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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207218

RESUMO

Resin-based composite materials have been widely used in restorative dental materials due to their aesthetic, mechanical, and physical properties. However, they still encounter clinical shortcomings mainly due to recurrent decay that develops at the composite-tooth interface. The low-viscosity adhesive that bonds the composite to the tooth is intended to seal this interface, but the adhesive seal is inherently defective and readily damaged by acids, enzymes, and oral fluids. Bacteria infiltrate the resulting gaps at the composite-tooth interface and bacterial by-products demineralize the tooth and erode the adhesive. These activities lead to wider and deeper gaps that provide an ideal environment for bacteria to proliferate. This complex degradation process mediated by several biological and environmental factors damages the tooth, destroys the adhesive seal, and ultimately, leads to failure of the composite restoration. This paper describes a co-tethered dual peptide-polymer system to address composite-tooth interface vulnerability. The adhesive system incorporates an antimicrobial peptide to inhibit bacterial attack and a hydroxyapatite-binding peptide to promote remineralization of damaged tooth structure. A designer spacer sequence was incorporated into each peptide sequence to not only provide a conjugation site for methacrylate (MA) monomer but also to retain active peptide conformations and enhance the display of the peptides in the material. The resulting MA-antimicrobial peptides and MA-remineralization peptides were copolymerized into dental adhesives formulations. The results on the adhesive system composed of co-tethered peptides demonstrated both strong metabolic inhibition of S. mutans and localized calcium phosphate remineralization. Overall, the result offers a reconfigurable and tunable peptide-polymer hybrid system as next-generation adhesives to address composite-tooth interface vulnerability.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Cimentos Dentários/química , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resinas Compostas/química , Resinas Compostas/farmacologia , Cimentos Dentários/farmacologia , Metacrilatos/química , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Remineralização Dentária/métodos
2.
Front Mater ; 82021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113623

RESUMO

The interfaces that biological tissues form with biomaterials are invariably defective and frequently the location where failure initiates. Characterizing the phenomena that lead to failure is confounded by several factors including heterogeneous material/tissue interfaces. To seamlessly analyze across these diverse structures presents a wealth of analytical challenges. This study aims to develop a molecular-level understanding of a peptide-functionalized adhesive/collagen hybrid biomaterial using Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometrics approach. An engineered hydroxyapatite-binding peptide (HABP) was copolymerized in dentin adhesive and dentin was demineralized to provide collagen matrices that were partially infiltrated with the peptide-functionalized adhesive. Partial infiltration led to pockets of exposed collagen-a condition that simulates defects in adhesive/dentin interfaces. The spectroscopic results indicate that co-polymerizable HABP tethered to the adhesive promoted remineralization of the defects. The spatial distribution of collagen, adhesive, and mineral as well as crystallinity of the mineral across this heterogeneous material/tissue interface was determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometrics approach. The success of this combined approach in the characterization of material/tissue interfaces stems from its ability to extract quality parameters that are related to the essential and relevant portions of the spectral data, after filtering out noise and non-relevant information. This ability is critical when it is not possible to separate components for analysis such as investigations focused on, in situ chemical characterization of interfaces. Extracting essential information from complex bio/material interfaces using data driven approaches will improve our understanding of heterogeneous material/tissue interfaces. This understanding will allow us to identify key parameters within the interfacial micro-environment that should be harnessed to develop durable biomaterials.

3.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 120: 104563, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940485

