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1.
J Sports Sci ; : 1-9, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456474

RESUMO

The current study compared cold-water immersion (CWI) and active recovery (AR) to static stretching (SS) on muscle recovery post-competitive soccer matches in elite youth players (n = 15). In a controlled crossover design, participants played a total of nine competitive soccer games, comprising three 80 minute games for each intervention (SS, CWI and AR). Muscle oedema, creatine kinase (CK), countermovement jump performance (CMJA) and perceived muscle soreness (PMS) were assessed pre-, immediately post-, and 48 hours post-match and compared across time-intervals and between interventions. Following SS, all markers of muscle damage remained significantly elevated (P < 0.05) compared to baseline at 48 hours post-match. Following AR and CWI, CMJA returned to baseline at 48 hours post-match, whilst CK returned to baseline following CWI at 48 hours post-match only. Analysis between recovery interventions revealed a significant improvement in PMS (P < 0.05) at 48 hours post-match when comparing AR and CWI to SS, with no significant differences between AR and CWI observed (P > 0.05). Analysis of %change for CK and CMJA revealed significant improvements for AR and CWI compared to SS. The present study indicated both AR and CWI are beneficial recovery interventions for elite young soccer players following competitive soccer matches, of which were superior to SS.

2.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(3): 559-568, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427879

RESUMO

Genetics has long been considered to associate with many exercise-related traits and sport performance phenotypes. A genetic basis for elite international marathon running performance exists due to the heritability of endurance-related traits. This has prompted a generation of genomic study to identify marathon success. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence of genes, and their polymorphisms, that may play a role in marathon running performance. A search strategy was implemented on systematic databases following PRISMA guidelines. Studies were case-control, cohort or genome-wide association designs and provided data on the genotypes associated with elite marathon athlete status and/or marathon running performance. The search identified 241 studies, from which, 14 studies were deemed suitable for inclusion. A total of 160 different polymorphisms in 27 genes were identified in 10,442 participants, of which 2,984 were marathon distance runners. The review identified a possible 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes associated with marathon running performance. While multiple genes and their polymorphisms have been associated with marathon running performance, predicting future marathon success based on genomic data is premature due to the lack of replicated studies. There is limited replication of genotype-phenotype associations and there is possible publication bias, thus, further studies are required to strengthen our understanding of the genes involved in marathon running. Future research utilising genome-wide technologies in large cohorts is required to elucidate the multiple genetic factors that govern complex endurance-related traits and the impact of epigenetics should be considered.

3.
Metabolites ; 9(4)2019 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013892

RESUMO

South Asians have a greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk than white Europeans, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. This study examined ethnic differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) metabolic profile (assessed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), appetite-related hormones and traditional CVD and T2D risk markers in blood samples collected from 16 South Asian and 16 white European men and explored associations with body composition, objectively-measured physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. South Asians exhibited higher concentrations of five FFAs (laurate, myristate, palmitate, linolenic, linoleate; p ≤ 0.040), lower acylated ghrelin (ES = 1.00, p = 0.008) and higher leptin (ES = 1.11, p = 0.004) than white Europeans; total peptide YY was similar between groups (p = 0.381). South Asians exhibited elevated fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, triacylglycerol and ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and lower fasting HDL-C (all ES ≥ 0.74, p ≤ 0.053). Controlling for body fat percentage (assessed using air displacement plethysmography) attenuated these differences. Despite similar habitual moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (ES = 0.18, p = 0.675), V ˙ O2max was lower in South Asians (ES = 1.36, p = 0.001). Circulating FFAs in South Asians were positively correlated with body fat percentage (r2 = 0.92), body mass (r2 = 0.86) and AUC glucose (r2 = 0.89) whereas in white Europeans FFAs were negatively correlated with total step counts (r2 = 0.96). In conclusion, South Asians exhibited a different FFA profile, lower ghrelin, higher leptin, impaired CVD and T2D risk markers and lower cardiorespiratory fitness than white Europeans.

4.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(7): 763-768, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Participants of ultramarathon events experience a complex interaction of psychophysiological stressors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) on mood states and serum cortisol responses to a 80.5km treadmill ultramarathon. DESIGN: Twelve participants completed an 80.5km time-trial on a motorised treadmill in the fastest possible time. METHODS: Participants' trait EI was measured prior to the trial. A mood state questionnaire was completed prior (baseline: within two weeks of treadmill ultramarathon), immediately prior (pre: within 30min of commencing treadmill ultramarathon), at 40.25km (halfway: during standardised 10min rest period to allow for venous blood sampling) and on completion of 80.5km (post: immediately on completion of treadmill ultramarathon), along with serum cortisol concentrations measured at the same time points. RESULTS: Completion time was 09:00:18±01:14:07 (hhmmss). Significant increase in serum cortisol and total mood disturbance (TMD) was observed throughout the treadmill ultramarathon (p<0.05). Participants with higher trait EI displayed a higher post cortisol concentration (p=0.01) with no change in TMD, compared to those with low trait EI who displayed a significant increase in TMD between pre and halfway (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The treadmill ultramarathon elicited a significant increase in serum cortisol concentration, which was significantly greater in those with a higher trait EI. Those individuals with higher trait EI were more effective at managing their mood, with little change total mood disturbance and perceived effort compared to those with lower trait EI.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Atletas/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Metabolites ; 8(1)2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438325

