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1.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159734
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e015033, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200730

RESUMO

Background The digital transformation of medical data provides opportunities to perform digital population health surveillance and identify people inadequately managed in usual care. We leveraged the electronic health records of a large health system to identify patients with markedly elevated blood pressure and characterize their follow-up care pattern. Methods and Results We included 373 861 patients aged 18 to 85 years, who had at least 1 outpatient encounter in the Yale New Haven Health System between January 2013 and December 2017. We described the prevalence and follow-up pattern of patients with at least 1 systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥160 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥100 mm Hg and patients with at least 1 SBP ≥180 mm Hg or DBP ≥120 mm Hg. Of 373 861 patients included, 56 909 (15.2%) had at least 1 SBP ≥160 mm Hg or DBP ≥100 mm Hg, and 10 476 (2.8%) had at least 1 SBP ≥180 mm Hg or DBP ≥120 mm Hg. Among patients with SBP ≥160 mm Hg or DBP ≥100 mm Hg, only 28.3% had a follow visit within 1 month (time window of follow-up recommended by the guideline) and 19.9% subsequently achieved control targets (SBP <130 mm Hg and DBP <80 mm Hg) within 6 months. Follow-up rate at 1 month and control rate at 6 months for patients with SBP ≥180 mm Hg or DBP ≥120 mm Hg was 31.9% and 17.2%. Conclusions Digital population health surveillance with an electronic health record identified a large number of patients with markedly elevated blood pressure and inadequate follow-up. Many of these patients subsequently failed to achieve control targets.

3.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age is known to be associated with the prevalence and pathophysiology of hypertension. However, there is little information on whether age stands as a good proxy for the specific hemodynamic profile of an individual with elevated blood pressure (BP), which could be important in the selection of therapy. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. SETTING: People who underwent a noninvasive, hemodynamic assessment using impedance cardiography at 51 sites of iKang Health Checkup Centers throughout China between January 2012 and October 2018. PARTICIPANTS: We included 116,851 individuals, aged 20 to 80 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Relationship between age and hemodynamic parameters (cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index [SVRI]), among individuals with elevated BP (systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥80 mm Hg). RESULTS: Final study population included 45,082 individuals with elevated BP: 29,194 men and 15,888 women with a mean (±SD) age of 48 (±13) and 54 (±12) years, respectively. Cardiac index was negatively associated with age with an adjusted, per decade decrease of 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.17-0.18) L/min/m2 in men and 0.24 (95% CI = 0.23-0.25) L/min/m2 in women. SVRI was positively associated with age with an adjusted, per-decade increase of 174.2 (95% CI = 168.8-179.7) dynes·s·cm-5 ·m2 in men and 214.1 (95% CI = 204.3-223.8) dynes·s·cm-5 ·m2 in women. However, there was substantial overlap in the distribution of these parameters across different age groups in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, we observed that cardiac index decreased and SVRI increased with age among individuals with elevated BP. Even though there was a general trend with age, we observed heterogeneity within age strata, suggesting that age alone is inadequate to indicate the hemodynamic profile for an individual.

4.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 87(1): 43-52, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990654

RESUMO

Pregnancy can exacerbate known cardiovascular disorders and unmask previously unrecognized problems. Patients with congenital heart disorders, valvular disease, primary pulmonary hypertension, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and acquired peripartum cardiomyopathy need a collaborative interdisciplinary team that includes a cardiologist with specialty training in obstetrics.

5.
Prev Med ; 130: 105890, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715219

RESUMO

Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but little is known about its association with cardiovascular health (CVH), assessed by the Life's Simple 7 (LS7) metrics. We explored whether ideal CVH was associated with RHR in a cohort free from clinical CVD. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data (2000-2002) of 6457 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants in 2018. Each LS7 metric (smoking, physical activity, diet, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose) was scored 0-2. Total score ranged from 0 to 14. Scores of 0-8 indicate inadequate, 9-10 average, and 11-14 optimal CVH. RHR was categorized as <60, 60-69, 70-79 and ≥80 bpm. We used multinomial logistic regression to determine associations between CVH score and RHR, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, health insurance, and atrioventricular nodal blockers. Mean age of participants (standard deviation) was 62 (10) years; 53% were women; 47% had inadequate CVH, 33% average, and 20% optimal. Favorable CVH was associated with lower odds of having higher RHR. Compared to RHR <60 bpm, participants with optimal CVH had adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of 0.55 (0.46-0.64) for RHR of 60-69 bpm, 0.34 (0.28-0.43) for 70-79 bpm, and 0.14 (0.09-0.22) for ≥80 bpm. A similar pattern was observed in the stratified analysis by sex, race/ethnicity and age. Favorable CVH was less likely to be associated with elevated RHR irrespective of sex, race/ethnicity and age. More research is needed to explore the usefulness of promoting ideal CVH to reduce elevated RHR, a known risk factor for CVD.

