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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4725, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354051

RESUMO

Gut microbiota deficient mice demonstrate accelerated glucose clearance. However, which tissues are responsible for the upregulated glucose uptake remains unresolved, with different studies suggesting that browning of white adipose tissue, or modulated hepatic gluconeogenesis, may be related to enhanced glucose clearance when the gut microbiota is absent. Here, we investigate glucose uptake in 22 different tissues in 3 different mouse models. We find that gut microbiota depletion via treatment with antibiotic cocktails (ABX) promotes glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and cecum. Nevertheless, the adaptive thermogenesis and the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) are dispensable for the increased glucose uptake and clearance. Deletion of Ucp1 expressing cells blunts the improvement of glucose clearance in ABX-treated mice. Our results indicate that BAT and cecum, but not white adipose tissue (WAT) or liver, contribute to the glucose uptake in the gut microbiota depleted mouse model and this response is dissociated from adaptive thermogenesis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vida Livre de Germes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Proteína Desacopladora 1/deficiência , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(30)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282012

RESUMO

The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, with low precipitation, low oxygen partial pressure, and temperatures routinely dropping below -30 °C in winter, presents several physiological challenges to its fauna. Yet it is home to many endemic mammalian species, including the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae). How these small animals that are incapable of hibernation survive the winter is an enigma. Measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) using the doubly labeled water method show that pikas suppress their DEE during winter. At the same body weight, pikas in winter expend 29.7% less than in summer, despite ambient temperatures being approximately 25 °C lower. Combined with resting metabolic rates (RMRs), this gives them an exceptionally low metabolic scope in winter (DEE/RMRt = 1.60 ± 0.30; RMRt is resting metabolic rate at thermoneutrality). Using implanted body temperature loggers and filming in the wild, we show that this is achieved by reducing body temperature and physical activity. Thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) measurements indicate this metabolic suppression is probably mediated via the thyroid axis. Winter activity was lower at sites where domestic yak (Bos grunniens) densities were higher. Pikas supplement their food intake at these sites by eating yak feces, demonstrated by direct observation, identification of yak DNA in pika stomach contents, and greater convergence in the yak/pika microbiotas in winter. This interspecific coprophagy allows pikas to thrive where yak are abundant and partially explains why pika densities are higher where domestic yak, their supposed direct competitors for food, are more abundant.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(31)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330829

RESUMO

The evolutionary context of why caloric restriction (CR) activates physiological mechanisms that slow the process of aging remains unclear. The main goal of this analysis was to identify, using metabolomics, the common pathways that are modulated across multiple tissues (brown adipose tissue, liver, plasma, and brain) to evaluate two alternative evolutionary models: the "disposable soma" and "clean cupboards" ideas. Across the four tissues, we identified more than 10,000 different metabolic features. CR altered the metabolome in a graded fashion. More restriction led to more changes. Most changes, however, were tissue specific, and in some cases, metabolites changed in opposite directions in different tissues. Only 38 common metabolic features responded to restriction in the same way across all four tissues. Fifty percent of the common altered metabolites were carboxylic acids and derivatives, as well as lipids and lipid-like molecules. The top five modulated canonical pathways were l-carnitine biosynthesis, NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) biosynthesis from 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde, S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine degradation II, NAD biosynthesis II (from tryptophan), and transfer RNA (tRNA) charging. Although some pathways were modulated in common across tissues, none of these reflected somatic protection, and each tissue invoked its own idiosyncratic modulation of pathways to cope with the reduction in incoming energy. Consequently, this study provides greater support for the clean cupboards hypothesis than the disposable soma interpretation.

4.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1831): 20200215, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176322

RESUMO

Seasonal energetic challenges may constrain an animal's ability to respond to changing individual and environmental conditions. Here, we investigated variation in heart rate, a well-established proxy for metabolic rate, in Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), a species with strong seasonal changes in foraging and metabolic activity. In 19 adult females, we recorded heart rate, subcutaneous temperature and activity using biologgers. Mean heart rate more than doubled from winter to summer. Typical drivers of energy expenditure, such as reproduction and activity, explained a relatively limited amount of variation (2-6% in winter and 16-24% in summer) compared to seasonality, which explained 75% of annual variation in heart rate. The relationship between heart rate and subcutaneous temperature depended on individual state via body mass, age and reproductive status, and the results suggested that peripheral heterothermy is an important pathway of energy management in both winter and summer. While the seasonal plasticity in energetics makes Svalbard reindeer well-adapted to their highly seasonal environment, intraseasonal constraints on modulation of their heart rate may limit their ability to respond to severe environmental change. This study emphasizes the importance of encompassing individual state and seasonal context when studying energetics in free-living animals. This article is part of the theme issue 'Measuring physiology in free-living animals (Part II)'.