RESUMO

Metabolomic profiling of nine trained ultramarathon runners completing an 80.5 km self-paced treadmill-based time trial was carried out. Plasma samples were obtained from venous whole blood, collected at rest and on completion of the distance (post-80.5 km). The samples were analyzed by using high-resolution mass spectrometry in combination with both hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) and reversed phase (RP) chromatography. The extracted putatively identified features were modeled using Simca P 14.1 software (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden). A large number of amino acids decreased post-80.5 km and fatty acid metabolism was affected with an increase in the formation of medium-chain unsaturated and partially oxidized fatty acids and conjugates of fatty acids with carnitines. A possible explanation for the complex pattern of medium-chain and oxidized fatty acids formed is that the prolonged exercise provoked the proliferation of peroxisomes. The peroxisomes may provide a readily utilizable form of energy through formation of acetyl carnitine and other acyl carnitines for export to mitochondria in the muscles; and secondly may serve to regulate the levels of oxidized metabolites of long-chain fatty acids. This is the first study to provide evidence of the metabolic profile in response to prolonged ultramarathon running using an untargeted approach. The findings provide an insight to the effects of ultramarathon running on the metabolic specificities and alterations that may demonstrate cardio-protective effects.

6.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med ; 3(1): e000202, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28761702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Static stretching (SS) is a recovery intervention used for the reduction of muscle soreness postexercise. The effects of SS on elite young footballers have received little attention, and therefore the aim of this study was to assess the effects of SS on muscle recovery following competitive soccer matches in elite young footballers. METHODS: Ten male participants (16±1 years) were recruited from an English Premier League professional soccer academy. Using a controlled crossover design, participants followed one of two recovery interventions (SS or passive recovery (PR)) immediately following completion of competitive soccer matches. Muscle oedema, creatine kinase (CK), countermovement jump with arms (CMJA) performance and perceived muscle soreness were assessed before, immediately after and 48 hours postmatch. RESULTS: Competitive soccer matches significantly induced muscle damage, with time intervals of perceived soreness and CK showing significant increases (p<0.05), and CMJA showing significant decreases between prematch, postmatch and 48 hours postmatch for both SS and PR (p<0.05). Comparisons of the absolute effects of SS with PR only revealed significant decreases for CK 48 hours postmatch (p<0.05) as a result of SS intervention. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated competitive soccer matches induced muscle damage, which may have detrimental effects on future performance within 24-48 hours postmatch. Furthermore, there was limited evidence to suggest SS would assist in the reduction of muscle soreness postexercise. Therefore, it can be argued that SS is not a beneficial recovery option for elite youth soccer players.

7.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 12: 47, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26674253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dark chocolate (DC) is abundant in flavanols which have been reported to increase the bioavailability and bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO). Increasing NO bioavailability has often demonstrated reduced oxygen cost and performance enhancement during submaximal exercise. METHODS: Nine moderately-trained male participants volunteered to undertake baseline (BL) measurements that comprised a cycle V̇O(2max) test followed by cycling at 80% of their established gas exchange threshold (GET) for 20-min and then immediately followed by a two-minute time-trial (TT). Using a randomised crossover design participants performed two further trials, two weeks apart, with either 40 g of DC or white chocolate (WC) being consumed daily. Oxygen consumption, RER, heart rate and blood lactate (BLa) were measured during each trial. RESULTS: DC consumption increased GET and TT performance compared to both BL and WC (P < 0.05). DC consumption increased V̇O(2max) by 6% compared to BL (P < 0.05), but did not reach statistical significance compared to WC. There were no differences in the moderate-intensity cycling for V̇O2, RER, BLa and heart rate between conditions, although, V̇O2 and RER exhibited consistently lower trends following DC consumption compared to BL and WC, these did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Chronic supplementation with DC resulted in a higher GET and enhanced TT performance. Consequently, ingestion of DC reduced the oxygen cost of moderate intensity exercise and may be an effective ergogenic aid for short-duration moderate intensity exercise.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Beta vulgaris , Ciclismo , Cacau , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Doces , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Preparações de Plantas , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 46(1): 143-50, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23846159