6.
Vasc Med ; 25(1): 13-24, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603393

RESUMO

Patient-reported difficulties in affording health care and their association with health status outcomes in peripheral artery disease (PAD) have never been studied. We sought to determine whether financial barriers affected PAD symptoms at presentation, treatment patterns, and patient-reported health status in the year following presentation. A total of 797 United States (US) patients with PAD were identified from the Patient-centered Outcomes Related to TReatment Practices in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Investigating Trajectories (PORTRAIT) study, a prospective, multicenter registry of patients presenting to vascular specialty clinics with PAD. Financial barriers were defined as a composite of no insurance and underinsurance. Disease-specific health status was measured by Peripheral Artery Questionnaire (PAQ) and general health-related quality of life was measured by EuroQol 5 (EQ5D) dimensions at presentation and at 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. Among 797 US patients, 21% (n = 165) of patients reported financial barriers. Patients with financial barriers presented at an earlier age (64 ± 9.5 vs 70 ± 9.4 years), with longer duration of symptoms (59% vs 49%) (all p ⩽ 0.05), were more depressed and had higher levels of perceived stress and anxiety. After multivariable adjustment, health status was worse at presentation in patients with financial barriers (PAQ: -7.0 [-10.7, -3.4]; p < 0.001 and EQ5D: -9.2 [-12.74, -5.8]; p < 0.001) as well as through 12 months of follow-up (PAQ: -8.4 [-13.0, -3.8]; p < 0.001 and EQ5D: -9.7 [-13.2, -6.2]; p < 0.001). In conclusion, financial barriers are associated with later presentation as well as poorer health status at presentation and at 12 months. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01419080.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e012954, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566101

RESUMO

Background Characterizing and assessing the prevalence, awareness, and treatment patterns of patients with isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) can generate new knowledge and highlight opportunities to improve their care. Methods and Results We used data from the China PEACE (Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events) Million Persons Project, which screened 2 351 035 participants aged 35 to 75 years between 2014 and 2018. IDH was defined as systolic and diastolic blood pressure of <140 and ≥90 mm Hg; awareness as self-reported diagnosis of hypertension; and treatment as current use of antihypertensive medications. Of the 2 310 184 participants included (mean age 55.7 years; 59.5% women); 73 279 (3.2%) had IDH, of whom 63 112 (86.1%) were untreated, and only 6512 (10.3%) of the untreated were aware of having hypertension. When compared with normotensives, participants who were <60 years, men, at least college educated, had body mass index of >28 kg/m2, consumed alcohol, had diabetes mellitus, and prior cardiovascular events were more likely to have IDH (all P<0.01). Among those with IDH, higher likelihood of awareness was associated with increased age, women, college education, body mass index of >28 kg/m2, higher income, diabetes mellitus, prior cardiovascular events, and Central or Eastern region (all P<0.05). Most treated participants with IDH reported taking only 1 class of antihypertensive medication. Conclusions IDH affects a substantial number of people in China, however, few are aware of having hypertension and most treated participants are poorly managed, which suggests the need to improve the diagnosis and treatment of people with IDH.

9.
Ethn Dis ; 29(4): 535-544, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641320

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the rationale and design of a prospective study of ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) combined with measurement of contextual factors to identify hypertensive phenotypes in a Caribbean population with high rates of HTN and cardiovascular disease. Design: Prospective, multi-center sub-study. Setting: Eastern Caribbean Health Outcomes Research Network Cohort (ECHORN) Study, with study sites in Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, and Barbados. Participants: Community-residing adults without a diagnosis of HTN and not taking antihypertensive medication. Intervention: Ambulatory BP patterns are assessed using 24-hour ABPM. Contextual factors are assessed with: ecological momentary assessment (7-item survey of experiences, exposures and responses associated with daytime BP measurements); actigraphy (capturing physical activity and sleep quality); and self-report surveys (assessing physical and social health, environmental and social stressors and supports). Main Outcome Measures: Phenotypes of contextual factors associated with hypertensive BP patterns (sustained HTN, masked HTN, and nocturnal non-dipping). Methods and Results: This study will enroll 500 participants; assessments of blood pressure and contextual factors will be conducted during Waves 2 and 3 of the ECHORN parent study, occurring 2 years apart. In Wave 2, we will assess the association between contextual factors and ABPM patterns. Using advanced analytic clustering methods, we will identify phenotypes of contextual factors associated with hypertensive ABPM patterns. We will then test the stability of these phenotypes and their ability to predict change in ABPM patterns between Waves 2 and 3. Conclusions: Assessment of ABPM, and the contextual factors influencing ABPM, can identify unique phenotypes of HTN, which can then be used to develop more precision-based approaches to the prevention, detection and treatment of HTN in high-risk populations.

