Pre-experimental trials involved the determination of time to attain peak bicarbonate anion concentrations ([HCO3-]) following NaHCO3 ingestion. The intermittent exercise tests involved repeated 60-s work in their severe-intensity domain and 30-s recovery at 20 W to exhaustion. Participants ingested either 0.3 g kg bm-1 of NaHCO3 or a matched placebo of 0.21 g kg bm-1 of sodium chloride prior to exercise. Exercise tolerance (+ 110.9 ± 100.6 s; 95% CI 43.3-178 s; g = 1.0) and work performed in the severe-intensity domain (+ 5.8 ± 6.6 kJ; 95% CI 1.3-9.9 kJ; g = 0.8) were enhanced with NaHCO3 supplementation. Furthermore, a larger post-exercise blood lactate concentration was reported in the experimental group (+ 4 ± 2.4 mmol l-1; 95% CI 2.2-5.9; g = 1.8), while blood [HCO3-] and pH remained elevated in the NaHCO3 condition throughout experimentation. In conclusion, this study reported a positive effect of NaHCO3 under acute moderate hypoxic conditions during intermittent exercise and therefore, may offer an ergogenic strategy to mitigate hypoxic induced declines in exercise performance.


Assuntos
Altitude , Exercício Físico , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem
11.
J Sports Sci ; 36(15): 1705-1712, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183257

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on 4 km cycling time trial (TT) performance when individualised to a predetermined time to peak blood bicarbonate (HCO3-). Eleven male trained cyclists volunteered for this study (height 1.82 ± 0.80 m, body mass (BM) 86.4 ± 12.9 kg, age 32 ± 9 years, peak power output (PPO) 382 ± 22 W). Two trials were initially conducted to identify time to peak HCO3- following both 0.2 g.kg-1 BM (SBC2) and 0.3 g.kg-1 BM (SBC3) NaHCO3. Thereafter, on three separate occasions using a randomised, double-blind, crossover design, participants completed a 4 km TT following ingestion of either SBC2, SBC3, or a taste-matched placebo (PLA) containing 0.07 g.kg-1 BM sodium chloride (NaCl) at the predetermined individual time to peak HCO3-. Both SBC2 (-8.3 ± 3.5 s; p < 0.001, d = 0.64) and SBC3 (-8.6 ± 5.4 s; p = 0.003, d = 0.66) reduced the time to complete the 4 km TT, with no difference between SBC conditions (mean difference = 0.2 ± 0.2 s; p = 0.87, d = 0.02). These findings suggest trained cyclists may benefit from individualising NaHCO3 ingestion to time to peak HCO3- to enhance 4 km TT performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Bicarbonatos/sangue , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 117(5): 901-912, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28280973

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of induced alkalosis on the curvature constant (W') of the power-duration relationship under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. METHODS: Eleven trained cyclists (mean ± SD) Age: 32 ± 7.2 years; body mass (bm): 77.0 ± 9.2 kg; VO2peak: 59.2 ± 6.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 completed seven laboratory visits which involved the determination of individual time to peak alkalosis following sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion, an environment specific ramp test (e.g. normoxia and hypoxia) and four x 3 min critical power (CP) tests under different experimental conditions. Participants completed four trials: alkalosis normoxia (ALN); placebo normoxia (PLN); alkalosis hypoxia (ALH); and placebo hypoxia (PLH). Pre-exercise administration of 0.3 g.kg-1 BM of NaHCO3 was used to induce alkalosis. Environmental conditions were set at either normobaric hypoxia (FiO2: 14.5%) or normoxia (FiO2: 20.93%). RESULTS: An increase in W' was observed with pre-exercise alkalosis under both normoxic (PLN: 15.1 ± 6.2 kJ vs. ALN: 17.4 ± 5.1 kJ; P = 0.006) and hypoxic conditions (ALN: 15.2 ± 4.9 kJ vs. ALN: 17.9 ± 5.2 kJ; P < 0.001). Pre-exercise alkalosis resulted in a larger reduction in bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) concentrations during exercise in both environmental conditions (p < 0.001) and a greater blood lactate accumulation under hypoxia (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Pre-exercise alkalosis substantially increased W' and, therefore, may determine tolerance to exercise above CP under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. This may be due to NaHCO3 increasing HCO3- buffering capacity to delay exercise-induced acidosis, which may, therefore, enhance anaerobic energy contribution.


