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1.
Soft Matter ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854427

RESUMO

Biological systems have evolved sophisticated molecular assemblies capable of exquisite molecular recognition across length scales ranging from angstroms to microns. For instance, the self-organization of glycolipids and glycoproteins on cell membranes allows for molecular recognition of a diversity of ligands ranging from small molecules and proteins to viruses and whole cells. A distinguishing feature of these 2D surfaces is they achieve exceptional binding selectivity and avidity by exploiting multivalent binding interactions. Here we develop a 2D ligand display platform based on peptoid nanosheets that mimics the structure and function of the cell membrane. A variety of small-molecule lipid-conjugates were co-assembled with the peptoid chains to create a diversity of functionalized nanosheet bilayers with varying display densities. The functional heads of the lipids were shown to be surface-exposed, and the carbon tails immobilized into the hydrophobic interior. We demonstrate that saccharide-functionalized nanosheets (e.g., made from globotriaosylsphingosine or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho((ethyl-1',2',3'-triazole)triethyleneglycolmannose)) can have very diverse binding properties, exhibiting specific binding to multivalent proteins as well as to intact bacterial cells. Analysis of sugar display densities revealed that Shiga toxin 1 subunit B (a pentameric protein) and FimH-expressing Escherichia coli (E. coli) bind through the cooperative binding behavior of multiple carbohydrates. The ability to readily incorporate and display a wide variety of lipidated cargo on the surface of peptoid nanosheets makes this a convenient route to soluble, cell-surface mimetic materials. These materials hold great promise for drug screening, biosensing, bioremediation, and as a means to combat pathogens by direct physical binding through a well-defined, multivalent 2D material.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(49): 19436-19447, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765162

RESUMO

Sequence-defined peptoids, or N-substituted glycines, are an attractive class of bioispired polymer due to their biostability and efficient synthesis. However, the de novo design of folded peptoids with precise three-dimensional structures has been hindered by limited means to deterministically control backbone conformation. Peptoid folds are generally destabilized by the cis/trans backbone-amide isomerization, and few side-chains are capable of enforcing a specific amide conformation. Here, we show that a novel class of cationic alkyl ammonium ethyl side-chains demonstrates significant enforcement of the cis-amide backbone (Kcis/trans up to 70) using an unexpected ensemble of weak intramolecular CH-O and/or NH-O hydrogen bonds between the side-chain and the backbone carbonyl moieties. These interactions are evidenced by X-ray crystallography, variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations. Moreover, these side-chains are inexpensive, structurally diverse, hydrophilic, and can be integrated into longer peptoid sequences via solid-phase synthesis. Notably, we extended these concepts to synthesize a water-soluble peptoid 10-mer that adopts one predominant fold in solution, as determined by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. This decamer, to the best of our knowledge, is the longest linear peptoid sequence atomically characterized to retain a well-folded structure. These findings fill a critical gap in peptoid folding and should propel the development of peptoid applications in a broad range of contexts, from pharmaceutical to material sciences.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(45): 22491-22499, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636174

RESUMO

Rational design of supramolecular nanomaterials fundamentally depends upon an atomic-level understanding of their structure and how it responds to chemical modifications. Here we studied a series of crystalline diblock copolypeptoids by a combination of sequence-controlled synthesis, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulation. This family of amphiphilic polypeptoids formed free-floating 2-dimensional monolayer nanosheets, in which individual polymer chains and their relative orientations could be directly observed. Furthermore, bromine atom side-chain substituents in nanosheets were directly visualized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, revealing atomic details in position space inaccessible by conventional scattering techniques. While the polypeptoid backbone conformation was conserved across the set of molecules, the nanosheets exhibited different lattice packing geometries dependent on the aromatic side chain para substitutions. Peptoids are inherently achiral, yet we showed that sequences containing an asymmetric aromatic substitution pattern pack with alternating rows adopting opposite backbone chiralities. These atomic-level insights into peptoid nanosheet crystal structure provide guidance for the future design of bioinspired nanomaterials with more precisely controlled structures and properties.

