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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3615, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399598

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have provided evidence for inherited genetic predisposition to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying CLL risk we analyze chromatin accessibility, active regulatory elements marked by H3K27ac, and DNA methylation at 42 risk loci in up to 486 primary CLLs. We identify that risk loci are significantly enriched for active chromatin in CLL with evidence of being CLL-specific or differentially regulated in normal B-cell development. We then use in situ promoter capture Hi-C, in conjunction with gene expression data to reveal likely target genes of the risk loci. Candidate target genes are enriched for pathways related to B-cell development such as MYC and BCL2 signalling. At 14 loci the analysis highlights 63 variants as the probable functional basis of CLL risk. By integrating genetic and epigenetic information our analysis reveals novel insights into the relationship between inherited predisposition and the regulatory chromatin landscape of CLL.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Cromatina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição
2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(D1): D941-D947, 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371878

RESUMO

COSMIC, the Catalogue Of Somatic Mutations In Cancer (https://cancer.sanger.ac.uk) is the most detailed and comprehensive resource for exploring the effect of somatic mutations in human cancer. The latest release, COSMIC v86 (August 2018), includes almost 6 million coding mutations across 1.4 million tumour samples, curated from over 26 000 publications. In addition to coding mutations, COSMIC covers all the genetic mechanisms by which somatic mutations promote cancer, including non-coding mutations, gene fusions, copy-number variants and drug-resistance mutations. COSMIC is primarily hand-curated, ensuring quality, accuracy and descriptive data capture. Building on our manual curation processes, we are introducing new initiatives that allow us to prioritize key genes and diseases, and to react more quickly and comprehensively to new findings in the literature. Alongside improvements to the public website and data-download systems, new functionality in COSMIC-3D allows exploration of mutations within three-dimensional protein structures, their protein structural and functional impacts, and implications for druggability. In parallel with COSMIC's deep and broad variant coverage, the Cancer Gene Census (CGC) describes a curated catalogue of genes driving every form of human cancer. Currently describing 719 genes, the CGC has recently introduced functional descriptions of how each gene drives disease, summarized into the 10 cancer Hallmarks.

3.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14175, 2017 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165464

RESUMO

Several chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) susceptibility loci have been reported; however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies, imputed using a merged reference panel of 1,000 Genomes and UK10K data, totalling 6,200 cases and 17,598 controls after replication. We identify nine risk loci at 1p36.11 (rs34676223, P=5.04 × 10-13), 1q42.13 (rs41271473, P=1.06 × 10-10), 4q24 (rs71597109, P=1.37 × 10-10), 4q35.1 (rs57214277, P=3.69 × 10-8), 6p21.31 (rs3800461, P=1.97 × 10-8), 11q23.2 (rs61904987, P=2.64 × 10-11), 18q21.1 (rs1036935, P=3.27 × 10-8), 19p13.3 (rs7254272, P=4.67 × 10-8) and 22q13.33 (rs140522, P=2.70 × 10-9). These new and established risk loci map to areas of active chromatin and show an over-representation of transcription factor binding for the key determinants of B-cell development and immune response.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Adulto , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Rep ; 7: 41071, 2017 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28112199

RESUMO

B-cell malignancies (BCM) originate from the same cell of origin, but at different maturation stages and have distinct clinical phenotypes. Although genetic risk variants for individual BCMs have been identified, an agnostic, genome-wide search for shared genetic susceptibility has not been performed. We explored genome-wide association studies of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, N = 1,842), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, N = 1,465) and multiple myeloma (MM, N = 3,790). We identified a novel pleiotropic risk locus at 3q22.2 (NCK1, rs11715604, P = 1.60 × 10-9) with opposing effects between CLL (P = 1.97 × 10-8) and HL (P = 3.31 × 10-3). Eight established non-HLA risk loci showed pleiotropic associations. Within the HLA region, Ser37 + Phe37 in HLA-DRB1 (P = 1.84 × 10-12) was associated with increased CLL and HL risk (P = 4.68 × 10-12), and reduced MM risk (P = 1.12 × 10-2), and Gly70 in HLA-DQB1 (P = 3.15 × 10-10) showed opposing effects between CLL (P = 3.52 × 10-3) and HL (P = 3.41 × 10-9). By integrating eQTL, Hi-C and ChIP-seq data, we show that the pleiotropic risk loci are enriched for B-cell regulatory elements, as well as an over-representation of binding of key B-cell transcription factors. These data identify shared biological pathways influencing the development of CLL, HL and MM. The identification of these risk loci furthers our understanding of the aetiological basis of BCMs.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença de Hodgkin/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
5.
Blood ; 128(19): 2319-2326, 2016 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27528712

