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2.
Ann Neurol ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) is one of the most severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathies. We delineate the genetic causes and genotype-phenotype correlations of a large EIMFS cohort. METHODS: Phenotypic and molecular data were analyzed on patients recruited through an international collaborative study. RESULTS: We ascertained 135 patients from 128 unrelated families. Ninety-three of 135 (69%) had causative variants (42/55 previously reported) across 23 genes, including 9 novel EIMFS genes: de novo dominant GABRA1, GABRB1, ATP1A3; X-linked CDKL5, PIGA; and recessive ITPA, AIMP1, KARS, WWOX. The most frequently implicated genes were KCNT1 (36/135, 27%) and SCN2A (10/135, 7%). Mosaicism occurred in 2 probands (SCN2A, GABRB3) and 3 unaffected mothers (KCNT1). Median age at seizure onset was 4 weeks, with earlier onset in the SCN2A, KCNQ2, and BRAT1 groups. Epileptic spasms occurred in 22% patients. A total of 127 patients had severe to profound developmental impairment. All but 7 patients had ongoing seizures. Additional features included microcephaly, movement disorders, spasticity, and scoliosis. Mortality occurred in 33% at median age 2 years 7 months. INTERPRETATION: We identified a genetic cause in 69% of patients with EIMFS. We highlight the genetic heterogeneity of EIMFS with 9 newly implicated genes, bringing the total number to 33. Mosaicism was observed in probands and parents, carrying critical implications for recurrence risk. EIMFS pathophysiology involves diverse molecular processes from gene and protein regulation to ion channel function and solute trafficking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Paediatr Drugs ; 21(4): 283-290, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A pharmaceutical grade formulation of cannabidiol (CBD) has been approved for the treatment of Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome; however, this formulation is not yet available to patients outside the USA. In addition, CBD is thought to have broad anti-seizure properties that may be beneficial for other types of intractable epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of artisanal medical CBD oil in patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) at the tertiary epilepsy center of Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital in Rome, Italy. METHODS: This was a single-center, prospective, open-label study. Patients aged from 1 to 18 years with DEE and seizures refractory to appropriate antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and other alternative treatments (i.e., vagal nerve stimulator and ketogenic diet) were included. Crystalline extract CBD powder (98-99% pure) in an oil artisanal formulation was added to the baseline AED regimen at a dosage of 2-5 mg/kg/day divided for twice-daily administration, then up-titrated until intolerance or a maximum dosage of 25 mg/kg/day was reached. Patients were treated for at least 6 months. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of CBD treatment were assessed through the evaluation of seizure frequency and reports of adverse effects. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were enrolled in this study (41.4% male). The mean duration of exposure to artisanal CBD was 11.2 months [range 6-25 months; standard deviation (SD) ± 4.4 months]. Mean age at study enrollment was 9.3 years (range 1.9-16.3 years; SD ± 4.7 years). Eleven out of 29 patients (37.9%) had a ≥ 50% improvement in seizure frequency; one patient became seizure free. None of the patients reported worsening seizure frequency; however, 18 patients (62.1%) experienced no beneficial effect regarding seizure frequency. Adverse effects were reported in seven patients (24.14%), most commonly somnolence, decreased appetite and diarrhea. Adverse events were mild and transient, and no dose modification of CBD or other AEDs was required. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that CBD may have beneficial effects in patients with DEE and an acceptable safety profile. Placebo-controlled randomized trials should be conducted to formally assess the safety and efficacy of CBD in patients with DEE.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/patologia , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Epilepsy Behav ; 96: 219-223, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174070

