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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2589, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781101

RESUMO

Monogenic forms of vasculitis are rare but increasingly recognized. Furthermore, genetic immunodeficiency is increasingly associated with inflammatory immune dysregulatory features, including vasculitis. This case report describes a child of non-consanguineous parents who presented with chronic digital vasculitis early in life, is of short stature, has facial dysmorphia, immunodeficiency (low serum IgA, high serum IgM), recurrent bacterial infections, lymphoproliferation, absence of detectable serum C1q, and low classical complement pathway activity. We identified a previously reported de novo heterozygous pathogenic splice mutation in PIK3R1 (c.1425 + 1G > A), resulting in the skipping of exon 11 of the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and causing activated PI3Kδ syndrome type II (APDS2). This explained the phenotype, with the exception of digital vasculitis and C1q deficiency, which have never been described in association with APDS2. No mutations were identified in C1QA, B, or C, their promoter regions, or in any other complement component. Functional studies indicated normal monocytic C1q production and release, suggesting that the observed C1q deficiency was caused by peripheral consumption of C1q. Since C1q deficiency has never been associated with APDS2, we assessed C1q levels in two unrelated patients with genetically confirmed APDS2 and confirmed C1q deficiency in those two cases as well. This observation suggests C1q deficiency to be an inherent but previously unrecognized feature of APDS2. We speculate that the consumption of C1q is driven by increased apoptotic bodies derived from immune cellular senescence, combined with elevated IgM production (both inherent features of APDS2). Secondary C1q deficiency in APDS2 may further contribute to immunodeficiency and could also be associated with inflammatory immune dysregulatory phenotypes, such as the digital vasculitis observed in our case.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2236, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681257

RESUMO

Background: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is caused by a malfunctioning nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex in phagocytes, leading to impaired bacterial and fungal killing and hyperinflammation. Objective: To characterize macrophage subsets and cytokine/chemokine signaling loops involved in CGD tissue hyperinflammation. Methods: Cytokine/chemokine production and surface marker expression were analyzed in inflamed tissue of four CGD patients and compared to cytokine/chemokine released by CGD macrophages upon priming to different macrophage subpopulations. Furthermore, the re-priming capacity of CGD pro-inflammatory M1 to M2a anti-inflammatory macrophages was evaluated. Results: In human CGD inflammatory tissue, IL-18 and IFN-γ were detected in significant quantity. Immunofluorescence analysis identified macrophages as one source of IL-18 in inflamed tissue. In vitro, CGD macrophages could be primed and re-primed into all inflammatory/anti-inflammatory macrophage subpopulations. IL-18 was also released by M1 CGD and control macrophages. Conclusion: CGD pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages remain M1 primed in vivo. As CGD M1 macrophages can be re-primed to anti-inflammatory M2a phenotype in vitro, macrophages are kept in M1 state in vivo by a persistent pro-inflammatory environment. Our results suggest a paracrine signaling loop between M1 macrophage derived IL-18 and non-macrophage derived IFN-γ maintaining macrophage pro-inflammatory activity in CGD tissue.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379802

RESUMO

Introduction: The German PID-NET registry was founded in 2009, serving as the first national registry of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Germany. It is part of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) registry. The primary purpose of the registry is to gather data on the epidemiology, diagnostic delay, diagnosis, and treatment of PIDs. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data was collected from 2,453 patients from 36 German PID centres in an online registry. Data was analysed with the software Stata® and Excel. Results: The minimum prevalence of PID in Germany is 2.72 per 100,000 inhabitants. Among patients aged 1-25, there was a clear predominance of males. The median age of living patients ranged between 7 and 40 years, depending on the respective PID. Predominantly antibody disorders were the most prevalent group with 57% of all 2,453 PID patients (including 728 CVID patients). A gene defect was identified in 36% of patients. Familial cases were observed in 21% of patients. The age of onset for presenting symptoms ranged from birth to late adulthood (range 0-88 years). Presenting symptoms comprised infections (74%) and immune dysregulation (22%). Ninety-three patients were diagnosed without prior clinical symptoms. Regarding the general and clinical diagnostic delay, no PID had undergone a slight decrease within the last decade. However, both, SCID and hyper IgE- syndrome showed a substantial improvement in shortening the time between onset of symptoms and genetic diagnosis. Regarding treatment, 49% of all patients received immunoglobulin G (IgG) substitution (70%-subcutaneous; 29%-intravenous; 1%-unknown). Three-hundred patients underwent at least one hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Five patients had gene therapy. Conclusion: The German PID-NET registry is a precious tool for physicians, researchers, the pharmaceutical industry, politicians, and ultimately the patients, for whom the outcomes will eventually lead to a more timely diagnosis and better treatment.