10.
Am J Med ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood pressure is a physiologic measure that reflects cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance. Classification by these components could be useful in characterizing subtypes of hypertension, which may have a role in selecting treatment strategies. However, hemodynamic phenotypes of a large, stable, outpatient population with hypertension remain unknown. METHODS: We included 34,238 people with systolic blood pressure of ≥130 mm Hg, who underwent impedance cardiography at 51 sites of iKang Health Checkup Centers throughout China between 2012 and 2018. Hemodynamic parameters measured included stroke volume, stroke volume index, heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, and systemic vascular resistance index. We characterized these by systolic blood pressure categories and assessed patient characteristics associated with the ratio of cardiac index to systemic vascular resistance index. RESULTS: Among the study cohort (n = 33,414; mean age 52 ± 13 years; 36.6% female), 49%, 40%, and 11% had systolic blood pressure130-139, 140-159, and ≥160 mm Hg, respectively. Among patients with systolic blood pressure 140-159 mm Hg, 9353 (70%) had high systemic vascular resistance index but normal/low cardiac index, 1949 (15%) had high cardiac index but low/normal systemic vascular resistance index, and 2053 (15%) had low/normal cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance index. Using multivariable analysis, we found that cardiac index to systemic vascular resistance index ratio was negatively associated with age and body mass index (all P <0.05; R-square 0.16, 0.12, and 0.09 for systolic blood pressure 130-139, 140-159 and ≥160 mm Hg, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Different hemodynamic blood pressure phenotypes were identified across all hypertensive blood pressure categories. Although individual characteristics were associated with the cardiac index to systemic vascular resistance index ratio, they only weakly explained the variation.

11.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(9): e005805, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health interventions may support risk factor management and are readily scalable in healthcare systems. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of a text messaging-based intervention to improve glycemic control in patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus in China. METHODS AND RESULTS: The CHAT-DM study (Cardiovascular Health and Texting-Diabetes Mellitus) was a parallel-group, single-blind, randomized clinical trial that included 502 patients with both coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus from 34 hospitals in China. The intervention group (n=251) received 6 text messages per week for 6 months in addition to usual care. Messages were theory driven and culturally tailored to provide educational and motivational information on glucose monitoring, blood pressure control, medication adherence, physical activity, and lifestyle. The control group (n=251) received usual care and 2 thank you messages per month. The primary outcome was change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C [hemoglobin A1C]) from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes were change in proportion of patients achieving HbA1C <7%, fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, body mass index, and physical activity from baseline to 6 months. The end points were assessed using analyses of covariance. The follow-up rate was 99%. When compared with control group at 6 months, the intervention group had a greater reduction in HbA1C (-0.2% versus 0.1%; P=0.003) and a greater proportion of participants who achieved HbA1C <7% (69.3% versus 52.6%; P=0.004). Change in fasting blood glucose was larger in the intervention group (between-group difference: -0.6 mmol/L; 95% CI, -1.1 to -0.2; P=0.011), but no other outcome differences were observed. Nearly all participants reported that messages were easy to understand (97.1%) and useful (94.1%). CONCLUSIONS: A text message intervention resulted in better glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. While the mechanism of this benefit remains to be determined, the results suggest that a simple, culturally sensitive mobile text messaging program may provide an effective and feasible way to improve disease self-management. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02883842.