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) due to SCN8A gene variants is characterized by drug-resistant early onset epilepsy associated with severe intellectual disability. Different seizure types have been reported, and a sequence of autonomic manifestations such as brady-/tachycardia, irregular breathing, and cyanosis. Nevertheless, an exhaustive video-polygraphic documentation is still lacking. In this study, we reviewed the ictal electroencephalograms (EEGs) of five patients with SCN8A-DEE followed-up at the Neuroscience Department at Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital in Rome. We identified generalized tonic seizure as the major seizure type at epilepsy onset. Seizure severity could vary from subtle to marked clinical manifestations, depending from the extent and groups of muscles involved and association with autonomic modifications. We found autonomic signs in 80% of seizures in our cases, and we were able to identify a stereotyped sequence of ictal events for most of seizures. Autonomic signs occurred in rapid sequence: flushing of the face, sometimes associated with sialorrhea, bradycardia, and hypopnea appeared within the first 1-2 s. Tachycardia, polypnea, perioral cyanosis, and pallor occurred later in the course of the seizure. Generalized tonic seizures are rarely described in other genetic epileptic conditions of early infancy because of ion channel mutations, such as in DEE due to KCNQ2 or SCN2A gene mutations, where seizures are most frequently reported as focal to bilateral tonic. Therefore, generalized symmetric tonic seizures with autonomic signs can be considered a clinical hallmark for diagnosis of SCN8A-related DEE and relevant for therapeutic implications.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1631-1636, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136090

RESUMO

POGZ (# 614787) encodes a multidomain nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation and its defective function has been recently associated with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder, known as White-Sutton syndrome (# 616364). While originally epileptic seizures were unreported, it seems that epilepsy represents a recurrent feature in affected subjects. Few data, however, are available on electroclinical features of POGZ-related epilepsy. We report a 5-year-old girl with a de novo inactivating POGZ mutation with a complex neurological phenotype characterized by hypotonia, severe developmental delay, and paroxysmal epileptic and nonepileptic events. Comparing this patient with the previously reported nine cases exhibiting epilepsy as associated feature, we detected that epilepsy onset is mostly during infancy (1-4 years of age), with both focal and generalized seizures. EEGs reveal that epileptic abnormalities mainly are localized in the frontal regions, and seizure control might be reached with one or multiple antiepileptic drugs. Besides dysmorphic features and other comorbidities (microcephaly, intellectual disability, absent speech, sensorineural hearing loss, and autistic spectrum disorder) major brain MR features include cortical and cerebellar atrophy, delayed myelination, and brainstem hypoplasia. Although the small number of patients reported, we were able to delineate primary electroclinical epileptic phenotype related to POGZ mutations. This would be crucial for an early identification and management of the condition.

6.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(1): 117-121, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767895

RESUMO

Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, or congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2 (CGL2), is characterized by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue and precocious metabolic syndrome with insulin resistance, resulting in diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hepatic steatosis, cardiomyopathy, and acanthosis nigricans. Most reported mutations are associated with mild, non-progressive neurological impairment. We describe the clinical and EEG data of a patient with progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME), CGL2, and progressive neurological impairment, carrying a homozygous BSCL2 nonsense mutation. The patient had epilepsy onset at the age of two, characterized by monthly generalized tonic-clonic seizures. By the age of three, he presented with drug-resistant ongoing myoclonic absence seizures, photosensitivity, progressive neurological degeneration, and moderate cognitive delay. Molecular analysis of the BSCL2 gene yielded a homozygous c.(1076dupC) p.(Glu360*) mutation. Application of a vagus nerve stimulator led to temporary improvement in seizure frequency, general neurological condition, and EEG background activity. Specific BSCL2 mutations may lead to a peculiar CGL2 phenotype characterized by PME and progressive neurodegeneration. Application of a vagus nerve stimulator, rarely used for PMEs, may prove beneficial, if only temporarily, for both seizure frequency and general neurological condition.