Assuntos
Alcalose/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Exercício , Exercício Físico , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Adulto , Alcalose/etiologia , Alcalose/fisiopatologia , Limiar Anaeróbio , Humanos , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Bicarbonato de Sódio/efeitos adversos
13.
Front Nutr ; 4: 76, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404334

RESUMO

During periods of heavy exercise training and competition, lipid, protein, and nucleic molecules can become damaged due to an overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) within the exercising organism. As antioxidants can prevent and delay cellular oxidative damage through removing, deactivating, and preventing the formation of RONS, supplementation with exogenous antioxidant compounds has become a commercialized nutritional strategy commonly adopted by recreationally active individuals and athletes. The following review is written as a critical appraisal of the current literature surrounding astaxanthin and its potential application as a dietary supplement in exercising humans. Astaxanthin is a lipid-soluble antioxidant carotenoid available to supplement through the intake of Haematococcus pluvialis-derived antioxidant products. Based upon in vitro and in vivo research conducted in mice exercise models, evidence would suggest that astaxanthin supplementation could potentially improve indices of exercise metabolism, performance, and recovery because of its potent antioxidant capacity. In exercising humans, however, these observations have yet to be consistently realized, with equivocal data reported. Implicated, in part, by the scarcity of well-controlled, scientifically rigorous research, future investigation is necessary to enable a more robust conclusion in regard to the efficacy of astaxanthin supplementation and its potential role in substrate utilization, endurance performance, and acute recovery in exercising humans.

14.
Front Physiol ; 7: 536, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27891098

RESUMO

Little is currently known regarding competitor influence on pacing at the start of an event and in particular the subsequent effect on the remaining distance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of starting pace on the physiological and psychological responses during cycling time trials (TT) utilizing an innovative approach allowing pace to be accurately and dynamically replicated, as well as deceptively manipulated. Ten competitive male cyclists completed five 16.1 km TT, two baseline trials performed alone (BLs), and three with a simulated, dynamic avatar of which they were to match the pace of for the initial 4 km. The avatar represented either the cyclist's fastest BL performance (NORM), 105% (FAST), or 95% (SLOW), of fastest BL performance (FBL). Physiological and psychological responses were measured every quartile of the TT. Despite manipulating a starting speed of ± 5% of fastest previous performance, there was no effect on overall 16.1 km TT performance. Manipulated starting strategies did however evoke different physiological and perceptual responses. Whole trial differences found that SLOW produced lower HR, VO2, BLa and RPE than FBL (p ≤ 0.03) and higher SE than FAST (p ≤ 0.03). Additionally, FAST had greater internal attention than NORM (p < 0.04). Over time all psychological and physiological variables had a significant condition × quartile interaction in the initial or second quartile mediated by the prescribed starting strategies. Furthermore, RPE, affect, and internal attention remained elevated throughout FAST despite an attenuation in pace during self-selection of pace. There were no differences in performance time when manipulating a 16.1 km cycling TT starting strategy. A slow start, encouraged greater positive perceptions, and less negative physiological consequences than a faster start, and produces no impairment to performance time. It would therefore be considered an advantage in a non-drafting event, not to follow pace of fellow, superior competitors at the start of an event but perform a more negative pacing strategy, with the potential for a greater speed increase against opponents in the latter stages.