4.
Biopolymers ; 110(6): e23266, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835823

RESUMO

Like polypeptides, peptoids, or N-substituted glycine oligomers, have intrinsic conformational preferences due to their amide backbones and close spacing of side chain substituents. However, the conformations that peptoids adopt are distinct from polypeptides due to several structural differences: the peptoid backbone is composed of tertiary amide bonds that have trans and cis conformers similar in energy, they lack a backbone hydrogen bond donor, and have an N-substituent. To better understand how these differences manifest in actual peptoid structures, we analyzed 46 high quality, experimentally determined peptoid structures reported in the literature to extract their backbone conformational preferences. One hundred thirty-two monomer dihedral angle pairs were compared to the calculated energy landscape for the peptoid Ramachandran plot, and were found to fall within the expected minima. Interestingly, only two regions of the backbone dihedral angles ϕ and ψ were found to be populated that are mirror images of each other. Furthermore, these two conformers are present in both cis and trans forms. Thus, there are four primary conformers that are sufficient to describe almost all known backbone conformations for peptoid oligomers, despite conformational constraints imposed by a variety of side chains, macrocyclization, or crystal packing forces. Because these conformers are predominant in peptoid structure, and are distinct from those found in protein secondary structures, we propose a simple naming system to aid in the description and classification of peptoid structure.

5.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(5): 1195-1205, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629439

RESUMO

Vesicle formation in a series of amphiphilic sequence-defined polypeptoid block co-polymers comprising a phosphonated hydrophilic block and an amorphous hydrophobic block, poly- N-(2-ethyl)hexylglycine- block-poly- N-phosphonomethylglycine (pNeh- b-pNpm), is studied. The hydrophobic/hydrophilic block ratio was varied keeping the total chain length of the co-polymers constant. A new approach for characterizing the vesicle membrane morphology based on low-dose cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is described. The individual low-dose micrographs cannot be interpreted directly due to low signal-to-noise ratio. Sorting and averaging techniques, developed in the context of protein structure determination, were thus applied to vesicle micrographs. Molecular dynamic simulations of the vesicles were used to establish the relationship between membrane morphology and averaged cryo-EM images. This approach enables resolution of the local thickness of the hydrophobic membrane core at the 1 nm length scale. The thickness of the hydrophobic core of the pNeh- b-pNpm membranes increases linearly with the length of the hydrophobic block.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(22): 5647-5651, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760077

RESUMO

The conformations adopted by the molecular constituents of a supramolecular assembly influence its large-scale order. At the same time, the interactions made in assemblies by molecules can influence their conformations. Here we study this interplay in extended flat nanosheets made from nonnatural sequence-specific peptoid polymers. Nanosheets exist because individual polymers can be linear and untwisted, by virtue of polymer backbone elements adopting alternating rotational states whose twists oppose and cancel. Using molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical simulations, together with experimental data, we explore the design space of flat nanostructures built from peptoids. We show that several sets of peptoid backbone conformations are consistent with their being linear, but the specific combination observed in experiment is determined by a combination of backbone energetics and the interactions made within the nanosheet. Our results provide a molecular model of the peptoid nanosheet consistent with all available experimental data and show that its structure results from a combination of intra- and intermolecular interactions.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Peptoides/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Polímeros , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(10): 2574-2578, 2018 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658722

RESUMO

Peptoid nanosheets are supramolecular protein-mimetic materials that form from amphiphilic polypeptoids with aromatic and ionic side chains. Nanosheets have been studied at the nanometer scale, but the molecular structure has been difficult to probe. We report the use of 13C-13C dipolar recoupling solid-state NMR measurements to reveal the configuration of backbone amide bonds selected by 13C isotopic labeling of adjacent α-carbons. Measurements on the same molecules in the amorphous state and in nanosheets revealed that amide bonds in the center of the amino block of peptoid (NaeNpe)7-(NceNpe)7 (B28) favor the trans configuration in the amorphous state and the cis configuration in the nanosheet. This unexpected result contrasts with previous NMR and theoretical studies of short solvated peptoids. Furthermore, examination of the amide bond at the junction of the two charged blocks within B28 revealed a mixture of both cis and trans configurational states, consistent with the previously predicted brickwork-like intermolecular organization.