12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(17): e010988, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441351

RESUMO

Background Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, little is known about the association of diabetes mellitus with post-AMI health status outcomes (symptoms, functioning, and quality of life) in younger adults. Methods and Results We investigated the association between diabetes mellitus and health status during the first 12 months after AMI, using data from 3501 adults with AMI (42.6% with diabetes mellitus) aged 18 to 55 years enrolled in the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients) study. Health status was measured with Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), 12-item Short-Form Health Survey, and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale at baseline hospitalization, 1-month, and 12-months post-AMI. At baseline, patients with diabetes mellitus had significantly worse SAQ-angina frequency (81±22 versus 86±19), SAQ-physical limitations (77±28 versus 85±23), SAQ-quality of life (55±25 versus 57±23), 12-item Short-Form Health Survey mental (44±13 versus 46±12)/physical functioning (41±12 versus 46±12), and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale (61±22 versus 66±21) than those without diabetes mellitus. Over time, both groups (with and without diabetes mellitus) improved considerably and the differences in health status scores progressively narrowed (except for 12-item Short-Form Health Survey physical functioning). In the linear-mixed effects models, adjusted for sociodemographics, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities, clinical characteristics, psychosocial factors, healthcare use, and AMI treatment, diabetes mellitus was associated with worse health status at baseline but not after discharge, and the association did not vary by sex. Conclusions At baseline, young adults with diabetes mellitus had poorer health status than those without diabetes mellitus. After AMI, however, they experienced significant improvements and diabetes mellitus was not associated with worse angina, SAQ-physical limitations, mental functioning, and quality of life, after adjustment for baseline covariates. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00597922.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e012277, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362591

RESUMO

Background Observational studies demonstrate that communities of low socioeconomic status have higher blood pressure and worse cardiovascular outcomes. Yet, whether the clinical outcomes resulting from antihypertensive therapy vary by socioeconomic context in a randomized clinical trial, in which participants are treated under a standard protocol, is unknown. Methods and Results We used data from ALLHAT (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) to study the effect of socioeconomic context, defined as the county-level median household income, of study sites. We stratified sites into income quintiles and compared characteristics, blood pressure control, and cardiovascular outcomes among ALLHAT participants in the lowest- and highest-income quintiles. Among 27 862 qualifying participants, 2169 (7.8%) received care in the lowest-income sites (quintile 1) and 10 458 (37.6%) received care in the highest-income sites (quintile 5). Participants in quintile 1 were more likely to be women, to be black, to be Hispanic, to have fewer years of education, to live in the South, and to have fewer cardiovascular risk factors. After adjusting for baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, quintile 1 participants were less likely to achieve blood pressure control (<140/90 mm Hg) (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.37-0.63) and had greater all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.25; 95% CI, 1.10-1.41), heart failure hospitalizations/mortality (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03-1.55), and end-stage renal disease (HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.26-2.73), but lower angina hospitalizations (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59-0.83) and coronary revascularizations (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.89). Conclusions Despite standardized treatment protocols, ALLHAT participants in the lowest-income sites experienced poorer blood pressure control and worse outcomes for some adverse cardiovascular events, emphasizing the importance of measuring and addressing socioeconomic context. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000542.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e012776, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364457

RESUMO

Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used in the treatment of many conditions, including heart failure (HF), although it is not well characterized. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective analysis of TCM use in a random sample of hospitalizations for HF within a random sample of Western medicine hospitals in China in 2015 using data from the China PEACE 5r-HF (China Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events 5 Retrospective Heart Failure Study). We describe the frequency of TCM use and its association with patient characteristics, in-hospital use of evidence-based therapies, and hospital characteristics using hierarchical logistic regression models. Finally, we assessed risk-adjusted in-hospital bleeding and mortality. Among 10 004 patients hospitalized with HF (median age, 73 years; 48.9% women) from 189 hospitals, 74.7% received TCM (83.3% administered intravenously). The most commonly used agent was Salvia miltiorrhiza (51.2%). Patients with coronary artery disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.73; 95% CI, 1.53-1.95) or stroke (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.51) were more likely to receive TCM; there was no correlation with evidence-based therapy use. Nearly all hospitals (99.4%) used TCM, with substantial variation across hospitals (median OR, 3.29; 95% CI, 2.82-3.76). In-patient bleeding (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.03-1.88) and mortality (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.79) were higher with Salvia miltiorrhiza, although not with other TCMs. Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of patients hospitalized with acute HF in China, three fourths received TCM. Nearly all hospitals used TCM, although use varied substantially by hospital. Although TCM was not used in lieu of evidence-based therapies for HF, we found a signal for harm with the most commonly used TCM. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02877914.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 288: 5-11, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A sex-specific taxonomy was developed from the Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender Outcomes of Young AMI patients (VIRGO) study to better classify young women with AMI who received cardiac catheterization. We aim to determine whether this taxonomy is advantageous to the Universal Definition. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective chart review of consecutive women aged ≤55 years presenting with AMI between 1/1/2013 to 9/1/2016 who underwent cardiac catheterization during the index admission. The proportion of women classified using the Universal Definition of MI and VIRGO classification systems were compared. RESULTS: Among women with AMI who underwent cardiac catheterization (n = 177), using the Universal Definition of MI, 68.4% were classified as Type 1, 11.9% as Type 2, and 2.3% as Type 4b; 17.5% were unclassified. Using the VIRGO taxonomy, most (68.4%) were classified as Class I (thrombosis/critical stenosis). The remaining patients were stratified by the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) with demand (Class IIa: 4.0%) and without demand (Class IIb: 2.3%) versus non-obstructive CAD with demand (Class IIIa: 6.8%) and without demand (Class IIIb: 10.2%). Alternative discreet mechanisms (Class IV) were seen in 7.3%. Only 1.1% was unclassified. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of young women with AMI, 1 in 3 patients who underwent cardiac catheterization did not exhibit the classic mechanism of plaque disruption/thrombosis. By comparison, the VIRGO taxonomy classified more young women and further distinguished presentations within categories of the Universal Definition of MI. Application of this nuanced taxonomy may support the development of individualized diagnostic and treatment strategies in young women with AMI.