5.
Physiol Rep ; 9(11): e14867, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057306

RESUMO

Whey protein isolate (WPI) is considered a dietary solution to obesity. However, the exact mechanism of WPI action is still poorly understood but is probably connected to its beneficial effect on energy balance, adiposity, and metabolism. More recently its ability to modulate the gut microbiota has received increasing attention. Here, we used a microbiota depletion, by antibiotic cocktail (ABX) administration, to investigate if the gut microbiota mediates the physiological and metabolic changes observed during high-fat diet (HFD)-WPI consumption. C57BL/6J mice received a HFD containing WPI (HFD-WPI) or the control non-whey milk protein casein (HFD-CAS) for 5 or 10 weeks. HFD-fed mice supplemented with WPI showed reduced body weight gain, adiposity, Ob gene expression level in the epidydimal adipose tissue (eWAT) and plasma leptin relative to HFD-CAS-fed mice, after 5- or 10-weeks intervention both with or without ABX treatment. Following 10-weeks intervention, ABX and WPI had an additive effect in lowering adiposity and leptin availability. HFD-WPI-fed mice showed a decrease in the expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory markers (MCP-1, TNFα and CD68) within the ileum and eWAT, compared to HFD-CAS-fed mice, without showing alterations following microbiota depletion. Additionally, WPI supplementation decreased HFD-induced intestinal permeability disruption in the distal ileum; an effect that was reversed by chronic ABX treatment. In summary, WPI reverses the effects of HFD on metabolic and physiological functions through mainly microbiota-independent mechanisms. Moreover, we demonstrate a protective effect of WPI on HFD-induced inflammation and ileal permeability disruption, with the latter being reversed by gut microbiota depletion.

6.
Cell Rep ; 35(6): 109093, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979605

RESUMO

We investigated how protein quantity (10%-30%) and quality (casein and whey) interact with dietary fat (20%-55%) to affect metabolic health in adult mice. Although dietary fat was the main driver of body weight gain and individual tissue weight, high (30%) casein intake accentuated and high whey intake reduced the negative metabolic aspects of high fat. Jejunum and liver transcriptomics revealed increased intestinal permeability, low-grade inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and liver dysfunction in casein-fed but not whey-fed animals. These differential effects were accompanied by altered gut size and microbial functions related to amino acid degradation and lipid metabolism. Fecal microbiota transfer confirmed that the casein microbiota increases and the whey microbiota impedes weight gain. These data show that the effects of dietary fat on weight gain and tissue partitioning are further influenced by the quantity and quality of the associated protein, primarily via effects on the microbiota.

9.
Cell Metab ; 33(5): 888-904.e6, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667386

RESUMO

The protein leverage hypothesis predicts that low dietary protein should increase energy intake and cause adiposity. We designed 10 diets varying from 1% to 20% protein combined with either 60% or 20% fat. Contrasting the expectation, very low protein did not cause increased food intake. Although these mice had activated hunger signaling, they ate less food, resulting in decreased body weight and improved glucose tolerance but not increased frailty, even under 60% fat. Moreover, they did not show hyperphagia when returned to a 20% protein diet, which could be mimicked by treatment with rapamycin. Intracerebroventricular injection of AAV-S6K1 significantly blunted the decrease in both food intake and body weight in mice fed 1% protein, an effect not observed with inhibition of eIF2a, TRPML1, and Fgf21 signaling. Hence, the 1% protein diet induced decreased food intake and body weight via a mechanism partially dependent on hypothalamic mTOR signaling.