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can be familial; however, thus far no rare germ line disruptive alleles for CLL have been identified. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 66 CLL families, identifying 4 families where loss-of-function mutations in protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) co-segregated with CLL. The p.Tyr36Cys mutation is predicted to disrupt the interaction between POT1 and the telomeric overhang. The c.1164-1G>A splice-site, p.Gln358SerfsTer13 frameshift, and p.Gln376Arg missense mutations are likely to impact the interaction between POT1 and adrenocortical dysplasia homolog (ACD), which is a part of the telomere-capping shelterin complex. We also identified mutations in ACD (c.752-2A>C) and another shelterin component, telomeric repeat binding factor 2, interacting protein (p.Ala104Pro and p.Arg133Gln), in 3 CLL families. In a complementary analysis of 1083 cases and 5854 controls, the POT1 p.Gln376Arg variant, which has a global minor allele frequency of 0.0005, conferred a 3.61-fold increased risk of CLL (P = .009). This study further highlights telomere dysregulation as a key process in CLL development.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Homeostase do Telômero , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/química
6.
Cell Rep ; 16(8): 2061-2067, 2016 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27524613

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an adult B cell malignancy. Genome-wide association studies show that variation at 15q15.1 influences CLL risk. We deciphered the causal variant at 15q15.1 and the mechanism by which it influences tumorigenesis. We imputed all possible genotypes across the locus and then mapped highly associated SNPs to areas of chromatin accessibility, evolutionary conservation, and transcription factor binding. SNP rs539846 C>A, the most highly associated variant (p = 1.42 × 10(-13), odds ratio = 1.35), localizes to a super-enhancer defined by extensive histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation in intron 3 of B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-modifying factor (BMF). The rs539846-A risk allele alters a conserved RELA-binding motif, disrupts RELA binding, and is associated with decreased BMF expression in CLL. These findings are consistent with rs539846 influencing CLL susceptibility through differential RELA binding, with direct modulation of BMF expression impacting on anti-apoptotic BCL2, a hallmark of oncogenic dependency in CLL.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Alelos , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Razão de Chances , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Risco , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
7.
Blood ; 128(19): 2319-2326, 2016 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654069

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can be familial; however, thus far no rare germ line disruptive alleles for CLL have been identified. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 66 CLL families, identifying 4 families where loss-of-function mutations in protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) co-segregated with CLL. The p.Tyr36Cys mutation is predicted to disrupt the interaction between POT1 and the telomeric overhang. The c.1164-1G>A splice-site, p.Gln358SerfsTer13 frameshift, and p.Gln376Arg missense mutations are likely to impact the interaction between POT1 and adrenocortical dysplasia homolog (ACD), which is a part of the telomere-capping shelterin complex. We also identified mutations in ACD (c.752-2A>C) and another shelterin component, telomeric repeat binding factor 2, interacting protein (p.Ala104Pro and p.Arg133Gln), in 3 CLL families. In a complementary analysis of 1083 cases and 5854 controls, the POT1 p.Gln376Arg variant, which has a global minor allele frequency of 0.0005, conferred a 3.61-fold increased risk of CLL (P = .009). This study further highlights telomere dysregulation as a key process in CLL development.

8.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6178, 2015 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25695508

RESUMO

Multiple regulatory elements distant from their targets on the linear genome can influence the expression of a single gene through chromatin looping. Chromosome conformation capture implemented in Hi-C allows for genome-wide agnostic characterization of chromatin contacts. However, detection of functional enhancer-promoter interactions is precluded by its effective resolution that is determined by both restriction fragmentation and sensitivity of the experiment. Here we develop a capture Hi-C (cHi-C) approach to allow an agnostic characterization of these physical interactions on a genome-wide scale. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with complex diseases often reside within regulatory elements and exert effects through long-range regulation of gene expression. Applying this cHi-C approach to 14 colorectal cancer risk loci allows us to identify key long-range chromatin interactions in cis and trans involving these loci.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pareamento de Bases/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Fatores de Risco , Estatística como Assunto
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(30): E3043-52, 2014 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25024173