RESUMO

The mechanical performance of the dentin-adhesive interface contributes significantly to the failure of dental composite restorations. Rational material design can lead to enhanced mechanical performance, but this requires accurate characterization of the mechanical behavior at the dentin-adhesive interface. The mechanical performance of the interface is typically characterized using bond strength tests, such as the micro-tensile test. These tests are plagued by multiple limitations including large variations in the test results. The challenges associated with conventional tensile tests limit our ability to unravel the complex relationships that affect mechanical behavior at the dentin-adhesive interface. This study used the diametral compression test to overcome the challenges inherent in conventional bond strength tests. The bovine femur cortical bone tissue was considered as a surrogate material (the mineralized tissue) for human dentin. Two different adhesive formulations, which differed by means of their self-strengthening properties, were studied. The tensile behavior of the mineralized tissue, the adhesive polymer, and the bond strength of the mineralized tissue - adhesive interface was determined using the diametral compression test. The diametral compression test improved the repeatability for both the tensile and bond strength tests. The rate dependent mechanical behavior was observed for both single material and interfacial material systems. The tensile strength and bond strength of the mineralized tissue-adhesive interface was greater for the self-strengthening formulation as compared to the control.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Adesivos Teciduais , Animais , Bovinos , Resinas Compostas , Dentina , Adesivos Dentinários , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração
4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 239, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current methods in machine learning provide approaches for solving challenging, multiple constraint design problems. While deep learning and related neural networking methods have state-of-the-art performance, their vulnerability in decision making processes leading to irrational outcomes is a major concern for their implementation. With the rising antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have increasingly gained attention as novel therapeutic agents. This challenging design problem requires peptides which meet the multiple constraints of limiting drug-resistance in bacteria, preventing secondary infections from imbalanced microbial flora, and avoiding immune system suppression. AMPs offer a promising, bioinspired design space to targeting antimicrobial activity, but their versatility also requires the curated selection from a combinatorial sequence space. This space is too large for brute-force methods or currently known rational design approaches outside of machine learning. While there has been progress in using the design space to more effectively target AMP activity, a widely applicable approach has been elusive. The lack of transparency in machine learning has limited the advancement of scientific knowledge of how AMPs are related among each other, and the lack of general applicability for fully rational approaches has limited a broader understanding of the design space. METHODS: Here we combined an evolutionary method with rough set theory, a transparent machine learning approach, for designing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Our method achieves the customization of AMPs using supervised learning boundaries. Our system employs in vitro bacterial assays to measure fitness, codon-representation of peptides to gain flexibility of sequence selection in DNA-space with a genetic algorithm and machine learning to further accelerate the process. RESULTS: We use supervised machine learning and a genetic algorithm to find a peptide active against S. epidermidis, a common bacterial strain for implant infections, with an improved aggregation propensity average for an improved ease of synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that AMP design can be customized to maintain activity and simplify production. To our knowledge, this is the first time when codon-based genetic algorithms combined with rough set theory methods is used for computational search on peptide sequences.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros
5.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 113: 104135, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160267

RESUMO

Resin-based composite has overtaken dental amalgam as the most popular material for the repair of lost or damaged tooth structure. In spite of the popularity, the average composite lifetime is about half that of amalgam restorations. The leading cause of composite-restoration failure is decay at the margin where the adhesive is applied. The adhesive is intended to seal the composite/tooth interface, but the adhesive seal to dentin is fragile and readily degraded by acids, enzymes and other oral fluids. The inherent weakness of this material system is attributable to several factors including the lack of antimicrobial properties, remineralization capabilities and durable mechanical performance - elements that are central to the integrity of the adhesive/dentin (a/d) interfacial seal. Our approach to this problem offers a transition from a hybrid to a biohybrid structure. Discrete peptides are tethered to polymers to provide multi-bio-functional adhesive formulations that simultaneously achieve antimicrobial and remineralization properties. The bio-additive materials design combines several functional properties with the goal of providing an adhesive that will serve as a durable barrier to recurrent decay at the composite/tooth interface. This article provides an overview of our multi-faceted approach which uses peptides tethered to polymers and new polymer chemistries to achieve the next generation adhesive system - an adhesive that provides antimicrobial properties, repair of defective dentin and enhanced mechanical performance.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Colagem Dentária , Resinas Compostas , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Dentina , Cimentos de Resina
6.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932724