10.
J Exp Biol ; 224(Pt 2)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500325

RESUMO

Many captive Asian elephant populations are not self-sustaining, possibly due in part to obesity-related health and reproductive issues. This study investigated relationships between estimated body composition and metabolic function, inflammatory markers, ovarian activity (females only) and physical activity levels in 44 Asian elephants (n=35 females, n=9 males). Deuterium dilution was used to measure total body water from which fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) could be derived to estimate body composition. Serum was analyzed for progestagens and estradiol (females only), deuterium, glucose, insulin and amyloid A. Physical activity was assessed by an accelerometer placed on the elephant's front leg for at least 2 days. Relative fat mass (RFM) - the amount of fat relative to body mass - was calculated to take differences in body size between elephants into consideration. Body fat percentage ranged from 2.01% to 24.59%. Male elephants were heavier (P=0.043), with more FFM (P=0.049), but not FM (P>0.999), than females. For all elephants, estimated RFM (r=0.45, P=0.004) was positively correlated with insulin. Distance walked was negatively correlated with age (r=-0.46, P=0.007). When adjusted for FFM and age (P<0.001), non-cycling females had less fat compared with cycling females, such that for every 100 kg increase in FM, the odds of cycling were 3 times higher (P<0.001). More work is needed to determine what an unhealthy amount of fat is for elephants; however, our results suggest higher adiposity may contribute to metabolic perturbations.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Adiposidade , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Obesidade , Reprodução
11.
Adv Nutr ; 12(1): 179-196, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804997

RESUMO

Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT), is the largest fat depot and major provider of free fatty acids to the liver. Abdominal fat is indirectly (via increased levels of low-grade inflammation) correlated with many of the adverse health effects of obesity. Although exercise is one of the most prominent components of obesity management, its effects on SAT are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent effects of aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) modalities and combined exercise modalities on SAT in adults. PubMed, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar were searched to find relevant publications up to November 2018. The effect sizes were represented as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CIs. Between-study heterogeneity was examined using the I2 test. Overall, 43 identified trials that enrolled 3552 subjects (2684 women) were included. After removal of outliers, combining effect sizes indicated a significant effect of AT (WMD: -13.05 cm2; 95% CI: -18.52, -7.57; P < 0.001), RT (WMD: -5.39 cm2; 95% CI: -9.66, -1.12; P = 0.01), and combined exercise training (CExT; WMD: -28.82 cm2; 95% CI: -30.83, -26.81; P < 0.001) on SAT relative to control groups. Pooled effect sizes demonstrated a significant effect of AT on SAT compared with a CExT group (WMD: 11.07 cm2; 95% CI: 1.81, 20.33; P = 0.01). However, when comparing the AT and RT groups, no significant difference was seen in SAT (WMD: -0.73 cm2; 95% CI: -4.50, 3.04; P = 0.70). Meta-analysis of relevant trials indicated that AT, RT, and CExT lead to SAT reduction. Aerobic exercise was shown to produce greater efficacy in decreasing SAT.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Gordura Abdominal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(1): 200-210, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701871

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to inform the energy requirements of highly trained adolescent soccer players. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was quantified in academy soccer players from the English Premier League (EPL). METHODS: Twenty-four male adolescent soccer players from an EPL academy (under (U) 12/13 (U12/13), n = 8; U15, n = 8; U18, n = 8) were assessed for baseline maturity (maturity offset), body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and resting metabolic rate (indirect calorimetry). Subsequently, TEE, energy intake (EI) and physical loading patterns were assessed over a 14-d in-season period using doubly labeled water, the remote food photographic method, and global positioning system technology, respectively. RESULTS: U18 players presented with greater resting metabolic rate (2236 ± 93 kcal·d) and TEE (3586 ± 487 kcal·d; range, 2542-5172 kcal·d) than did both U15 (2023 ± 162 and 3029 ± 262 kcal·d, respectively; TEE range, 2738-3726 kcal·d) and U12/13 players (1892 ± 211 and 2859 ± 265 kcal·d, respectively; TEE range, 2275-3903 kcal·d; all, P < 0.01), although no difference in TEE was apparent between the U12/13 and U15 age groups. Fat-free mass was significantly different between all comparisons in a hierarchal manner (U18: 57.2 ± 6.1 kg > U15: 42.9 ± 5.8 kg > U12/13: 31.1 ± 3.5 kg; all, P < 0.01). Within age groups, no differences were apparent between EI and TEE (U12/13: -29 ± 277 kcal·d, P = 0.78; U15: -134 ± 327 kcal·d, P = 0.28; U18: -243 ± 724 kcal·d, P = 0.37), whereas U18 players (3180 ± 279 kcal·d) reported higher EI than did both U15 (2821 ± 338 kcal·d; P = 0.05) and U12/13 players (2659 ± 187 kcal·d; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The TEE of male academy soccer players progressively increase as players progress through the academy age groups. In some individuals (evident in all age groups), TEE was greater than that previously observed in adult EPL soccer players.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia
13.
Br J Nutr ; 125(9): 983-997, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718378