16.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 103, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Availability of nursing home care has declined and national efforts have been initiated to improve the quality of nursing home care in the U.S. Yet, data are limited on whether there are geographic variations in declines of availability and quality of nursing home care, and whether variations persist over time. We sought to assess geographic variation in availability and quality of nursing home care. METHODS: Retrospective study using Medicaid/Medicare-certified nursing home data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 1996-2016. Outcomes were 1) availability of all nursing home care (1996-2016), measured by the number of Medicaid/Medicare-certified beds for a given county per 100,000 population aged ≥65 years, regardless of nursing home star rating; 2) availability of 5-star nursing home care, measured by the number of Medicaid/Medicare-certified beds provided by 5-star nursing homes; and 3) utilization of nursing home beds, defined as the rate of occupied Medicaid/Medicare-certified beds among the total Medicaid/Medicare-certified beds. RESULTS: From 1999 to 2016, availability of all nursing home care declined from 4882 (standard deviation: 931) to 3480 (912) beds, per 100,000 population aged ≥65 years. Persistent geographic variation in availability of nursing home care was observed; the correlation coefficient of county-specific availabilities from 1996 to 2016 was 0.78 (95% CI 0.77-0.79). From 2011 to 2016, availability of 5-star nursing home beds increased from 658 (303) to 895 (661) per 100,000 population aged ≥65 years. The correlation coefficient for county-specific availabilities from 2011 to 2016 was 0.54 (95% CI 0.51-0.56). Availability and quality of nursing home care were not highly correlated. In 2016, the correlation coefficient for county-specific availabilities between all nursing home and 5-star nursing home beds was 0.33 (95% CI 0.30-0.36). From 1996 to 2016, the utilization of certified beds declined from 78.5 to 72.2%. This decline was consistent across all census divisions, but most pronounced in the Mountain division and less in the South-Atlantic division. CONCLUSION: We observed persistent geographic variations in availability and quality of nursing home care. Availability of all nursing home care declined but availability of 5-star nursing home care increased. Availability and quality of nursing home care were not highly correlated.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/tendências , Casas de Saúde/tendências , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /tendências , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/normas , Medicaid/tendências , Medicare/normas , Medicare/tendências , Casas de Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/normas , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(4): e005616, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile health technologies are low cost, scalable interventions with the potential to promote patient engagement and behavior change. We aimed to test whether a culturally sensitive text messaging intervention supporting secondary prevention improves the control of risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease in China. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this multicenter, single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 822 patients (mean age, 56.4 [SD, 9.5] years; 14.1% women) with coronary heart disease and without diabetes mellitus from 37 hospitals in China were enrolled between August 2016 and March 2017. In addition to usual care, the control group (n=411) received 2 thank you messages/month; the intervention group (n=411) received 6 text messages/week for 6 months delivered by an automated computerized system. The messages provided educational and motivational information related to disease-specific knowledge, risk factor control, physical activity, and medication adherence. The primary end point was change in systolic blood pressure from baseline to 6 months. Secondary end points included the proportion with systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg, smoking status, and change in body mass index, LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and physical activity (assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire). The end points were assessed using analyses of covariance. Follow-up was 99.6%. At 6 months, systolic blood pressure was not significantly lower in the intervention group compared with the control group, with a mean change (SD) of 3.2 (14.3) mm Hg and 2.0 (15.0) mm Hg ( P>0.05) from baseline, respectively (mean net change, -1.3 mm Hg [95% CI, -3.3 to 0.8]; P=0.221). There were no significant differences in the change in LDL-C level, physical activity, body mass index, or smoking status between the 2 groups. Nearly all patients in the intervention group reported the text messages to be useful (96.1%), easy to understand (98.8%), appropriate in frequency (93.8%), and reported being willing to receive future text messages (94.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Text messages supporting secondary prevention among patients with coronary heart disease did not lead to a greater reduction in blood pressure at 6 months. Mobile phone text messaging for secondary prevention was feasible and highly acceptable to patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02888769.