RESUMO

The inherent degradation property of most dental resins in the mouth leads to the long-term release of degradation by-products at the adhesive/tooth interface. The by-products increase the virulence of cariogenic bacteria, provoking a degradative positive-feedback loop that leads to physicochemical and mechanical failure. Photoinduced free-radical polymerization and sol‒gel reactions have been coupled to produce a novel autonomous-strengthening adhesive with enhanced hydrolytic stability. This paper investigates the effect of network structure on time-dependent mechanical properties in adhesives with and without autonomous strengthening. Stress relaxation was conducted under 0.2% strain for 8 h followed by 40 h recovery in water. The stress‒time relationship is analyzed by nonlinear least-squares data-fitting. The fitted Prony series predicts the sample's history under monotonic loading. Results showed that the control failed after the first loading‒unloading‒recovery cycle with permanent deformation. While for the experimental sample, the displacement was almost completely recovered and the Young's modulus increased significantly after the first test cycle. The experimental polymer exhibited higher degree of conversion, lower leachate, and time-dependent stiffening characteristics. The autonomous-strengthening reaction persists in the aqueous environment leading to a network with enhanced resistance to deformation. The results illustrate a rational approach for tuning the viscoelasticity of durable dental adhesives.

7.
J Dent ; 99: 103405, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study explored hydrophilic dyes as photosensitizers for application in dental adhesives. The goal was to identify dyes that enhance the degree of conversion (DC) of the hydrophilic-rich phase without impairing polymerization of the hydrophobic-rich phase. METHODS: Properties that were investigated included the molar extinction coefficient at 480 nm, relative normalized photon absorption efficiency (PAE), rate of polymerization and degree of conversion (DC). The following hydrophilic dyes: Bromophenol blue sodium salt, Rosebengal sodium salt, Erythrosin B, New Fuchsin and Victoria blue B were identified as suitable photosensitizers. RESULTS: In this study it was observed that dyes such as Bromophenol blue sodium salt, New Fuchsin, Victoria blue B and Rosebengal sodium salt were suitable candidates for dental adhesive photopolymerization, leading to substantial degree of conversion to both the hydrophilic-rich phase and the hydrophobic-rich phase. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the ability of the photosensitizer to absorb light in the visible range and transition to an excited state as a result of the absorbed energy, other factors such as the efficiency of the photosensitizer/light curing unit (LCU) combination, stability/efficiency of the excited state of the photosensitizer and/or initiating reactive species play an important role in the photopolymerization of the dental adhesive.


Assuntos
Corantes , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Cimentos Dentários , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cura Luminosa de Adesivos Dentários , Teste de Materiais , Polimerização
8.
Dent Mater ; 36(2): 284-295, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new synthesized multifunctional monomer, aminosilane functionalized methacrylate (ASMA), containing polymerizable methacrylate, tertiary amine, and methoxysilane functionalities in dental adhesive formulations, and to investigate the polymerization kinetics, leachates, thermal and mechanical properties of copolymers. METHODS: Adhesive contained HEMA/BisGMA (45/55, w/w) was used as a control, and mixtures based on HEMA/BisGMA/ASMA at the mass ratio of 45/(55-x)/x were used as experimental adhesive. Adhesives were characterized with regard to water miscibility, photo-polymerization behavior (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIR), leached co-monomers (high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC), thermal properties (modulated differential scanning calorimeter, MDSC), and mechanical properties (dynamic mechanical analyzer, DMA). Stress relaxation times and the corresponding moduli, obtained from stress relaxation tests, are used in a simulated linear loading case. RESULTS: As compared to the control, ASMA-containing adhesives showed higher water miscibility, lower viscosity, improved monomer-to-polymer conversion, significantly greater Tg and rubbery modulus. HPLC results indicated a substantial reduction of leached HEMA (up to 85wt%) and BisGMA (up to 55wt%) in ethanol. The simulation reveals that the ASMA-containing adhesive becomes substantially stiffer than the control. SIGNIFICANCE: ASMA monomer plays multiple roles, i.e. it serves as both a co-initiator and crosslinker while also providing autonomous strengthening and enhanced hydrolytic stability in the adhesive formulations. This multifunctional monomer offers significant promise for improving the durability of the adhesive at the composite/tooth interface.