Assuntos
Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Lipodistrofia Generalizada Congênita , Epilepsias Mioclônicas Progressivas , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Lipodistrofia Generalizada Congênita/genética , Lipodistrofia Generalizada Congênita/fisiopatologia , Lipodistrofia Generalizada Congênita/terapia , Masculino , Epilepsias Mioclônicas Progressivas/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas Progressivas/fisiopatologia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas Progressivas/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago
7.
Epilepsy Behav ; 93: 22-28, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30780077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and outcome of hemispherotomy in children and adolescents with hemispheric refractory epilepsy in an Italian cohort of patients. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical course and outcome of 92 patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent hemispherotomy in three Italian epilepsy centers between 2006 and 2016. Three different approaches for hemispherotomy were used: parasagittal, modified parasagittal, and lateral. RESULTS: Mean age at epilepsy onset was 1.8 ±â€¯2.51 years, and mean duration of epilepsy prior to surgery was 7.4 ±â€¯5.6 years. Mean age at surgery was 9.2 ±â€¯8.0 years. After a mean follow-up of 2.81 ±â€¯2.4 years, 66 of 90 patients (two lost from follow-up, 73.3%) were seizure-free (Engel class I). The etiology of epilepsy was related to acquired lesions (encephalomalacia or gliosis) in 44 patients (47.8%), congenital malformations (cortical dysplasia, hemimegalencephaly, other cortical malformations) in 38 (41.3%), and progressive conditions (Rasmussen or Sturge-Weber syndrome) in 10 patients (10.9%). Regarding seizure outcome, we could not identify statistically significant differences between vertical and lateral approaches (p = 0.154). Seizure outcome was not statistically different in patients with congenital vs acquired or progressive etiologies (p = 0.43). Acute postoperative seizures (APOS) correlated with poor outcome (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, presurgical focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.63, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.86-15.20, p = 0.048) independently predicted seizure recurrence. Twenty-one patients (22.8%) exhibited postoperative complications, with no unexpected and persistent neurological deficit. More than 50% of the patients completely tapered drugs. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data confirm hemispherotomy to be a safe and effective procedure in patients with drug resistant epilepsies due to hemispheric lesions. Presurgical focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures are the strongest predictor of seizure recurrence after surgery, independently from the type of hemispherotomy.

8.
Clin Genet ; 95(4): 525-531, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684285

RESUMO

Whole exome sequencing (WES) has led to the understanding of the molecular events affecting neurodevelopment in an extremely diverse clinical context, including diseases with intellectual disability (ID) associated with variable central nervous system (CNS) malformations, and developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs). Recently, PACS2 mutations have been causally linked to a DEE with cerebellar dysgenesis and facial dysmorphism. All known patients presented with a recurrent de novo missense mutation, c.625G>A (p.Glu209Lys). Here, we report on a 7-year-old boy with DEE, cerebellar dysgenesis, facial dysmorphism and postnatal growth delay, apparently not fitting with any recognized disorder. WES disclosed a de novo novel missense PACS2 variant, c.631G>A (p.Glu211Lys), as the molecular cause of this complex phenotype. We provide a detailed clinical characterization of this patient, and analyse the available clinical data of individuals with PACS2 mutations to delineate more accurately the clinical spectrum associated with this recently described syndrome. Our study expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of PACS2 mutations. Overview of the available clinical data allow to delineate the condition associated with PACS2 mutations as a variable trait, in which the key features are represented by moderate to severe ID, cerebellar dysgenesis and other CNS malformations, reduced growth, and facial dysmorphism.

9.
Epilepsia ; 59(12): 2260-2271, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: PCDH19-related epilepsy is an epileptic syndrome with infantile onset, characterized by clustered and fever-induced seizures, often associated with intellectual disability (ID) and autistic features. The aim of this study was to analyze a large cohort of patients with PCDH19-related epilepsy and better define the epileptic phenotype, genotype-phenotype correlations, and related outcome-predicting factors. METHODS: We retrospectively collected genetic, clinical, and electroencephalogram (EEG) data of 61 patients with PCDH19-related epilepsy followed at 15 epilepsy centers. All consecutively performed EEGs were analyzed, totaling 551. We considered as outcome measures the development of ID, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and seizure persistence. The analyzed variables were the following: gender, age at onset, age at study, genetic variant, fever sensitivity, seizure type, cluster occurrence, status epilepticus, EEG abnormalities, and cognitive and behavioral disorders. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the age at which seizures might decrease in frequency. RESULTS: At last follow-up (median = 12 years, range = 1.9-42.1 years), 48 patients (78.7%) had annual seizures/clusters, 13 patients (21.3%) had monthly to weekly seizures, and 12 patients (19.7%) were seizure-free for ≥2 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a significant decrease of seizure frequency after the age of 10.5 years (sensitivity = 81.0%, specificity = 70.0%). Thirty-six patients (59.0%) had ID and behavioral disturbances. ASD was present in 31 patients. An earlier age at epilepsy onset emerged as the only predictive factor for ID (P = 0.047) and ASD (P = 0.014). Conversely, age at onset was not a predictive factor for seizure outcome (P = 0.124). SIGNIFICANCE: We found that earlier age at epilepsy onset is related to a significant risk for ID and ASD. Furthermore, long-term follow-up showed that after the age of 10 years, seizures decrease in frequency and cognitive and behavioral disturbances remain the primary clinical problems.