8.
ACS Nano ; 12(3): 2652-2661, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29537817

RESUMO

Examples of long-range electronic conductivity are rare in biological systems. The observation of micrometer-scale electronic transport through protein wires produced by bacteria is therefore notable, providing an opportunity to study fundamental aspects of conduction through protein-based materials and natural inspiration for bioelectronics materials. Borrowing sequence and structural motifs from these conductive protein fibers, we designed self-assembling peptides that form electronically conductive nanofibers under aqueous conditions. Conductivity in these nanofibers is distinct for two reasons: first, they support electron transport over distances orders of magnitude greater than expected for proteins, and second, the conductivity is mediated entirely by amino acids lacking extended conjugation, π-stacking, or redox centers typical of existing organic and biohybrid semiconductors. Electrochemical transport measurements show that the fibers support ohmic electronic transport and a metallic-like temperature dependence of conductance in aqueous buffer. At higher solution concentrations, the peptide monomers form hydrogels, and comparisons of the structure and electronic properties of the nanofibers and gels highlight the critical roles of α-helical secondary structure and supramolecular ordering in supporting electronic conductivity in these materials. These findings suggest a structural basis for long-range electronic conduction mechanisms in peptide and protein biomaterials.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Nanofibras/química , Peptídeos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Biomimética , Transporte de Elétrons , Modelos Moleculares , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(2): 827-833, 2018 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309136

RESUMO

Peptoid polymers are often crystalline in the solid-state as examined by X-ray scattering, but thus far, there has been no attempt to identify a common structural motif among them. In order to probe the relationship between molecular structure and crystal structure, we synthesized and analyzed a series of crystalline peptoid copolymers, systematically varying peptoid side-chain length (S) and main-chain length (N). We also examined X-ray scattering data from 18 previously reported peptoid polymers. In all peptoids, we found that the unit cell dimensions, a, b, and c, are simple functions of S and N: a (Å) = 4.55, b (Å) = [2.98]N + 0.35, and c (Å) = [1.86]S + 5.5. These relationships, which apply to both bulk crystals and self-assembled nanosheets in water, indicate that the molecules adopt extended, planar conformations. Furthermore, we performed molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of peptoid polymer lattices, which indicate that all backbone amides adopt the cis conformation. This is a surprising conclusion, because previous studies on isolated molecules indicated an energetic preference for the trans conformer. This study demonstrates that when packed into supramolecular lattices or crystals, peptoid polymers prefer to adopt a regular, extended, all-cis secondary structure.

10.
Chem Sci ; 9(47): 8806-8813, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746115

RESUMO

Synthesis of biomimetic multimetallic clusters is sought after for applications such as efficient storage of solar energy and utilization of greenhouse gases. However, synthetic efforts are hampered by a dearth of ligands that are developed for multimetallic clusters due to current limitations in rational design and organic synthesis. Peptoids, a synthetic sequence-defined oligomer, enable a biomimetic strategy to rapidly synthesize and optimize large, multifunctional ligands by structural design and combinatorial screening. Here we discover peptoid oligomers (≤7 residues) that fold into a single conformation to provide unprecedented tetra- and hexadentate chelation by carboxylates to a [Co4O4] cubane cluster. The structures of peptoid-bound cubanes were determined by 2D NMR spectroscopy, and their structures reveal key steric and side-chain-to-main chain interactions that work in concert to rigidify the peptoid ligand. This efficient ligand design strategy holds promise for creating new scaffolds for the abiotic synthesis and manipulation of multimetallic clusters.