6.
Clin Immunol ; 208: 108228, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195081

RESUMO

This study reports a patient with severe skin disease in the context of profound immunodeficiency explained by two concomitant genetic diseases caused by two novel homozygous loss-of-function mutations in PLEC1 and CARMIL2. The work provides additional information on the clinical and immunological manifestations of CARMIL2 deficiency and highlights the particular diagnostic and therapeutic challenge represented by the concomitant presence of two rare monogenic disorders.

7.
Clin Immunol ; 201: 30-34, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776520

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) comprise a group of genetic diseases characterized by abrogated development of T lymphocytes. In some case reports of atypical SCID patients elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes have been reported. However, it is unknown whether these γδ T cells modulate or reflect the patient's clinical phenotype. We investigated the frequency of elevated γδ T cell proportions and associations with clinical disease manifestations in a cohort of 76 atypical SCID patients. Increased proportions of γδ T lymphocytes were present in approximately 60% of these patients. Furthermore, we identified positive correlations between elevated proportions of γδ T cells and the occurrence of CMV infections and autoimmune cytopenias. We discuss that CMV infections might trigger an expansion of γδ T lymphocytes, which could drive the development of autoimmune cytopenias. We advocate that atypical SCID patients should be screened for elevated proportions of γδ T lymphocytes, CMV infection and autoimmune cytopenias.

8.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(452)2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068569

RESUMO

Immune cell profiles provide valuable diagnostic information for hematologic and immunologic diseases. Although it is the most widely applied analytical approach, flow cytometry is limited to liquid blood. Moreover, either analysis must be performed with fresh samples or cell integrity needs to be guaranteed during storage and transport. We developed epigenetic real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for analysis of human leukocyte subpopulations. After method establishment, whole blood from 25 healthy donors and 97 HIV+ patients as well as dried spots from 250 healthy newborns and 24 newborns with primary immunodeficiencies were analyzed. Concordance between flow cytometric and epigenetic data for neutrophils and B, natural killer, CD3+ T, CD8+ T, CD4+ T, and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells was evaluated, demonstrating substantial equivalence between epigenetic qPCR analysis and flow cytometry. Epigenetic qPCR achieves both relative and absolute quantifications. Applied to dried blood spots, epigenetic immune cell quantification was shown to identify newborns suffering from various primary immunodeficiencies. Using epigenetic qPCR not only provides a precise means for immune cell counting in fresh-frozen blood but also extends applicability to dried blood spots. This method could expand the ability for screening immune defects and facilitates diagnostics of unobservantly collected samples, for example, in underdeveloped areas, where logistics are major barriers to screening.

9.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 96(10): 1060-1071, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790605

RESUMO

Premature T-cell immunosenescence with CD57+ CD8+ T-cell accumulation has been linked to immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in primary immunodeficiencies including activated PI3 kinase delta syndrome (APDS). To address whether CD57 marks the typical senescent T-cell population seen in adult individuals or identifies a distinct population in APDS, we compared CD57+ CD8+ T cells from mostly pediatric APDS patients to those of healthy adults with similarly prominent senescent T cells. CD57+ CD8+ T cells from APDS patients were less differentiated with more CD27+ CD28+ effector memory T cells showing increased PD1 and Eomesodermin expression. In addition, transition of naïve to CD57+ CD8+ T cells was not associated with the characteristic telomere shortening. Nevertheless, they showed the increased interferon-gamma secretion, enhanced degranulation and reduced in vitro proliferation typical of senescent CD57+ CD8+ T cells. Thus, hyperactive PI3 kinase signaling favors premature accumulation of a CD57+ CD8+ T-cell population, which shows most functional features of typical senescent T cells, but is different in terms of differentiation and relative telomere shortening. Initial observations indicate that this specific differentiation state may offer the opportunity to revert premature T-cell immunosenescence and its potential contribution to inflammation and immunodeficiency in APDS.

10.
J Exp Med ; 215(5): 1327-1336, 2018 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636373

RESUMO

Ubiquitously expressed Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kD (CIN85) is a multifunctional adapter molecule supposed to regulate numerous cellular processes that are critical for housekeeping as well as cell type-specific functions. However, limited information exists about the in vivo roles of CIN85, because only conditional mouse mutants with cell type-specific ablation of distinct CIN85 isoforms in brain and B lymphocytes have been generated so far. No information is available about the roles of CIN85 in humans. Here, we report on primary antibody deficiency in patients harboring a germline deletion within the CIN85 gene on the X chromosome. In the absence of CIN85, all immune cell compartments developed normally, but B lymphocytes showed intrinsic defects in distinct effector pathways of the B cell antigen receptor, most notably NF-κB activation and up-regulation of CD86 expression on the cell surface. These results reveal nonredundant functions of CIN85 for humoral immune responses.