10.
Neurology ; 91(12): e1112-e1124, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the electroclinical features of SCN8A infantile developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE13, OMIM #614558). METHODS: Twenty-two patients, aged 19 months to 22 years, underwent electroclinical assessment. RESULTS: Sixteen of 22 patients had mildly delayed development since birth. Drug-resistant epilepsy started at a median age of 4 months, followed by developmental slowing, pyramidal/extrapyramidal signs (22/22), movement disorders (12/22), cortical blindness (17/22), sialorrhea, and severe gastrointestinal symptoms (15/22), worsening during early childhood and plateauing at age 5 to 9 years. Death occurred in 4 children, following extreme neurologic deterioration, at 22 months to 5.5 years. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus recurred in 14 of 22 patients. The most effective antiepileptic drugs were oxcarbazepine, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and benzodiazepines. EEG showed background deterioration, epileptiform abnormalities with a temporo-occipital predominance, and posterior delta/beta activity correlating with visual impairment. Video-EEG documented focal seizures (FS) (22/22), spasm-like episodes (8/22), cortical myoclonus (8/22), and myoclonic absences (1/22). FS typically clustered and were prolonged (<20 minutes) with (1) cyanosis, hypomotor, and vegetative semiology, sometimes unnoticed, followed by (2) tonic-vibratory and (3) (hemi)-clonic manifestations ± evolution to a bilateral tonic-clonic seizure. FS had posterior-temporal/occipital onset, slowly spreading and sometimes migrating between hemispheres. Brain MRI showed progressive parenchymal atrophy and restriction of the optic radiations. CONCLUSIONS: SCN8A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy has strikingly consistent electroclinical features, suggesting a global progressive brain dysfunction primarily affecting the temporo-occipital regions. Both uncontrolled epilepsy and developmental compromise contribute to the profound impairment (increasing risk of death) during early childhood, but stabilization occurs in late childhood.