RESUMO

Physical activity questionnaires (PAQ) could be suitable tools in free-living people for measures of physical activity, total and activity energy expenditure (TEE and AEE). This meta-analysis was performed to determine valid PAQ for estimating TEE and AEE using doubly labelled water (DLW). We identified data from relevant studies by searching Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus databases. This revealed thirty-eight studies that had validated PAQ with DLW and reported the mean differences between PAQ and DLW measures of TEE (TEEDLW - TEEPAQ) and AEE (AEEDLW - AEEPAQ). We assessed seventy-eight PAQ consisting of fifty-nine PAQ that assessed TEE and thirty-five PAQ that examined AEE. There was no significant difference between TEEPAQ and TEEDLW with a weighted mean difference of -243·3 and a range of -841·4 to 354·6 kJ/d, and a significant weighted mean difference of AEEDLW - AEE PAQ 414·6 and a range of 78·7-750·5. To determine whether any PAQ was a valid tool for estimating TEE and AEE, we carried out a subgroup analysis by type of PAQ. Only Active-Q, administered in two seasons, and 3-d PA diaries were correlated with TEE by DLW at the population level; however, these two PAQ did not demonstrate an acceptable limit of agreement at individual level. For AEE, no PAQ was correlated with DLW either at the population or at the individual levels. Active-Q and 3-d PA diaries were identified as the only valid PAQ for TEE estimation. Further well-designed studies are needed to verify this result and identify additional valid PAQ.

14.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(4): 601-610, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053185

RESUMO

Calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust intervention to extend life span and improve healthspan. Though the cerebellum is more commonly associated with motor control, it has strong links with the hypothalamus and is thought to be associated with nutritional regulation and adiposity. Using a global mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach, we identified 756 metabolites that were significantly differentially expressed in the cerebellar region of the brain of C57BL/6J mice, fed graded levels of CR (10, 20, 30, and 40 CR) compared to mice fed ad libitum for 12 hours a day. Pathway enrichment indicated changes in the pathways of adenosine and guanine (which are precursors of DNA production), aromatic amino acids (tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan) and the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine. We also saw increases in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle, electron donor, and dopamine and histamine pathways. In particular, changes in l-histidine and homocarnosine correlated positively with the level of CR and food anticipatory activity and negatively with insulin and body temperature. Several metabolic and pathway changes acted against changes seen in age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, including increases in the TCA cycle and reduced l-proline. Carnitine metabolites contributed to discrimination between CR groups, which corroborates previous work in the liver and plasma. These results indicate the conservation of certain aspects of metabolism across tissues with CR. Moreover, this is the first study to indicate CR alters the cerebellar metabolome, and does so in a graded fashion, after only a short period of restriction.

15.
Elife ; 92020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306947

RESUMO

Elite human and animal athletes must acquire the fuels necessary for extreme feats, but also contend with the oxidative damage associated with peak metabolic performance. Here, we show that a migratory bird with fuel stores composed of more omega-6 polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) expended 11% less energy during long-duration (6 hr) flights with no change in oxidative costs; however, this short-term energy savings came at the long-term cost of higher oxidative damage in the omega-6 PUFA-fed birds. Given that fatty acids are primary fuels, key signaling molecules, the building blocks of cell membranes, and that oxidative damage has long-term consequences for health and ageing, the energy savings-oxidative cost trade-off demonstrated here may be fundamentally important for a wide diversity of organisms on earth.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Voo Animal , Estresse Oxidativo , Resistência Física , Estorninhos/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Estado Nutricional , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21493, 2020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299039