11.
Biochemistry ; 56(45): 6061-6071, 2017 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028351

RESUMO

The absence of high-resolution structures of amyloid oligomers constitutes a major gap in our understanding of amyloid diseases. A growing body of evidence indicates that oligomers of the ß-amyloid peptide Aß are especially important in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. In many Aß oligomers, the Aß monomer components are thought to adopt a ß-hairpin conformation. This paper describes the design and study of a macrocyclic ß-hairpin peptide derived from Aß16-36. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography studies show that the Aß16-36 ß-hairpin peptide assembles in solution to form hexamers, trimers, and dimers. X-ray crystallography reveals that the peptide assembles to form a hexamer in the crystal state and that the hexamer is composed of dimers and trimers. Lactate dehydrogenase release assays show that the oligomers formed by the Aß16-36 ß-hairpin peptide are toxic toward neuronally derived SH-SY5Y cells. Replica-exchange molecular dynamics demonstrates that the hexamer can accommodate full-length Aß. These findings expand our understanding of the structure, solution-phase behavior, and biological activity of Aß oligomers and may offer insights into the molecular basis of Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica
12.
Biochemistry ; 56(40): 5300-5308, 2017 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876052

RESUMO

Coiled coils are a robust motif for exploring amino acid interactions, generating unique supramolecular structures, and expanding the functional properties of biological materials. A recently discovered antiparallel coiled-coil hexamer (ACC-Hex, peptide 1) exhibits a unique interaction in which Phe and Ile residues from adjacent α-helices interact to form a Phe-Ile zipper within the hydrophobic core. Analysis of the X-ray crystallographic structure of ACC-Hex suggests that the stability of the six-helix bundle relies on specific interactions between the Phe and Ile residues. The Phe-Ile zipper is unprecedented and represents a powerful tool for utilizing the Phe-Ile interactions to direct supramolecular assembly. To further probe and understand the limits of the Phe-Ile zipper, we designed peptide sequences with natural and unnatural amino acids placed at the Phe and Ile residue positions. Using size exclusion chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering, we found that the proper assembly of ACC-Hex from monomers is sensitive to subtle changes in side chain steric bulk and hydrophobicity introduced by mutations at the Phe and Ile residue positions. Of the sequence variants that formed ACC-Hex, mutations in the hydrophobic core significantly affected the stability of the hexamer, from a ΔGuw of 2-8 kcal mol-1. Additional sequences were designed to further probe and enhance the stability of the ACC-Hex system by maximizing salt bridging between the solvent-exposed residues. Finally, we expanded on the generality of the Phe-Ile zipper, creating a unique sequence that forms an antiparallel hexamer that is topologically similar to ACC-Hex but atomistically unique.


Assuntos
Isoleucina , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fenilalanina , Multimerização Proteica , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Peptídeos/genética , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Estabilidade Proteica , Solventes/química
13.
ACS Nano ; 11(9): 8579-8589, 2017 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771324

RESUMO

Determining the structural origins of amyloid fibrillation is essential for understanding both the pathology of amyloidosis and the rational design of inhibitors to prevent or reverse amyloid formation. In this work, the decisive roles of peptide structures on amyloid self-assembly and morphological diversity were investigated by the design of eight amyloidogenic peptides derived from islet amyloid polypeptide. Among the segments, two distinct morphologies were highlighted in the form of twisted and planar (untwisted) ribbons with varied diameters, thicknesses, and lengths. In particular, transformation of amyloid fibrils from twisted ribbons into untwisted structures was triggered by substitution of the C-terminal serine with threonine, where the side chain methyl group was responsible for the distinct morphological change. This effect was confirmed following serine substitution with alanine and valine and was ascribed to the restriction of intersheet torsional strain through the increased hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. We also studied the variation of fibril morphology (i.e., association and helicity) and peptide aggregation propensity by increasing the hydrophobicity of the peptide side group, capping the N-terminus, and extending sequence length. We anticipate that our insights into sequence-dependent fibrillation and morphological diversity will shed light on the structural interpretation of amyloidogenesis and development of structure-specific imaging agents and aggregation inhibitors.