Assuntos
Cimentos Dentários , Metacrilatos , Hidrólise , Teste de Materiais , Polimerização
9.
ACS Appl Polym Mater ; 2(3): 1134-1144, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834166

RESUMO

Bacterial adhesion and growth at the composite/adhesive/tooth interface remain the primary cause of dental composite restoration failure. Early colonizers, including Streptococcus mutans, play a critical role in the formation of dental caries by creating an environment that reduces the adhesive's integrity. Subsequently, other bacterial species, biofilm formation, and lactic acid from S. mutans demineralize the adjoining tooth. Because of their broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and low risk for antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have received significant attention to prevent bacterial biofilms. Harnessing the potential of AMPs is still very limited in dentistry-a few studies have explored peptide-enabled antimicrobial adhesive copolymer systems using mainly nonspecific adsorption. In the current investigation, to avoid limitations from nonspecific adsorption and to prevent potential peptide leakage out of the resin, we conjugated an AMP with a commonly used monomer for dental adhesive formulation. To tailor the flexibility between the peptide and the resin material, we designed two different spacer domains. The spacer-integrated antimicrobial peptides were conjugated to methacrylate (MA), and the resulting MA-AMP monomers were next copolymerized into dental adhesives as AMP-polymer conjugates. The resulting bioactivity of the polymethacrylate-based AMP conjugated matrix activity was investigated. The antimicrobial peptide conjugated to the resin matrix demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Secondary structure analyses of conjugated peptides were applied to understand the activity differential. When mechanical properties of the adhesive system were investigated with respect to AMP and cross-linking concentration, resulting AMP-polymer conjugates maintained higher compressive moduli compared to hydrogel analogues including polyHEMA. Overall, our result provides a robust approach to develop a fine-tuned bioenabled peptide adhesive system with improved mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity. The results of this study represent a critical step toward the development of peptide-conjugated dentin adhesives for treatment of secondary caries and the enhanced durability of dental composite restorations.

10.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 107(8): 2673-2683, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895695

RESUMO

Nearly 100 million of the 170 million composite and amalgam restorations placed annually in the United States are replacements for failed restorations. The primary reason both composite and amalgam restorations fail is recurrent decay, for which composite restorations experience a 2.0-3.5-fold increase compared to amalgam. Recurrent decay is a pernicious problem-the standard treatment is replacement of defective composites with larger restorations that will also fail, initiating a cycle of ever-larger restorations that can lead to root canals, and eventually, to tooth loss. Unlike amalgam, composite lacks the inherent capability to seal discrepancies at the restorative material/tooth interface. The low-viscosity adhesive that bonds the composite to the tooth is intended to seal the interface, but the adhesive degrades, which can breach the composite/tooth margin. Bacteria and bacterial by-products such as acids and enzymes infiltrate the marginal gaps and the composite's inability to increase the interfacial pH facilitates cariogenic and aciduric bacterial outgrowth. Together, these characteristics encourage recurrent decay, pulpal damage, and composite failure. This review article examines key biological and physicochemical interactions involved in the failure of composite restorations and discusses innovative strategies to mitigate the negative effects of pathogens at the adhesive/dentin interface. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B:2466-2475, 2019.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Materiais Dentários , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Dentina , Adesivos/química , Adesivos/uso terapêutico , Materiais Dentários/química , Materiais Dentários/uso terapêutico , Dentina/química , Dentina/metabolismo , Humanos
11.
Acta Biomater ; 83: 130-139, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366133