15.
Front Physiol ; 7: 399, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27713701

RESUMO

The provision of performance-related feedback during exercise is acknowledged as an influential external cue used to inform pacing decisions. The provision of this feedback in a challenging or deceptive context allows research to explore how feedback can be used to improve performance and influence perceptual responses. However, the effects of deception on both acute and residual responses have yet to be explored, despite potential application for performance enhancement. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of challenging and deceptive feedback on perceptual responses and performance in self-paced cycling time trials (TT) and explored whether changes in performance are sustained in a subsequent TT following the disclosure of the deception. Seventeen trained male cyclists were assigned to either an accurate or deceptive feedback group and performed four 16.1 km cycling TTs; (1 and 2) ride-alone baseline TTs where a fastest baseline (FBL) performance was identified, (3) a TT against a virtual avatar representing 102% of their FBL performance (PACER), and (4) a subsequent ride-alone TT (SUB). The deception group, however, were initially informed that the avatar accurately represented their FBL, but prior to SUB were correctly informed of the nature of the avatar. Affect, self-efficacy and RPE were measured every quartile. Both groups performed PACER faster than FBL and SUB (p < 0.05) and experienced lower affect (p = 0.016), lower self-efficacy (p = 0.011), and higher RPE (p < 0.001) in PACER than FBL. No significant differences were found between FBL and SUB for any variable. The presence of the pacer rather than the manipulation of performance beliefs acutely facilitates TT performance and perceptual responses. Revealing that athletes' performance beliefs were falsely negative due to deceptive feedback provision has no effect on subsequent perceptions or performance. A single experiential exposure may not be sufficient to produce meaningful changes in the performance beliefs of trained individuals beyond the acute setting.

16.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 15(4): 233-44, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27399820

RESUMO

This review examines the current status of sodium bicarbonate as an ergogenic aid. It builds on previous reviews in the area. Current research would suggest that as an ergogenic aid, a 300 mg·kg dose of NaHCO3 can improve high-intensity exercise, within a range of exercise modalities, such as a single bout of supramaximal exercise, high-intensity intermittent activity, and skill-based sports. In particular, these benefits seem to be present to a greater extent within trained individuals. Despite this, there appears to exist a high intraindividual variability in response to NaHCO3, and therefore, the ergogenic benefits may not be induced during every exercise bout. Current thinking also suggests that athletes need to individualize their ingestion timings to maximize peak pH or blood bicarbonate to effectively maximize the performance effect, and this may allow individuals to attain the ergogenic benefits of NaHCO3 more consistently.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Amino Acids ; 48(11): 2581-2587, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27380030

RESUMO

Taurine (TAU) has been shown to improve exercise time to exhaustion and 3-km running performance; however, no studies have considered the effect of acute TAU ingestion on short duration cycling time trial (TT) performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a single oral acute dose of 1000 mg of TAU on a laboratory simulated 4-km cycling TT. Eleven trained male cyclists performed three, 4-km TTs. The first of the trials was a familiarisation, followed by two subsequent trials which were performed two hours after the consumption of either 1000 mg of TAU or placebo (P), using a double-blind randomised crossover design. Capillary blood samples were obtained prior to the start and immediately after each TT for the measurement of lactate, pH and HCO3-. There was no effect of TAU (p = 0.731, d = 0.151) on performance (390 ± 27 and 388 ± 21 s for TAU and P, respectively), nor were there any condition main effects for VO2, lactate, pH, or HCO3- (p > 0.05) despite post TT changes in lactate (7.3 ± 2.5 mmol l-1, p < 0.001, d = 2.86, 7.6 ± 2.0 mmol l-1 p < 0.001, d = 3.75); pH (-0.255 ± 0.1, p < 0.001, d = 2.62, -0.258 ± 0.09, p < 0.001, d = 2.87); HCO3- (-13.58 ± 2.7 mmol l-1, p < 0.001, d = 5.04 vs. -13.36 ± 2.3, p < 0.001, d = 5.72 for TAU and P, respectively). The findings of this study suggest that a pre-exercise dose of 1000 mg TAU offers no performance advantage during 4-km TT nor does it alter the blood buffering responses in trained cyclists.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
J Strength Cond Res ; 30(12): 3520-3524, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27050244