11.
Front Neuroinform ; 12: 45, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050424

RESUMO

The pre-operative workup of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy requires in some candidates the identification from intracranial EEG (iEEG) of the seizure-onset zone (SOZ), defined as the area responsible of the generation of the seizure and therefore candidate for resection. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) contained in the iEEG signal have been proposed as biomarker of the SOZ. Their visual identification is a very onerous process and an automated detection tool could be an extremely valuable aid for clinicians, reducing operator-dependent bias, and computational time. In this manuscript, we present the EPINETLAB software, developed as a collection of routines integrated in the EEGLAB framework that aim to provide clinicians with a structured analysis pipeline for HFOs detection and SOZ identification. The tool implements an analysis strategy developed by our group and underwent a preliminary clinical validation that identifies the HFOs area by extracting the statistical properties of HFOs signal and that provides useful information for a topographic characterization of the relationship between clinically defined SOZ and HFO area. Additional functionalities such as inspection of spectral properties of ictal iEEG data and import and analysis of source-space magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data were also included. EPINETLAB was developed with user-friendliness in mind to support clinicians in the identification and quantitative assessment of HFOs in iEEG and source space MEG data and aid the evaluation of the SOZ for pre-surgical assessment.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 378(20): 1898-1907, 2018 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recombinant human tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (cerliponase alfa) is an enzyme-replacement therapy that has been developed to treat neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2) disease, a rare lysosomal disorder that causes progressive dementia in children. METHODS: In a multicenter, open-label study, we evaluated the effect of intraventricular infusion of cerliponase alfa every 2 weeks in children with CLN2 disease who were between the ages of 3 and 16 years. Treatment was initiated at a dose of 30 mg, 100 mg, or 300 mg; all the patients then received the 300-mg dose for at least 96 weeks. The primary outcome was the time until a 2-point decline in the score on the motor and language domains of the CLN2 Clinical Rating Scale (which ranges from 0 to 6, with 0 representing no function and 3 representing normal function in each of the two domains), which was compared with the time until a 2-point decline in 42 historical controls. We also compared the rate of decline in the motor-language score between the two groups, using data from baseline to the last assessment with a score of more than 0, divided by the length of follow-up (in units of 48 weeks). RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were enrolled, 23 of whom constituted the efficacy population. The median time until a 2-point decline in the motor-language score was not reached for treated patients and was 345 days for historical controls. The mean (±SD) unadjusted rate of decline in the motor-language score per 48-week period was 0.27±0.35 points in treated patients and 2.12±0.98 points in 42 historical controls (mean difference, 1.85; P<0.001). Common adverse events included convulsions, pyrexia, vomiting, hypersensitivity reactions, and failure of the intraventricular device. In 2 patients, infections developed in the intraventricular device that was used to administer the infusion, which required antibiotic treatment and device replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Intraventricular infusion of cerliponase alfa in patients with CLN2 disease resulted in less decline in motor and language function than that in historical controls. Serious adverse events included failure of the intraventricular device and device-related infections. (Funded by BioMarin Pharmaceutical and others; CLN2 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01907087 and NCT02485899 .).


Assuntos
Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demência/prevenção & controle , Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Estudo Historicamente Controlado , Humanos , Infusões Intraventriculares , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Destreza Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/fisiopatologia , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/psicologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos
14.
Epilepsia ; 59(4): 739-744, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399791

RESUMO

We convened an international group of experts to standardize definitions of New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE), Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES), and related conditions. This was done to enable improved communication for investigators, physicians, families, patients, and other caregivers. Consensus definitions were achieved via email messages, phone calls, an in-person consensus conference, and collaborative manuscript preparation. Panel members were from 8 countries and included adult and pediatric experts in epilepsy, electroencephalography (EEG), and neurocritical care. The proposed consensus definitions are as follows: NORSE is a clinical presentation, not a specific diagnosis, in a patient without active epilepsy or other preexisting relevant neurological disorder, with new onset of refractory status epilepticus without a clear acute or active structural, toxic or metabolic cause. FIRES is a subcategory of NORSE, applicable for all ages, that requires a prior febrile infection starting between 2 weeks and 24 hours prior to onset of refractory status epilepticus, with or without fever at onset of status epilepticus. Proposed consensus definitions are also provided for Infantile Hemiconvulsion-Hemiplegia and Epilepsy syndrome (IHHE) and for prolonged, refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus. This document has been endorsed by the Critical Care EEG Monitoring Research Consortium. We hope these consensus definitions will promote improved communication, permit multicenter research, and ultimately improve understanding and treatment of these conditions.