RESUMO

Resin-based composite has overtaken dental amalgam as the most popular material for direct restorative dentistry. In spite of this popularity the clinical lifetime of composite restorations is threatened by recurrent decay. Degradation of the adhesive leads to gaps at the composite/tooth interface-bacteria, bacterial by-products and fluids infiltrate the gaps leading to recurrent decay and composite restoration failure. The durability of resin-dentin bonds is a major problem. We address this problem by synthesizing silyl-functionalized BisGMA (e.g., silyl-BisGMA), formulating dental adhesives with the new monomer and determining the physicochemical properties and leaching characteristics of the silyl-BisGMA adhesives. Silyl-BisGMA was synthesized by stoichiometric amounts of BisGMA and 3-isocyanatopropyl trimethoxysilane (IPTMS). The control adhesive was a mixture based on HEMA/BisGMA (45/55, w/w). In the experimental formulations, BisGMA was partially or completely replaced by silyl-BisGMA. Water miscibility, polymerization behavior (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIR), thermal property (modulated differential scanning calorimetry, MDSC), mechanical properties in dry and wet conditions (dynamic mechanical analysis, DMA), and leached species (HPLC) were investigated. Data from all tests were submitted to appropriate statistical analysis (α = 0.05). Silyl-BisGMA-containing adhesives exhibited comparable water miscibility, lower viscosities, and significantly improved degree of conversion of CC bond as compared to the control. After 4 weeks aqueous aging, the glass transition temperature and rubbery moduli of the experimental copolymers were significantly greater than the control (p < 0.05). HPLC results indicated a substantial reduction of leached HEMA (up to 99 wt%) and BisGMA (up to 90 wt%). By introducing silyl-functional group, the new BisGMA derivative exhibited potential as a monomer that can lead to dental adhesives with improved mechanical properties and reduced leaching under conditions relevant to the oral environment. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The low-viscosity adhesive that bonds the composite to the tooth (enamel and dentin) is intended to seal and stabilize the composite/tooth interface, but it degrades leading to a breach at the composite/tooth margin. As the most popular crosslinking monomer in adhesives, Bisphenol A-glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) has limitations, e.g. susceptible to hydrolysis and concomitant property degradation. A methoxysilyl-functionalized BisGMA derivative (silyl-BisGMA) was introduced in this work to respond to these limitations. Our results indicated that by introducing silyl-BisGMA, higher crosslinked networks were obtained without sacrificing the homogeneity, and the leached amount of HEMA was reduced up to 99%. This novel resin offers potential benefits including prolonging the functional lifetime of dental resin materials.


Assuntos
Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato/química , Cimentos Dentários/química
12.
Appl Sci (Basel) ; 9(3)2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542835

RESUMO

The most common cause for dental composite failures is secondary caries due to invasive bacterial colonization of the adhesive/dentin (a/d) interface. Innate material weakness often lead to an insufficient seal between the adhesive and dentin. Consequently, bacterial by-products invade the porous a/d interface leading to material degradation and dental caries. Current approaches to achieve antibacterial properties in these materials continue to raise concerns regarding hypersensitivity and antibiotic resistance. Herein, we have developed a multi-faceted, bio-functionalized approach to overcome the vulnerability of such interfaces. An antimicrobial adhesive formulation was designed using a combination of antimicrobial peptide and a ε-polylysine resin system. Effector molecules boasting innate immunity are brought together with a biopolymer offering a two-fold biomimetic design approach. The selection of ε-polylysine was inspired due to its non-toxic nature and common use as food preservative. Biomolecular characterization and functional activity of our engineered dental adhesive formulation were assessed and the combinatorial formulation demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans. Our antimicrobial peptide-hydrophilic adhesive hybrid system design offers advanced, biofunctional properties at the critical a/d interface.