13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(4): 1297-1310.e11, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29155098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channels is an essential signaling pathway in many cell types. Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channels are formed by ORAI1, ORAI2, and ORAI3 proteins and activated by stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 and STIM2. Mutations in the ORAI1 and STIM1 genes that abolish SOCE cause a combined immunodeficiency (CID) syndrome that is accompanied by autoimmunity and nonimmunologic symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We performed molecular and immunologic analysis of patients with CID, anhidrosis, and ectodermal dysplasia of unknown etiology. METHODS: We performed DNA sequencing of the ORAI1 gene, modeling of mutations on ORAI1 crystal structure, analysis of ORAI1 mRNA and protein expression, SOCE measurements, immunologic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte populations by using flow cytometry, and histologic and ultrastructural analysis of patient tissues. RESULTS: We identified 3 novel autosomal recessive mutations in ORAI1 in unrelated kindreds with CID, autoimmunity, ectodermal dysplasia with anhidrosis, and muscular dysplasia. The patients were homozygous for p.V181SfsX8, p.L194P, and p.G98R mutations in the ORAI1 gene that suppressed ORAI1 protein expression and SOCE in the patients' lymphocytes and fibroblasts. In addition to impaired T-cell cytokine production, ORAI1 mutations were associated with strongly reduced numbers of invariant natural killer T and regulatory T (Treg) cells and altered composition of γδ T-cell and natural killer cell subsets. CONCLUSION: ORAI1 null mutations are associated with reduced numbers of invariant natural killer T and Treg cells that likely contribute to the patients' immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. ORAI1-deficient patients have dental enamel defects and anhidrosis, representing a new form of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency that is distinct from previously reported patients with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the nuclear factor κB signaling pathway (IKBKG and NFKBIA).

14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(3): 1036-1049.e5, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy x-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a monogenic autoimmune disease caused by FOXP3 mutations. Because it is a rare disease, the natural history and response to treatments, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and immunosuppression (IS), have not been thoroughly examined. OBJECTIVE: This analysis sought to evaluate disease onset, progression, and long-term outcome of the 2 main treatments in long-term IPEX survivors. METHODS: Clinical histories of 96 patients with a genetically proven IPEX syndrome were collected from 38 institutions worldwide and retrospectively analyzed. To investigate possible factors suitable to predict the outcome, an organ involvement (OI) scoring system was developed. RESULTS: We confirm neonatal onset with enteropathy, type 1 diabetes, and eczema. In addition, we found less common manifestations in delayed onset patients or during disease evolution. There is no correlation between the site of mutation and the disease course or outcome, and the same genotype can present with variable phenotypes. HSCT patients (n = 58) had a median follow-up of 2.7 years (range, 1 week-15 years). Patients receiving chronic IS (n = 34) had a median follow-up of 4 years (range, 2 months-25 years). The overall survival after HSCT was 73.2% (95% CI, 59.4-83.0) and after IS was 65.1% (95% CI, 62.8-95.8). The pretreatment OI score was the only significant predictor of overall survival after transplant (P = .035) but not under IS. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving chronic IS were hampered by disease recurrence or complications, impacting long-term disease-free survival. When performed in patients with a low OI score, HSCT resulted in disease resolution with better quality of life, independent of age, donor source, or conditioning regimen.

15.
Haematologica ; 103(3): 540-549, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242293

RESUMO

In patients with dysfunctions of the Ca2+ channel ORAI1, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) or integrin-regulating kindlin-3 (FERMT3), severe immunodeficiency is frequently linked to abnormal platelet activity. In this paper, we studied platelet responsiveness by multiparameter assessment of whole blood thrombus formation under high-shear flow conditions in 9 patients, including relatives, with confirmed rare genetic mutations of ORAI1, STIM1 or FERMT3. In platelets isolated from 5 out of 6 patients with ORAI1 or STIM1 mutations, store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) was either completely or partially defective compared to control platelets. Parameters of platelet adhesion and aggregation on collagen microspots were impaired for 4 out of 6 patients, in part related to a low platelet count. For 4 patients, platelet adhesion/aggregation and procoagulant activity on von Willebrand Factor (VWF)/rhodocytin and VWF/fibrinogen microspots were impaired independently of platelet count, and were partly correlated with SOCE deficiency. Measurement of thrombus formation at low shear rate confirmed a greater impairment of platelet functionality in the ORAI1 patients than in the STIM1 patient. For 3 patients/relatives with a FERMT3 mutation, all parameters of thrombus formation were strongly reduced regardless of the microspot. Bone marrow transplantation, required by 2 patients, resulted in overall improvement of platelet function. We concluded that multiparameter assessment of whole blood thrombus formation in a surface-dependent way can detect: i) additive effects of low platelet count and impaired platelet functionality; ii) aberrant ORAI1-mediated Ca2+ entry; iii) differences in platelet activation between patients carrying the same ORAI1 mutation; iv) severe platelet function impairment linked to a FERMT3 mutation and bleeding history.