18.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(3): e004983, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871375

RESUMO

Background Despite improvements on individual process of care measures for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), little is known about performance on a composite measure of AMI care that assesses the delivery of many components of high-quality AMI care. We sought to examine trends in patient- and hospital-level performance on a composite defect-free care measure, identify disparities in the performance across sociodemographic groups, and identify opportunities to further improve quality and outcomes. Methods and Results We calculated the proportion of patients in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry-Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry-Get With The Guidelines (now known as the Chest Pain - Myocardial Infarction Registry) between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2017, receiving defect-free AMI care including guideline-recommended pharmacotherapy, timely provision of medical and reperfusion therapy, assessment of ventricular function, referral to cardiac rehabilitation, and smoking cessation counseling for patients with AMI. A total of 522 800 patients at 222 hospitals were included. Overall, the proportion of patients receiving defect-free care significantly increased from 66.0% in 2010 to 77.1% in 2017 ( P<0.001). Improvements in performance were observed across all sociodemographic subgroups, with the greatest absolute improvement observed for black and Hispanic patients ( P<0.001). However, absolute performance was consistently lower among older patients, women, black and Hispanic patients, and those with government insurance in 2017 ( P<0.001 for all). Improvements in care and reduced variation in performance were observed at the hospital level overall (2010, median [IQR] 67.2% [40.7%-76.3%]; 2017, median [IQR] 80.7% [73.1%-88.1%]; P<0.001) as well as across region, safety net status, teaching status, and proportion of patients who are nonwhite and have Medicaid insurance coverage ( P<0.001 for all). Conclusions Despite improvements in the proportion of patients with AMI receiving defect-free care overall and across sociodemographic groups, nearly 1 in 4 patients in 2017 still did not receive optimal care and absolute performance was consistently lower among older patients, women, black, and Hispanic patients. Composite measures of cardiovascular care, which assess the delivery of several evidence-based processes of care, can illuminate opportunities to improve the quality of care beyond that provided by conventional process measures.

20.
J Gen Intern Med ; 34(6): 884-892, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disparities in health outcome exist among patients according to socioeconomic status. However, little is known regarding the differences in healthcare experiences across the various levels of income of patients. In a nationally representative US adult population, we evaluate the differences in healthcare experiences based on patient level of income. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the differences in patient healthcare experiences based on level of income. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 68,447 individuals (mean age, 48 ± 18 years; 55% female) representing 176.8 million US adults, who had an established healthcare provider in the 2010-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey cohort. This retrospective study examined the differences in all five patient-reported healthcare experience measures (access to care, provider responsiveness, patient-provider communication, shared decision-making, and patient satisfaction) under the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey. We examined the relationship between patient income and their healthcare experience. RESULTS: Overall, 32% of the study participants were high-income earners while 23% had very-low income. Lower income was consistently associated with poor patient report on healthcare experience. Compared with those with high income, very-low-income-earning participants had 1.63 times greater odds (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.45-1.82) of experiencing difficulty accessing care, had 1.34 times higher odds (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.25-1.45) of experiencing poor communication, had higher odds (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.46-1.92) of experiencing delays in healthcare delivery, and were more likely to report poor provider satisfaction (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.37-1.61). CONCLUSION: Lower income-earning patients have poorer healthcare experience in all aspects of access and quality of care. Targeted policies focusing on improving communication, engagement, and satisfaction are needed to enhance patient healthcare experience for this vulnerable population.

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