13.
Biointerphases ; 13(6): 061004, 2018 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558430

RESUMO

Dentin adhesive systems for composite tooth restorations are composed of hydrophilic/hydrophobic monomers, solvents, and photoinitiators. The adhesives undergo phase separation and concomitant compositional change during their application in the wet oral environment; phase separation compromises the quality of the hybrid layer in the adhesive/dentin interface. In this work, the adhesive composition in the hybrid layer can be represented using the phase boundaries of a ternary phase diagram for the hydrophobic monomer/hydrophilic monomer/water system. The polymer phases, previously unaccounted for, play an important role in determining the mechanical behavior of the bulk adhesive, and the chemomechanical properties of the phases are intimately related to the effects produced by differences in the hydrophobic-hydrophilic composition. As the composition of the polymer phases varies from hydrophobic-rich to hydrophilic-rich, the amount of the adsorbed water and the nature of polymer-water interaction vary nonlinearly and strongly correlate with the change in elastic moduli under wet conditions. The failure strain, loss modulus, and glass transition temperature vary nonmonotonically with composition and are explained based upon primary and secondary transitions observed in dynamic mechanical testing. Due to the variability in composition, the assignment of mechanical properties and the choice of suitable constitutive models for polymer phases in the hybrid layer are not straightforward. This work investigates the relationship between composition and chemomechanical properties of the polymer phases formed on the water-adhesive phase boundary using quasistatic and dynamic mechanical testing, mass transfer experiments, and vibrational spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Cimentos Dentários/química , Cimentos Dentários/farmacologia , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/farmacologia , Fenômenos Químicos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 19(1): 469, 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides attract considerable interest as novel agents to combat infections. Their long-time potency across bacteria, viruses and fungi as part of diverse innate immune systems offers a solution to overcome the rising concerns from antibiotic resistance. With the rapid increase of antimicrobial peptides reported in the databases, peptide selection becomes a challenge. We propose similarity analyses to describe key properties that distinguish between active and non-active peptide sequences building upon the physicochemical properties of antimicrobial peptides. We used an iterative supervised machine learning approach to classify active peptides from inactive peptides with low false discovery rates in a relatively short computational search time. RESULTS: By generating explicit boundaries, our method defines new categories of active and inactive peptides based on their physicochemical properties. Consequently, it describes physicochemical characteristics of similarity among active peptides and the physicochemical boundaries between active and inactive peptides in a single process. To build the similarity boundaries, we used the rough set theory approach; to our knowledge, this is the first time that this approach has been used to classify peptides. The modified rough set theory method limits the number of values describing a boundary to a user-defined limit. Our method is optimized for specificity over selectivity. Noting that false positives increase activity assays while false negatives only increase computational search time, our method provided a low false discovery rate. Published datasets were used to compare our rough set theory method to other published classification methods and based on this comparison, we achieved high selectivity and comparable sensitivity to currently available methods. CONCLUSIONS: We developed rule sets that define physicochemical boundaries which allow us to directly classify the active sequences from inactive peptides. Existing classification methods are either sequence-order insensitive or length-dependent, whereas our method generates the rule sets that combine order-sensitive descriptors with length-independent descriptors. The method provides comparable or improved performance to currently available methods. Discovering the boundaries of physicochemical properties may lead to a new understanding of peptide similarity.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/classificação , Fenômenos Químicos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares
15.
Dent Mater ; 34(11): 1652-1660, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the effect of lysine integration to dental adhesives with respect to the polymerization kinetics, neutralization capacities in the acidic microenvironment, dynamic mechanical properties, and thermal properties. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Lysine was incorporated into liquid resin formulations at 2.5 and 5.0wt % with additional water/ethanol co-solvents. The co-monomer system contained 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA) and Bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) with a mass ratio of 45/55. The kinetics of photopolymerization, neutralization capacities, lysine-leaching, dynamic mechanical properties and thermal properties of the control and experimental adhesives were analyzed. RESULTS: The degree of conversion of the experimental adhesive was increased substantially at 2.5wt% lysine as compared to the control. The experimental polymers provided acute neutralization of the acidic microenvironment. Approximately half of the lysine was released from the polymer network within one month. Under dry conditions and physiologic temperatures, the incorporation of lysine did not compromise the storage modulus. Comparison of the thermal properties suggests that the more compact structure of the control adhesive inhibits movement of the polymer chains resulting in increased Tg. SIGNIFICANCE: Incorporating lysine in the adhesive formulations led to promising results regarding modulating pH, which may serve as one aspect of a multi-spectrum approach for enhancing the durability of composite restorations. The results provide insight and lay a foundation for incorporating amino acids or peptides into adhesive formulations for pH modulation or desired bioactivity at the interfacial margin between the composite and tooth.