RESUMO

Collagen XVIII is an evolutionary conserved ubiquitously expressed basement membrane proteoglycan produced in three isoforms via two promoters (P). Here, we assess the function of the N-terminal, domain of unknown function/frizzled-like sequences unique to medium/long collagen XVIII by creating P-specific null mice. P2-null mice, which only produce short collagen XVIII, developed reduced bulk-adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and hypertriglyceridemia. These abnormalities did not develop in P1-null mice, which produce medium/long collagen XVIII. White adipose tissue samples from P2-null mice contain larger reserves of a cell population enriched in early adipocyte progenitors; however, their embryonic fibroblasts had ∼ 50% lower adipocyte differentiation potential. Differentiating 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into mature adipocytes produced striking increases in P2 gene-products and dramatic falls in P1-transcribed mRNA, whereas Wnt3a-induced dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes produced reciprocal changes in P1 and P2 transcript levels. P2-derived gene-products containing frizzled-like sequences bound the potent adipogenic inhibitor, Wnt10b, in vitro. Previously, we have shown that these same sequences bind Wnt3a, inhibiting Wnt3a-mediated signaling. P2-transcript levels in visceral fat were positively correlated with serum free fatty acid levels, suggesting that collagen α1 (XVIII) expression contributes to regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in visceral obesity. Medium/long collagen XVIII is deposited in the Space of Disse, and interaction between hepatic apolipoprotein E and this proteoglycan is lost in P2-null mice. These results describe a previously unidentified extracellular matrix-directed mechanism contributing to the control of the multistep adipogenic program that determines the number of precursors committing to adipocyte differentiation, the maintenance of the differentiated state, and the physiological consequences of its impairment on ectopic fat deposition.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Colágeno Tipo XVIII/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Animais , Colágeno Tipo XVIII/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia
10.
Nat Genet ; 46(1): 56-60, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24292274

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of CLL. To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with a published GWAS totaling 1,739 individuals with CLL (cases) and 5,199 controls with validation in an additional 1,144 cases and 3,151 controls. A combined analysis identified new susceptibility loci mapping to 3q26.2 (rs10936599, P = 1.74 × 10(-9)), 4q26 (rs6858698, P = 3.07 × 10(-9)), 6q25.2 (IPCEF1, rs2236256, P = 1.50 × 10(-10)) and 7q31.33 (POT1, rs17246404, P = 3.40 × 10(-8)). Additionally, we identified a promising association at 5p15.33 (CLPTM1L, rs31490, P = 1.72 × 10(-7)) and validated recently reported putative associations at 5p15.33 (TERT, rs10069690, P = 1.12 × 10(-10)) and 8q22.3 (rs2511714, P = 2.90 × 10(-9)). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CLL.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3 , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Recombinação Genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética
11.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 55(1): 160-7, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23647060

RESUMO

To evaluate the contribution of association studies of candidate polymorphisms to inherited predisposition to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published case-control studies. We identified 36 studies which reported on polymorphic variation in 19 genes and CLL risk. Out of the 23 polymorphic variants, significant associations (p < 0.05) were seen in pooled analyses for only four variants: MDR1, rs1045642; LTA, rs2239704; CD38, rs6449182; and IFNGR1, rs4896243. These findings should be interpreted cautiously, as the estimated false positive report probabilities (FPRPs) for each association were not noteworthy (i.e. FPRP > 0.2). While studies of candidate polymorphisms may be an attractive means of identifying risk factors for CLL, the limited power of published studies to demonstrate statistically significant associations makes it essential that future analyses be based on sample sizes well-powered to identify variants having modest effects on CLL risk.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Apoptose/genética , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA/genética , Humanos , Imunidade , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo Genético , Risco
12.
J Lipid Res ; 54(12): 3491-505, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24103848

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the core biological processes perturbed in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) patients. Annotation of FCHL and control microarray datasets revealed a distinctive FCHL transcriptome, characterized by gene expression changes regulating five overlapping systems: the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix; vesicular trafficking; lipid homeostasis; and cell cycle and apoptosis. Expression values for the cell-cycle inhibitor CDKN2B were increased, replicating data from an independent FCHL cohort. In 3T3-L1 cells, CDKN2B knockdown induced C/EBPα expression and lipid accumulation. The minor allele at SNP site rs1063192 (C) was predicted to create a perfect seed for the human miRNA-323b-5p. A miR-323b-5p mimic significantly reduced endogenous CDKN2B protein levels and the activity of a CDKN2B 3'UTR luciferase reporter carrying the rs1063192 C allele. Although the allele displayed suggestive evidence of association with reduced CDKN2B mRNA in the MuTHER adipose tissue dataset, family studies suggest the association between increased CDKN2B expression and FCHL-lipid abnormalities is driven by factors external to this gene locus. In conclusion, from a comparative annotation analysis of two separate FCHL adipose tissue transcriptomes and a subsequent focus on CDKN2B, we propose that dysfunctional adipogenesis forms an integral part of FCHL pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hiperlipidemia Familiar Combinada/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia/genética , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Ciclo Celular/genética , Células HEK293 , Haplótipos , Humanos , Hiperlipidemia Familiar Combinada/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 792: 293-308, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24014302