17.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(8): 770-780, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936583

RESUMO

We report our experience in using flow cytometry-based immunological screening prospectively as a decision tool for the use of genetic studies in the diagnostic approach to patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). We restricted genetic analysis largely to patients with abnormal immunological screening, but included whole exome sequencing (WES) for those with normal findings upon Sanger sequencing. Among 290 children with suspected HLH analyzed between 2010 and 2014 (including 17 affected, but asymptomatic siblings), 87/162 patients with "full" HLH and 79/111 patients with "incomplete/atypical" HLH had normal immunological screening results. In 10 patients, degranulation could not be tested. Among the 166 patients with normal screening, genetic analysis was not performed in 107 (all with uneventful follow-up), while 154 single gene tests by Sanger sequencing in the remaining 59 patients only identified a single atypical CHS patient. Flow cytometry correctly predicted all 29 patients with FHL-2, XLP1 or 2. Among 85 patients with defective NK degranulation (including 13 asymptomatic siblings), 70 were Sanger sequenced resulting in a genetic diagnosis in 55 (79%). Eight patients underwent WES, revealing mutations in two known and one unknown cytotoxicity genes and one metabolic disease. FHL3 was the most frequent genetic diagnosis. Immunological screening provided an excellent decision tool for the need and depth of genetic analysis of HLH patients and provided functionally relevant information for rapid patient classification, contributing to a significant reduction in the time from diagnosis to transplantation in recent years.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Doenças Assintomáticas , Degranulação Celular , Criança , Citometria de Fluxo , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/metabolismo , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Transplante de Órgãos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Irmãos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 23(12): 2109-2120, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28930861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to adult-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), where many genetic loci have been shown to be involved in complex disease etiology, early-onset IBD (eoIBD) and associated syndromes can sometimes present as monogenic conditions. As a result, the clinical phenotype and ideal disease management in these patients often differ from those in adult-onset IBD. However, due to high costs and the complexity of data analysis, high-throughput screening for genetic causes has not yet become a standard part of the diagnostic work-up of eoIBD patients. METHODS: We selected 28 genes of interest associated with monogenic IBD and performed targeted panel sequencing in 71 patients diagnosed with eoIBD or early-onset chronic diarrhea to detect causative variants. We compared these results to whole-exome sequencing (WES) data available for 25 of these patients. RESULTS: Target coverage was significantly higher in the targeted gene panel approach compared with WES, whereas the cost of the panel was considerably lower (approximately 25% of WES). Disease-causing variants affecting protein function were identified in 5 patients (7%), located in genes of the IL10 signaling pathway (3), WAS (1), and DKC1 (1). The functional effects of 8 candidate variants in 5 additional patients (7%) are under further investigation. WES did not identify additional causative mutations in 25 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted gene panel sequencing is a fast and effective screening method for monogenic causes of eoIBD that should be routinely established in national referral centers.


Assuntos
Diarreia/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
EMBO Rep ; 18(11): 2015-2029, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893864

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) belongs to the enigmatic class of BEACH domain-containing proteins, which have been attributed various cellular functions, typically involving intracellular protein and membrane transport processes. Here, we show that LRBA deficiency in mice leads to progressive sensorineural hearing loss. In LRBA knockout mice, inner and outer hair cell stereociliary bundles initially develop normally, but then partially degenerate during the second postnatal week. LRBA deficiency is associated with a reduced abundance of radixin and Nherf2, two adaptor proteins, which are important for the mechanical stability of the basal taper region of stereocilia. Our data suggest that due to the loss of structural integrity of the central parts of the hair bundle, the hair cell receptor potential is reduced, resulting in a loss of cochlear sensitivity and functional loss of the fraction of spiral ganglion neurons with low spontaneous firing rates. Clinical data obtained from two human patients with protein-truncating nonsense or frameshift mutations suggest that LRBA deficiency may likewise cause syndromic sensorineural hearing impairment in humans, albeit less severe than in our mouse model.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Estereocílios/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/deficiência , Adulto , Animais , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/patologia , Audição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Transdução de Sinais , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/metabolismo , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/patologia , Estereocílios/patologia
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