RESUMO

Energy drives behaviour and life history decisions, yet it can be hard to measure at fine scales in free-moving animals. Accelerometry has proven a powerful tool to estimate energy expenditure, but requires calibration in the wild. This can be difficult in some environments, or for particular behaviours, and validations have produced equivocal results in some species, particularly air-breathing divers. It is, therefore, important to calibrate accelerometry across different behaviours to understand the most parsimonious way to estimate energy expenditure in free-living conditions. Here, we combine data from miniaturised acceleration loggers on 58 free-living Adélie penguins with doubly labelled water (DLW) measurements of their energy expenditure over several days. Across different behaviours, both in water and on land, dynamic body acceleration was a good predictor of independently measured DLW-derived energy expenditure (R2 = 0.72). The most parsimonious model suggested different calibration coefficients are required to predict behaviours on land versus foraging behaviour in water (R2 = 0.75). Our results show that accelerometry can be used to reliably estimate energy expenditure in penguins, and we provide calibration equations for estimating metabolic rate across several behaviours in the wild.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Spheniscidae/metabolismo , Aceleração , Animais , Aves/metabolismo , Mergulho/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Água
17.
BMJ ; 371: m4673, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328163
18.
Atherosclerosis ; 313: 1-7, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Future climate change may adversely impact human health. The direct effects of extreme hot temperatures on mortality are well established, and their future impact well modelled. However, less extreme changes in ambient temperature (Ta) have been previously associated with increased mortality from circulatory and metabolic diseases, but their future impact is less clear. METHODS: We evaluated the spatial association between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and stroke mortality with average Ta across the US mainland, and then used this relationship to model future temporal trends in mortality from CVD and stroke until the end of the century (2099), using different warming scenarios for each US county. RESULTS: Ta was significantly associated with crude levels of CVD mortality (R2 = 0.269) and stroke mortality (R2 = 0.264). Moreover, there was a strong positive link between Ta and physical inactivity (PIA) (R2 = 0.215). Once adjusted for PIA the associations between Ta and CVD and stroke mortality were much reduced (R2 = 0.054 and R2 = 0.091 respectively) but still highly significant. CONCLUSIONS: By 2099 modelling suggests between 8844 and 25,486 extra deaths each year from CVD, and between 2,063 and 13,039 extra deaths for stroke, beyond the increases expected from population expansion. Mortality due to changes in the mean Ta may be as, or more, significant than the impacts of extreme hot weather events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Temperatura , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(39): 24352-24358, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929014

RESUMO

Predicted increases in global average temperature are physiologically trivial for most endotherms. However, heat waves will also increase in both frequency and severity, and these will be physiologically more important. Lactating small mammals are hypothesized to be limited by heat dissipation capacity, suggesting high temperatures may adversely impact lactation performance. We measured reproductive performance of mice and striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis), including milk energy output (MEO), at temperatures between 21 and 36 °C. In both species, there was a decline in MEO between 21 and 33 °C. In mice, milk production at 33 °C was only 18% of that at 21 °C. This led to reductions in pup growth by 20% but limited pup mortality (0.8%), because of a threefold increase in growth efficiency. In contrast, in hamsters, MEO at 33 °C was reduced to 78.1% of that at 21 °C, yet this led to significant pup mortality (possibly infanticide) and reduced pup growth by 12.7%. Hamster females were more able to sustain milk production as ambient temperature increased, but they and their pups were less capable of adjusting to the lower supply. In both species, exposure to 36 °C resulted in rapid catastrophic lactation failure and maternal mortality. Upper lethal temperature was lowered by 3 to 6 °C in late lactation, making it a critically sensitive window to high ambient temperatures. Our data suggest future heat wave events will impact breeding success of small rodents, but this is based on animals with a long history in captivity. More work should be performed on wild rodents to confirm these impacts.


Assuntos
Cricetinae/fisiologia , Lactação , Camundongos/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Cricetinae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , Reprodução , Temperatura
20.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of visits to restaurants has been suggested to contribute to the pandemic of obesity. However, few studies have examined how individual use of these restaurants is related to Body Mass Index (BMI). AIM: To investigate the association between the usage of different types of food outlets and BMI among adults in Scotland. METHOD: The study was cross-sectional. Participants completed an online survey for seven consecutive days where all food purchased at food outlets was reported each day. We explored the relationship between BMI and usage of these food outlets. RESULTS: The total number of participants that completed the survey was 681. The BMI of both males and females was not related to frequency of use of Full-Service Restaurants (FSRs), Fast-Food Restaurants (FFRs), delivery or takeaways, when assessed individually or combined (TFOs = total food outlets). CONCLUSION: These cross-sectional data do not support the widespread belief that consumption of food out of the home at fast-food and full-service restaurants, combined with that derived from deliveries and takeaways, is a major driver of obesity in Scotland.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento do Consumidor , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Restaurantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Escócia , Adulto Jovem
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