Assuntos
Cimentos Dentários/química , Lisina/química , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato/química , Etanol/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Teste de Materiais , Metacrilatos/química , Polimerização , Polímeros/química
16.
Acta Biomater ; 67: 111-121, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229545

RESUMO

Ingress of bacteria and fluids at the interfacial gaps between the restorative composite biomaterial and the tooth structure contribute to recurrent decay and failure of the composite restoration. The inability of the material to increase the pH at the composite/tooth interface facilitates the outgrowth of bacteria. Neutralizing the microenvironment at the tooth/composite interface offers promise for reducing the damage provoked by cariogenic and aciduric bacteria. We address this problem by designing a dental adhesive composed of hybrid network to provide buffering and autonomous strengthening simultaneously. Two amino functional silanes, 2-hydroxy-3-morpholinopropyl (3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl) carbamate and 2-hydroxy-3-morpholinopropyl (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl) carbamate were synthesized and used as co-monomers. Combining free radical initiated polymerization (polymethacrylate-based network) and photoacid-induced sol-gel reaction (polysiloxane) results in the hybrid network formation. Resulting formulations were characterized with regard to real-time photo-polymerization, water sorption, leached species, neutralization, and mechanical properties. Results from real-time FTIR spectroscopic studies indicated that ethoxy was less reactive than methoxy substituent. The neutralization results demonstrated that the methoxy-containing adhesives have acute and delayed buffering capabilities. The mechanical properties of synthetic copolymers tested in dry conditions were improved via condensation reaction of the hydrolyzed organosilanes. The leaching from methoxy containing copolymers was significantly reduced. The sol-gel reaction provided a chronic and persistent reaction in wet condition-performance that offers potential for reducing secondary decay and increasing the functional lifetime of dental adhesives. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The interfacial gaps between the restorative composite biomaterial and the tooth structure contributes to recurrent decay and failure of the composite restoration. The inability of the material to increase the pH at the composite/tooth interface facilitates the outgrowth of more cariogenic and aciduric bacteria. This paper reports a novel, synthetic resin that provides buffering capability and autonomous strengthening characteristics. In this work, two amino functional silanes were synthesized and the effect of alkoxy substitutions on the photoacid-induced sol-gel reaction was investigated. We evaluated the neutralization capability (monitoring the pH of lactic acid solution) and the autonomous strengthening property (monitoring the mechanical properties of the hybrid copolymers under wet conditions and quantitatively analyzing the leachable species by HPLC). The novel resin investigated in this study offers the potential benefits of reducing the risk of recurrent decay and prolonging the functional lifetime of dental adhesives.


Assuntos
Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Cimentos Dentários/química , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Tampões (Química) , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Colagem Dentária , Módulo de Elasticidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Polimerização , Silanos/química , Água/química , Molhabilidade
17.
Chem Eng Sci ; 159: 131-139, 2017 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176909

RESUMO

Dental adhesive resin undergoes phase separation during its infiltration through the wet demineralized dentin and it has been observed previously that the hydrophilic-rich phase is a vulnerable region for failure due to the lack of photo-polymerization and crosslinking density. The lack of photo-polymerization is mostly due to the partitioning of photo-initiators in low concentrations within this phase. Here, a computational approach has been employed to design candidate water compatible visible light photosensitizers which could improve the photo-polymerization of the hydrophilic-rich phase. This study is an extension of our previous work. QSPRs were developed for properties related to the photo-polymerization reaction of the adhesive monomers and hydrophilicity of the photosensitizer using connectivity indices as descriptors. QSPRs and structural constraints were formulated into an optimization problem which was solved stochastically via Tabu Search. Four candidate photosensitizer molecules have been proposed here which have the iminium ion as a common feature.

18.
Macromol Mater Eng ; 302(5)2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056869

RESUMO

Failure of dental composite restorations is primarily due to recurrent decay at the tooth-composite interface. At this interface, the adhesive and its bond with dentin is the barrier between the restored tooth and the oral environment. In vivo degradation of the bond formed at the adhesive/dentin (a/d) interface follows a cascade of events leading to weakening of the composite restoration. Here, a peptide-based approach is developed to mineralize deficient dentin matrices at the a/d interface. Peptides that have an inherent capacity to self-assemble on dentin and to induce calcium-phosphate remineralization are anchored at the interface. Distribution of adhesive, collagen, and mineral is analyzed using micro-Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The analysis demonstrates remineralization of the deficient dentin matrices achieved throughout the interface with homogeneous distribution of mineral. The peptide-based remineralization demonstrated here can be an enabling technology to design integrated biomaterial-tissue interfaces.