Assuntos
Amiloide/química , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Amiloide/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Difração de Raios X
14.
Org Lett ; 19(13): 3462-3465, 2017 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28683555

RESUMO

The assembly of the ß-amyloid peptide, Aß, into soluble oligomers is associated with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. The Aß oligomers are thought to be composed of ß-hairpins. Here, the effect of shifting the residue pairing of the ß-hairpins on the structures of the oligomers that form is explored through X-ray crystallography. Three residue pairings were investigated using constrained macrocyclic ß-hairpins in which Aß30-36 is juxtaposed with Aß17-23, Aß16-22, and Aß15-21. The Aß16-22-Aß30-36 pairing forms a compact ball-shaped dodecamer composed of fused triangular trimers. This dodecamer may help explain the structures of the trimers and dodecamers formed by full-length Aß.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Raios X
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(2): 966-975, 2017 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28001392

RESUMO

Oligomers of the ß-amyloid peptide Aß have emerged as important contributors to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Mounting evidence suggests that Aß trimers and higher-order oligomers derived from trimers have special significance in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Elucidating the structures of these trimers and higher-order oligomers is paramount for understanding their role in neurodegeneration. This paper describes the design, synthesis, X-ray crystallographic structures, and biophysical and biological properties of two stabilized trimers derived from the central and C-terminal regions of Aß. These triangular trimers are stabilized through three disulfide cross-links between the monomer subunits. The X-ray crystallographic structures reveal that the stabilized trimers assemble hierarchically to form hexamers, dodecamers, and annular porelike structures. Solution-phase biophysical studies reveal that the stabilized trimers assemble in solution to form oligomers that recapitulate some of the higher-order assemblies observed crystallographically. The stabilized trimers share many of the biological characteristics of oligomers of full-length Aß, including toxicity toward a neuronally derived human cell line, activation of caspase-3 mediated apoptosis, and reactivity with the oligomer-specific antibody A11. These studies support the biological significance of the triangular trimer assembly of Aß ß-hairpins and may offer a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Modelos Biológicos , Peptídeos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos/genética
16.
J Phys Chem B ; 121(1): 298-305, 2017 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960255

RESUMO

The evolution of molecular morphology in bulk samples of comb diblock copolymer pNdc12-b-pNte21 across the lamellar order-disorder transition (ODT) is studied using resonant X-ray scattering at the oxygen K edge with the goal of determining whether the molecules remain extended or collapse above the ODT. The distinct spectral resonances of carbonyl oxygen on the backbone and ether oxygen in the pNte side chains combine with their different site symmetry within the molecule to yield strong differences in bulk structural sensitivity at all temperatures. Comparison with simple models for the disordered phase clearly reveals that disordering at the ODT corresponds to loss of positional order of molecules with extended backbones that retain orientational order, rather than backbone collapse into a locally isotropic disordered phase. This conclusion is facilitated directly by the distinct structural sensitivity at the two resonances. The roles of depolarized scattering in enhancing this sensitivity, and background fluorescence in limiting dynamic range in oxygen resonant scattering are discussed.

17.
Biochemistry ; 55(23): 3214-23, 2016 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27192036

RESUMO

The self-assembly of peptides and proteins into higher-ordered structures is encoded in the amino acid sequence of each peptide or protein. Understanding the relationship among the amino acid sequence, the assembly dynamics, and the structure of well-defined peptide oligomers expands the synthetic toolbox for these structures. Here, we present the X-ray crystallographic structure and solution behavior of de novo peptides that form antiparallel coiled-coil hexamers (ACC-Hex) by an interaction motif neither found in nature nor predicted by existing peptide design software. The 1.70 Å X-ray crystallographic structure of peptide 1a shows six α-helices associating in an antiparallel arrangement around a central axis comprising hydrophobic and aromatic residues. Size-exclusion chromatography studies suggest that peptides 1 form stable oligomers in solution, and circular dichroism experiments show that peptides 1 are stable to relatively high temperatures. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the solution behavior of peptide 1a indicate an equilibrium of dimers, hexamers, and larger aggregates in solution. The structures presented here represent a new motif of biomolecular self-assembly not previously observed for de novo peptides and suggest supramolecular design principles for material scaffolds based on coiled-coil motifs containing aromatic residues.