15.
Epilepsia ; 59(4): 745-752, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476535

RESUMO

We report the proceedings of the First International new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) and febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) Symposium. To promote awareness of this condition and foster research efforts, we conveyed the First International new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) and febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) Symposium. The conference was supported by The NORSE Institute (http://www.norseinstitute.org). This article summarizes the discussions that were held during the Symposium and presents our strategy to unravel the cause of these disorders and to improve patient care. The standardized definitions for these disorders that have been developed, are required to improve communication and facilitate the development of multicenter registries and biobanks. A distinction between childhood- and adult-onset forms of the syndrome is not supported by strong scientific evidence and it is argued that both should be studied together. Although the pathophysiology remains elusive, nascent evidence suggests a role for a postinfectious cytokine-mediated mechanism, which should be further investigated. It also appears important to develop tools for their early recognition and prompt treatment. Recent evidence suggests that specific electroencephalography (EEG) features might be helpful. The optimal treatment options remain to be determined; immune therapies are usually disappointing, but the ketogenic diet has proved effective in uncontrolled trials. NORSE and FIRES represent a very delicate clinical situation with specific communication issues between physicians and with patients and families. Standardized consensus definitions and a multidisciplinary multicenter strategy will help research efforts and improve clinical care for patients with NORSE and FIRES.

16.
Epilepsia ; 59(2): 389-402, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic SLC6A1 variants were recently described in patients with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability (ID). We set out to define the phenotypic spectrum in a larger cohort of SCL6A1-mutated patients. METHODS: We collected 24 SLC6A1 probands and 6 affected family members. Four previously published cases were included for further electroclinical description. In total, we reviewed the electroclinical data of 34 subjects. RESULTS: Cognitive development was impaired in 33/34 (97%) subjects; 28/34 had mild to moderate ID, with language impairment being the most common feature. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 31/34 cases with mean onset at 3.7 years. Cognitive assessment before epilepsy onset was available in 24/31 subjects and was normal in 25% (6/24), and consistent with mild ID in 46% (11/24) or moderate ID in 17% (4/24). Two patients had speech delay only, and 1 had severe ID. After epilepsy onset, cognition deteriorated in 46% (11/24) of cases. The most common seizure types were absence, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Sixteen cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MAE. Seven further patients had different forms of generalized epilepsy and 2 had focal epilepsy. Twenty of 31 patients became seizure-free, with valproic acid being the most effective drug. There was no clear-cut correlation between seizure control and cognitive outcome. Electroencephalography (EEG) findings were available in 27/31 patients showing irregular bursts of diffuse 2.5-3.5 Hz spikes/polyspikes-and-slow waves in 25/31. Two patients developed an EEG pattern resembling electrical status epilepticus during sleep. Ataxia was observed in 7/34 cases. We describe 7 truncating and 18 missense variants, including 4 recurrent variants (Gly232Val, Ala288Val, Val342Met, and Gly362Arg). SIGNIFICANCE: Most patients carrying pathogenic SLC6A1 variants have an MAE phenotype with language delay and mild/moderate ID before epilepsy onset. However, ID alone or associated with focal epilepsy can also be observed.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/complicações , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/complicações , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Brain ; 140(11): 2879-2894, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053855