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common lymphoid malignancy in Western countries, accounting for around a quarter of all leukaemias. Despite a strong familial basis to CLL, with risks in first-degree relatives of CLL cases being increased around sevenfold, the inherited genetic basis of CLL is currently largely unknown. The failure of genetic studies of CLL families to provide support for a major disease-causing locus has suggested a model of susceptibility based on the co-inheritance of multiple low-risk variants, some of which will be common. Recent genome-wide association studies of CLL have vindicated this model of inherited susceptibility to CLL, identifying common variants at multiple independent loci influencing risk. Here we review the evidence for inherited genetic predisposition to CLL and what the currently identified risk loci are telling us about the biology of CLL development.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/etiologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia
14.
Br J Haematol ; 162(2): 221-8, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23668599

RESUMO

Recent multi-stage genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are robustly associated with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) risk. Given that most of these SNPs map to non-coding regions of the genome, it suggests that the functional basis of many GWAS signals will be through differential gene expression. By referencing publically accessible expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on lymphoblastoid cells lines (LCLs) we have globally demonstrated an association between GWAS P-values and eQTLs, consistent with much of the variation in CLL risk being defined by variants impacting on gene expression. To explore using eQTL data to select GWAS SNPs for replication, we genotyped rs2072135 (GWAS P-value = 0·0024, eQTL P-value = 1·510(-19)) in five independent case-control series totalling 1968 cases and 3538 controls. While not attaining statistical significance (combined P-value = 1 × 10(-4)), rs2072135 defines a promising risk locus for CLL. Incorporating eQTL information offers an attractive strategy for selecting SNPs from GWAS for validation.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Penetrância , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
15.
Genome Res ; 22(6): 1144-53, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22399572

RESUMO

Genomic inversions are an increasingly recognized source of genetic variation. However, a lack of reliable high-throughput genotyping assays for these structures has precluded a full understanding of an inversion's phylogenetic, phenotypic, and population genetic properties. We characterize these properties for one of the largest polymorphic inversions in man (the ∼4.5-Mb 8p23.1 inversion), a structure that encompasses numerous signals of natural selection and disease association. We developed and validated a flexible bioinformatics tool that utilizes SNP data to enable accurate, high-throughput genotyping of the 8p23.1 inversion. This tool was applied retrospectively to diverse genome-wide data sets, revealing significant population stratification that largely follows a clinal "serial founder effect" distribution model. Phylogenetic analyses establish the inversion's ancestral origin within the Homo lineage, indicating that 8p23.1 inversion has occurred independently in the Pan lineage. The human inversion breakpoint was localized to an inverted pair of human endogenous retrovirus elements within the large, flanking low-copy repeats; experimental validation of this breakpoint confirmed these elements as the likely intermediary substrates that sponsored inversion formation. In five data sets, mRNA levels of disease-associated genes were robustly associated with inversion genotype. Moreover, a haplotype associated with systemic lupus erythematosus was restricted to the derived inversion state. We conclude that the 8p23.1 inversion is an evolutionarily dynamic structure that can now be accommodated into the understanding of human genetic and phenotypic diversity.


Assuntos
Inversão Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Expressão Gênica , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Pan troglodytes/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Mensageiro , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas
16.
J Lipid Res ; 52(11): 1885-926, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21862702

RESUMO

This review integrates historical biochemical and modern genetic findings that underpin our understanding of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) dyslipidemias that bear on human disease. These range from life-threatening conditions of infancy through severe coronary heart disease of young adulthood, to indolent disorders of middle- and old-age. We particularly focus on the biological aspects of those gene mutations and variants that impact on sterol absorption and hepatobiliary excretion via specific membrane transporter systems (NPC1L1, ABCG5/8); the incorporation of dietary sterols (MTP) and of de novo synthesized lipids (HMGCR, TRIB1) into apoB-containing lipoproteins (APOB) and their release into the circulation (ANGPTL3, SARA2, SORT1); and receptor-mediated uptake of LDL and of intestinal and hepatic-derived lipoprotein remnants (LDLR, APOB, APOE, LDLRAP1, PCSK9, IDOL). The insights gained from integrating the wealth of genetic data with biological processes have important implications for the classification of clinical and presymptomatic diagnoses of traditional LDL dyslipidemias, sitosterolemia, and newly emerging phenotypes, as well as their management through both nutritional and pharmaceutical means.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Esteróis/metabolismo , Absorção , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Apolipoproteínas B/genética , Apolipoproteínas B/metabolismo , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular
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