Assuntos
Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Dobramento de Proteína , Dicroísmo Circular , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(13): 4634-42, 2016 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26967810

RESUMO

High-resolution structures of oligomers formed by the ß-amyloid peptide Aß are needed to understand the molecular basis of Alzheimer's disease and develop therapies. This paper presents the X-ray crystallographic structures of oligomers formed by a 20-residue peptide segment derived from Aß. The development of a peptide in which Aß17-36 is stabilized as a ß-hairpin is described, and the X-ray crystallographic structures of oligomers it forms are reported. Two covalent constraints act in tandem to stabilize the Aß17-36 peptide in a hairpin conformation: a δ-linked ornithine turn connecting positions 17 and 36 to create a macrocycle and an intramolecular disulfide linkage between positions 24 and 29. An N-methyl group at position 33 blocks uncontrolled aggregation. The peptide readily crystallizes as a folded ß-hairpin, which assembles hierarchically in the crystal lattice. Three ß-hairpin monomers assemble to form a triangular trimer, four trimers assemble in a tetrahedral arrangement to form a dodecamer, and five dodecamers pack together to form an annular pore. This hierarchical assembly provides a model, in which full-length Aß transitions from an unfolded monomer to a folded ß-hairpin, which assembles to form oligomers that further pack to form an annular pore. This model may provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of Alzheimer's disease at atomic resolution.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Doença de Alzheimer , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Substâncias Macromoleculares
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(13): 4458-67, 2016 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26926877

RESUMO

Oligomeric assemblies of the protein α-synuclein are thought to cause neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies. Characterization of α-synuclein oligomers at high resolution is an outstanding challenge in the field of structural biology. The absence of high-resolution structures of oligomers formed by α-synuclein impedes understanding the synucleinopathies at the molecular level. This paper reports the X-ray crystallographic structure of oligomers formed by a peptide derived from residues 36-55 of α-synuclein. The peptide 1a adopts a ß-hairpin structure, which assembles in a hierarchical fashion. Three ß-hairpins assemble to form a triangular trimer. Three copies of the triangular trimer assemble to form a basket-shaped nonamer. Two nonamers pack to form an octadecamer. Molecular modeling suggests that full-length α-synuclein may also be able to assemble in this fashion. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrates that peptide 1a interacts with anionic lipid bilayer membranes, like oligomers of full-length α-synuclein. LDH and MTT assays demonstrate that peptide 1a is toxic toward SH-SY5Y cells. Comparison of peptide 1a to homologues suggests that this toxicity results from nonspecific interactions with the cell membrane. The oligomers formed by peptide 1a are fundamentally different than the proposed models of the fibrils formed by α-synuclein and suggest that α-Syn36-55, rather than the NAC, may nucleate oligomer formation.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Conformação Proteica , alfa-Sinucleína/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , alfa-Sinucleína/farmacologia
20.
Isr J Chem ; 55(6-7): 698-710, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26213415

RESUMO

Here we provide a guide for adapting the tools developed for protein X-ray crystallography to study the structures and supramolecular assembly of peptides. Peptide crystallography involves selecting a suitable peptide, crystallizing the peptide, collecting X-ray diffraction data, processing the diffraction data, determining the crystallographic phases and generating an electron density map, building and refining models, and depositing the crystallographic structure in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Advances in technology make this process easy for a newcomer to adopt. This paper describes techniques for determining the X-ray crystallographic structures of peptides: incorporation of amino acids containing heavy atoms for crystallographic phase determination, commercially available kits to crystallize peptides, modern techniques for X-ray crystallographic data collection, and free user-friendly software for data processing and producing a crystallographic structure.

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