19.
Dent Mater ; 33(5): 564-574, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28366234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the polymerization kinetics, neutralization behavior, and mechanical properties of amine-functionalized dental adhesive cured in the presence of zwitterionic monomer, methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). METHODS: The control adhesive was a mixture based on HEMA/BisGMA/2-N-morpholinoethyl methacrylate (MEMA) (40/30/30, w/w/w). The control and experimental formulations containing MPC were characterized with regard to water miscibility of liquid resins, photopolymerization kinetics, water sorption and solubility, dynamic mechanical properties and leachables from the polymers (aged in ethanol). The neutralization behavior of the adhesives was determined by monitoring the pH of lactic acid (LA) solution. RESULTS: The water miscibility decreased with increasing MPC amount. The water sorption of experimental copolymer specimen was greater than the control. The addition of 8wt% water led to improved photo-polymerization efficiency for experimental formulations at MPC of 2.5 and 5wt%, and significant reduction in the cumulative amounts of leached HEMA, BisGMA, and MEMA, i.e. 90, 60 and 50% reduction, respectively. The neutralization rate of MPC-containing adhesive was faster than control. The optimal MPC concentration in the formulations was 5wt%. SIGNIFICANCE: Incompatibility between MEMA and MPC led to a decrease in water miscibility of the liquid resins. Water (at 8wt%) in the MPC-containing formulations (2.5-5wt% MPC) led to higher DC, faster RPmax and significant reduction in leached HEMA, BisGMA, and MEMA. The neutralization rate was enhanced with the addition of MPC in the amine-containing formulation. Promoting the neutralization capability of dentin adhesives could play an important role in reducing recurrent decay at the composite/tooth interface.


Assuntos
Cimentos Dentários , Metacrilatos , Morfolinas , Bis-Fenol A-Glicidil Metacrilato , Teste de Materiais , Polimerização , Água
20.
RSC Adv ; 6(57): 52434-52447, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27774144

RESUMO

A self-strengthening methacrylate-based dental adhesive system was developed by introducing an epoxy cyclohexyl trimethoxysilane (TS) which contains both epoxy and methoxysilyl functional groups. The experimental formulation, HEMA/BisGMA/TS (22.5/27.5/50, wt%), was polymerized by visible-light. Real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to investigate in situ the free radical polymerization of methacrylate, ring-opening cationic polymerization of epoxy, and photoacid-induced sol-gel reactions. Among the three simultaneous reactions, the reaction rate of the free radical polymerization was the highest and the hydrolysis/condensation rate was the lowest. With 40s-irradiation, the degrees of conversion of the double bond and epoxy groups at 600 s were 73.2±1.2%, 87.9±2.4%, respectively. Hydrolysis of the methoxysilyl group was initially <5%, and increased gradually to about 50% after 48 h dark storage. Photoacids generated through the visible-light-induced reaction were effective in catalyzing both epoxy ring-opening polymerization and methoxysilyl sol-gel reaction. The mechanical properties of copolymers made with TS concentrations from 5 to 35 wt% were obtained using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). In wet conditions, the storage moduli at 70 °C and glass transition temperature were significantly higher than that of the control (p<0.05); these properties increased with TS concentration and storage time. The post reaction of hydrolysis/condensation of alkoxysilane could provide persistent strengthening whether in a neutral or acidic environment and these characteristics could lead to enhanced mechanical properties in the oral environment. The cumulative amount of leached species decreased significantly in the TS-containing copolymers. These results provide valuable information for the development of dental adhesives with reduced leaching of methacrylate monomers and enhanced mechanical properties under the wet, oral environment.

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