RESUMO

Mosher, SL, Sparks, SA, Williams, EL, Bentley, DJ, and Mc Naughton, LR. Ingestion of a nitric oxide enhancing supplement improves resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30 (12): 3520-3524, 2016-Studies have established that supplementation of nitrate increases nitric oxide which in turn improves exercise performance. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of nitrate ingestion on performance of bench press resistance exercise until failure. Twelve recreationally active (age, 21 ± 2 years, height, 177.2 ± 4.0 cm, weight, 82.49 ± 9.78 kg) resistance-trained men participated in the study. The study used a double-blind, randomized cross-over design, where participants ingested either 70 ml of "BEET It Sport" nitrate shot containing 6.4 millimoles (mmol·L) or 400 mg of nitrate or a blackcurrant placebo drink. Participants completed a resistance exercise session, consisting of bench press exercise at an intensity of 60% of their established 1 repetition maximum (1RM), for 3 sets until failure with 2 minutes rest interval between sets. The repetitions completed, total weight lifted, local and general rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate were all measured. The results showed a significant difference in repetitions to failure (p ≤ 0.001) and total weight lifted (p ≤ 0.001). However, there were no significant difference between blood lactate over the 2 trials (p = 0.238), and no difference in Local (p = 0.807) or general (p = 0.420) indicators of fatigue as measured by RPE. This study demonstrates that nitrate supplementation has the potential to improve resistance training performance and work output compared with a placebo.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Suplementos Nutricionais , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Treinamento de Resistência , Beta vulgaris , Bebidas , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Strength Cond Res ; 30(2): 561-8, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26815179

RESUMO

This work examined the influence of an acute dose of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on buffering capacity and performance during a repeated sprint ability (RSA) protocol. Eleven (mean ± SD: age 24.6 ± 6.1 years; mass 74.9 ± 5.7 kg; height 177.2 ± 6.7 cm) participated in the study, undertaking 4 test sessions. On the first visit to the laboratory, each participant ingested 300 mg · kg(-1) of NaHCO3 (in 450 ml of flavored water) and blood samples were obtained at regular intervals to determine the individual times peak pH and HCO3. In subsequent visits, participants ingested 300 mg · kg(-1) of NaHCO3, 270 mg · kg(-1) body mass (BM) of NaCI, or no drink followed by a RSA cycling protocol (10 × 6 seconds sprints with 60 seconds recovery), which commenced at each individuals predetermined ingestion peak pH response time. Blood samples were obtained before exercise and after the first, fifth, and 10th sprint to determine the blood pH, HCO3, and lactate (La) responses. Total work completed during the repeated sprint protocol was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in the NaHCO3 condition (69.8 ± 11.7 kJ) compared with both the control (59.6 ± 12.2 kJ) and placebo (63.0 ± 8.3 kJ) conditions. Peak power output was similar (p > 0.05) between the 3 conditions. Relative to the control and placebo conditions, NaHCO3 ingestion induced higher (p ≤ 0.05) blood pH and HCO3 concentrations before exercise and during the bouts, and higher lactate concentrations (p ≤ 0.05) after the final sprint. Results suggest that NaHCO3 improves the total amount of work completed during RSA through enhanced buffering capacity.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Tampões (Química) , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Sci Med Sport ; 19(9): 771-6, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26726003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Feedback deception is used to explore the importance of expectations on pacing strategy and performance in self-paced exercise. The deception of feedback from a previous performance explores the importance of experience knowledge on exercise behaviour. This study aimed to explore the acute and residual effects of the deception of previous performance speed on perceptual responses and performance in cycling time trials. DESIGN: A parallel-group design. METHODS: Twenty cyclists were assigned to a control or deception group and performed 16.1km time trials. Following a ride-alone baseline time trial (FBL), participants performed against a virtual avatar representing their FBL performance (PACER), then completed a subsequent ride-alone time trial (SUB). The avatar in the deception group, however, was unknowingly set 2% faster than their FBL. RESULTS: Both groups performed faster in PACER than FBL and SUB (p<0.05), but SUB was not significantly different to FBL. Affect was more negative and Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) were higher in PACER than FBL in the deception group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of a visual pacer acutely facilitated time trial performance, but deceptive feedback had no additional effect on performance. The deception group, however, experienced more negative affect and higher RPE in PACER, whereas these responses were absent in the control group. The performance improvement was not sustained in SUB, suggesting no residual performance effects occurred.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Decepção , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Percepção , Autoeficácia , Fatores de Tempo
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