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increasing nitric oxide bioavailability via supplementation with nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) has been shown to attenuate the negative effect of hypoxia on peripheral oxygen saturation and exercise tolerance. PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of a single dose of concentrated BR on the physiological responses to submaximal exercise and time trial (TT) performance in trained cyclists exposed to moderate simulated altitude (approximately 2500 m). METHODS: Nine competitive amateur male cyclists (age, 28 ± 8 yr; V˙O2peak at altitude, 51.9 ± 5.8 mL·kg·min) completed four exercise trials consisting of an initial graded test to exhaustion and three performance trials on a cycle ergometer. The performance trials comprised 15 min of submaximal steady-state exercise at 60% maximum work rate and a 16.1-km TT. The second and third trials were preceded by ingestion of either 70 mL of BR or nitrate-depleted BR (PLA) 3 h before exercise. RESULTS: Plasma nitrate (PLA, 39.1 ± 3.5 µM; BR, 150.5 ± 9.3 µM) and nitrite (PLA, 289.8 ± 27.9 nM; BR, 678.1 ± 103.5 nM) measured immediately before exercise were higher after ingestion of BR compared with that after PLA (P < 0.001, P = 0.004). V˙O2 during steady-state exercise was lower in the BR trial (2542 ± 114 mL·min) than that in the PLA trial (2727 ± 85 mL·min, P = 0.049). TT performance was significantly faster after BR (1664 ± 14 s) than that after PLA (1702 ± 15 s, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: A single dose of BR lowered V˙O2 during submaximal exercise and enhanced TT performance of trained cyclists in normobaric hypoxia. Consequently, ingestion of BR may be a practical and effective ergogenic aid for endurance exercise at altitude.


Assuntos
Altitude , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Beta vulgaris , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Nitratos/análise , Nitratos/sangue , Nitritos/análise , Nitritos/sangue , Preparações de Plantas/química , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 23(5): 498-506, 2013 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23580456

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of dietary nitrate ingestion on parameters of submaximal and supramaximal exercise and time trial (TT) performance in trained kayakers. Eight male kayakers completed four exercise trials consisting of an initial discontinuous graded exercise test to exhaustion and three performance trials using a kayak ergometer. The performance trials were composed of 15 min of paddling at 60% of maximum work rate, five 10-s all-out sprints, and a 1 km TT. The second and third trials were preceded by ingestion of either 70 ml nitrate-rich concentrated beetroot juice (BR) or tomato juice (placebo [PLA]) 3 hr before exercise using a randomized crossover design. Plasma nitrate (PLA: 33.8 ± 1.9 µM, BR: 152 ± 3.5 µM) and nitrite (PLA: 519.8 ± 25.8, BR: 687.9 ± 20 nM) were higher following ingestion of BR compared with PLA (both p < .001). VO2 during steady-state exercise was lower in the BR trial than in the PLA trial (p = .010). There was no difference in either peak power in the sprints (p = .590) or TT performance between conditions (PLA: 277 ± 5 s, BR: 276 ± 5 s, p = .539). Despite a reduction in VO2, BR ingestion appears to have no effect on repeated supramaximal sprint or 1 km TT kayaking performance. A smaller elevation in plasma nitrite following a single dose of nitrate and the individual variability in this response may partly account for these findings.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Exercício/fisiologia , Nitratos/farmacologia , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Navios , Esportes/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitratos/sangue , Nitritos/sangue , Consumo de Oxigênio , Raízes de Plantas , Água , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Sports Sci ; 23(1): 21-30, 2005 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15841592

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the influence that pre-exercise glucose ingestion of two concentrations has on the physiological responses of paraplegic athletes. Eight men with paraplegia ingested a drink containing 4% (low) or 11% (high) carbohydrate in a randomized double-blind crossover design, 20 min before exercise. The participants performed wheelchair exercise at 65% of peak oxygen uptake for 1 h followed by a 20 min performance test. During both trials, the physiological responses were similar and indicated steady-state exercise. At the onset of exercise, blood glucose concentrations in both trials increased after carbohydrate ingestion (P < 0.05) before returning to resting values after 20 min of exercise and there were no differences between trials. Free fatty acid concentrations increased from rest to 1 h of exercise in both trials, with a greater increase during the low carbohydrate trial that led to a difference in free fatty acids between trials at the end of the 1 h tests (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for the performance distances and power outputs achieved during the high carbohydrate trial to be greater than those achieved during the low carbohydrate trial (P= 0.08). In conclusion, when paraplegic athletes ingested low and high carbohydrate drinks before exercise, the decline in blood glucose concentrations was similar. The tendency for higher blood glucose concentrations, respiratory exchange ratios and power outputs and lower free fatty acid concentrations (P < 0.05) during the high carbohydrate trial suggests that a higher concentration of carbohydrate in a sports drink might be a better choice for paraplegic athletes.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Exercício/fisiologia , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Paraplegia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Glicemia/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Humanos , Lactatos/sangue , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
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