RESUMO

Genetic epilepsies are caused by mutations in a range of different genes, many of them encoding ion channels, receptors or transporters. While the number of detected variants and genes increased dramatically in the recent years, pleiotropic effects have also been recognized, revealing that clinical syndromes with various degrees of severity arise from a single gene, a single mutation, or from different mutations showing similar functional defects. Accordingly, several genes coding for GABAA receptor subunits have been linked to a spectrum of benign to severe epileptic disorders and it was shown that a loss of function presents the major correlated pathomechanism. Here, we identified six variants in GABRA3 encoding the α3-subunit of the GABAA receptor. This gene is located on chromosome Xq28 and has not been previously associated with human disease. Five missense variants and one microduplication were detected in four families and two sporadic cases presenting with a range of epileptic seizure types, a varying degree of intellectual disability and developmental delay, sometimes with dysmorphic features or nystagmus. The variants co-segregated mostly but not completely with the phenotype in the families, indicating in some cases incomplete penetrance, involvement of other genes, or presence of phenocopies. Overall, males were more severely affected and there were three asymptomatic female mutation carriers compared to only one male without a clinical phenotype. X-chromosome inactivation studies could not explain the phenotypic variability in females. Three detected missense variants are localized in the extracellular GABA-binding NH2-terminus, one in the M2-M3 linker and one in the M4 transmembrane segment of the α3-subunit. Functional studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed a variable but significant reduction of GABA-evoked anion currents for all mutants compared to wild-type receptors. The degree of current reduction correlated partially with the phenotype. The microduplication disrupted GABRA3 expression in fibroblasts of the affected patient. In summary, our results reveal that rare loss-of-function variants in GABRA3 increase the risk for a varying combination of epilepsy, intellectual disability/developmental delay and dysmorphic features, presenting in some pedigrees with an X-linked inheritance pattern.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Facies , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Nistagmo Patológico/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Oócitos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Linhagem , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Síndrome , Xenopus laevis , Adulto Jovem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
19.
Epilepsy Behav ; 75: 151-157, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess common practice in pediatric epilepsy surgery in Italy between 2008 and 2014. METHODS: A survey was conducted among nine Italian epilepsy surgery centers to collect information on presurgical and postsurgical evaluation protocols, volumes and types of surgical interventions, and etiologies and seizure outcomes in pediatric epilepsy surgery between 2008 and 2014. RESULTS: Retrospective data on 527 surgical procedures were collected. The most frequent surgical approaches were temporal lobe resections and disconnections (133, 25.2%) and extratemporal lesionectomies (128, 24.3%); the most frequent etiologies were FCD II (107, 20.3%) and glioneuronal tumors (105, 19.9%). Volumes of surgeries increased over time independently from the age at surgery and the epilepsy surgery center. Engel class I was achieved in 73.6% of patients (range: 54.8 to 91.7%), with no significant changes between 2008 and 2014. Univariate analyses showed a decrease in the proportion of temporal resections and tumors and an increase in the proportion of FCDII, while multivariate analyses revealed an increase in the proportion of extratemporal surgeries over time. A higher proportion of temporal surgeries and tumors and a lower proportion of extratemporal and multilobar surgeries and of FCD were observed in low (<50surgeries/year) versus high-volume centers. There was a high variability across centers concerning pre- and postsurgical evaluation protocols, depending on local expertise and facilities. SIGNIFICANCE: This survey reveals an increase in volume and complexity of pediatric epilepsy surgery in Italy between 2008 and 2014, associated with a stable seizure outcome.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/cirurgia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Convulsões/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/etiologia , Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Epilepsia ; 58(11): 1832-1841, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28804898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the attitude and results of Italian epilepsy surgery centers in the surgical management of "low grade epilepsy associated neuroepithelial tumors" (LEATs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling 339 consecutive patients with LEATs who underwent surgery between January 2009 and June 2015 at eight Italian epilepsy surgery centers. We compared demographic, clinical, pathologic, and surgical features of patients with favorable (Engel class I) and unfavorable (Engel class II, III, and IV) seizure outcome. In addition, we compared patients with tumor-associated focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and patients with solitary tumors to identify factors correlated with FCD diagnosis. RESULTS: Fifty-five (98.2%) of 56 patients with medically controlled epilepsy were seizure-free after surgery, compared to 249 (88.0%) of 283 patients with refractory epilepsy. At multivariate analysis, three variables independently predict unfavorable seizure outcome in the drug-resistant group. Age at surgery is largely the most significant (p = 0.001), with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.04. This means that the probability of seizure recurrence grows by 4% for every waited year. The resection site is also significant (p = 0.039), with a relative risk (RR) of 1.99 for extratemporal tumors. Finally, the completeness of tumor resection has a trend toward significance (p = 0.092), with an RR of 1.82 for incomplete resection. Among pediatric patients, a longer duration of epilepsy was significantly associated with preoperative neuropsychological deficits (p < 0.001). A statistically significant association was observed between FCD diagnosis and the following variables: tailored surgery (p < 0.001), temporal resection (p = 0.001), and surgical center (p = 0.012). SIGNIFICANCE: Our nationwide LEATs study gives important insights on factors predicting seizure outcome in refractory epilepsy and determining variability in FCD detection. Timely surgery, regardless of pharmacoresistance and oriented to optimize epileptologic, neuropsychological, and oncologic outcomes should be warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Criança , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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