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1.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 99: 106189, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132155

RESUMO

Starting from historic reflections, the current SARS-CoV-2 induced COVID-19 pandemic is examined from various perspectives, in terms of what it implies for the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions, the modeling and monitoring of the epidemic, the development of early-warning systems, the study of mortality, prevalence estimation, diagnostic and serological testing, vaccine development, and ultimately clinical trials. Emphasis is placed on how the pandemic had led to unprecedented speed in methodological and clinical development, the pitfalls thereof, but also the opportunities that it engenders for national and international collaboration, and how it has simplified and sped up procedures. We also study the impact of the pandemic on clinical trials in other indications. We note that it has placed biostatistics, epidemiology, virology, infectiology, and vaccinology, and related fields in the spotlight in an unprecedented way, implying great opportunities, but also the need to communicate effectively, often amidst controversy.

2.
Malar J ; 19(1): 389, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic ineffectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) increases the risk of malaria-related morbidity and mortality, and raises healthcare costs. Yet, little has been done to promote the pharmacovigilance (PV) of ACT ineffectiveness in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Uganda. This study aimed to determine the extent and associated factors of the past 6 months reporting of suspected or confirmed ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness by healthcare professionals (HCPs), and difficulties and potential solutions to the PV of ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness. METHODS: Survey of 685 HCPs conducted using a self-administered questionnaire from June to July 2018 in a nationally representative sample of public and private health facilities in Uganda. HCPs disclosed if they had spontaneously reported ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness to appropriate authorities in the previous 6 months. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify determinants of past 6-months, HCP-reported ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness. RESULTS: One in five (20%, 137/685; 95% CI 17-23%) HCPs reported ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness to an appropriate authority in the previous 6 months. HCPs commonly reported ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness to immediate supervisors (72%, 106/147), mostly verbally only (80%, 109/137); none had ever submitted a written report of ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness to Uganda's National Pharmacovigilance Centre. Common difficulties of reporting ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness were: unavailability of reporting procedures (31%, 129/421), poor follow-up of treated patients (22%, 93/421) and absence of reporting tools (16%, 68/421). Factors associated with reporting ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness in the past 6 months were: hospital-status (vs other; OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.41-4.21), HCPs aged under 25 years (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.29-3.76), suspicion of ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness in the past 4 weeks (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.29-3.92), receipt of patient-complaint(s) of ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness in the past 4 weeks (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.62-5.12) and HCPs from northern (vs central; OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.28-0.93) and western (vs central; OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.17-0.77) parts of Uganda. CONCLUSION: One in five HCPs reported ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness, mostly verbally to supervisors. The existing adverse drug reaction (ADR)-reporting infrastructure could be leveraged to promote the PV of ACT therapeutic ineffectiveness.

3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125913

RESUMO

The spread of Plasmodium falciparum isolates carrying mutations in the kelch13 (Pfkelch13) gene associated with artemisinin resistance (PfART-R) in southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination efforts. Emergence of PfART-R in Africa would result in a major public health problem. In this systematic review, we investigate the frequency and spatial distribution of Pfkelch13 mutants in Africa, including mutants linked to PfART-R in southeast Asia. Seven databases were searched (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, African Journal Online, African Index Medicus, Bioline, and Web of Science) for relevant articles about polymorphisms of the Pfkelch13 gene in Africa before January, 2019. Following PRISMA guidelines, 53 studies that sequenced the Pfkelch13 gene of 23 100 sample isolates in 41 sub-Saharan African countries were included. The Pfkelch13 sequence was highly polymorphic (292 alleles, including 255 in the Pfkelch13-propeller domain) but with mutations occurring at very low relative frequencies. Non-synonymous mutations were found in only 626 isolates (2·7%) from west, central, and east Africa. According to WHO, nine different mutations linked to PfART-R in southeast Asia (Phe446Ile, Cys469Tyr, Met476Ile, Arg515Lys, Ser522Cys, Pro553Leu, Val568Gly, Pro574Leu, and Ala675Val) were detected, mainly in east Africa. Several other Pfkelch13 mutations, such as those structurally similar to southeast Asia PfART-R mutations, were also identified, but their relevance for drug resistance is still unknown. This systematic review shows that Africa, thought to not have established PfART-R, reported resistance-related mutants in the past 5 years. Surveillance using PfART-R molecular markers can provide valuable decision-making information to sustain the effectiveness of artemisinin in Africa.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237791, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822392

RESUMO

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria since 2005 in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and a regular surveillance of the ACT efficacy is required to ensure the treatment effectiveness. Mutations in the propeller domain of the pfk13 gene were identified as molecular markers of artemisinin resistance (ART-R). This study investigated the pfk13-propeller gene polymorphism in clinical isolates of P. falciparum collected in the DRC. In 2017, ten geographical sites across DRC were selected for a cross-sectional study that was conducted first in Kinshasa from January to March, then in the nine other sites from September to December. Dried blood samples were collected from patients attending health centers for fever where diagnosis of Malaria was first made by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) available on site (SD Bioline malaria Ag Pf or CareStart Malaria Pf) or by thick blood smear and then confirmed by a P. falciparum real-time PCR assay. A pfk13-propeller segment containing a fragment that codes for amino acids at positions 427-595 was amplified by conventional PCR before sequencing. In total, 1070 patients were enrolled in the study. Real-time PCR performed confirmed the initial diagnosis of P. falciparum infection in 806 samples (75.3%; 95% CI: 72.6%- 77.9%). Of the 717 successfully sequenced P. falciparum isolates, 710 (99.0%; 95% CI: 97.9% - 99.6) were wild-type genotypes and 7 (1.0%; 95% CI: 0.4% - 2.1%) carried non-synonymous (NS) mutations in pfk13-propeller including 2 mutations (A578S and V534A) previously detected and 2 other (M472I and A569T) not yet detected in the DRC. Mutations associated with ART-R in Southeast Asia were not observed in DRC. However, the presence of other mutations in pfk13-propeller gene calls for further investigations to assess their implication in drug resistance.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is highly heterogeneous; its changing malaria micro-epidemiology needs to be addressed to support malaria elimination efforts at the regional level. METHODS: A three-year, population-based cohort study in two settings in the Peruvian Amazon (Lupuna, Cahuide) followed participants by passive and active case detection from January 2013 to December 2015. Incidence and prevalence rates were estimated using microscopy and PCR. RESULTS: Lupuna registered 1,828 infections (1,708 P. vivax, 120 P. falciparum; incidence was 80.7 infections/100 person-years (95%CI [77.1-84.5]). Cahuide detected 1,046 infections (1,024 P. vivax, 20 P. falciparum, two mixed); incidence was 40.2 infections/100 person-years (95%CI [37.9-42.7]). Recurrent P. vivax infections predominated onwards from 2013. According to PCR data, submicroscopic predominated over microscopic infections, especially in periods of low transmission. The integration of parasitological, entomological and environmental observations evidenced an intense and seasonal transmission resilient to standard control measures in Lupuna, and a persistent residual transmission after severe outbreaks were intensively handled in Cahuide. CONCLUSIONS: In two exemplars of complex local malaria transmission, standard control strategies failed to eliminate submicroscopic and hypnozoite reservoirs, enabling persistent transmission.

8.
Malar J ; 19(1): 161, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Case management is one of the principal strategies for malaria control. This study aimed to estimate the economic costs of uncomplicated malaria case management and explore the influence of health-seeking behaviours on those costs. METHODS: A knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey was applied to 680 households of fifteen communities in Mazan-Loreto in March 2017, then a socio-economic survey was conducted in September 2017 among 161 individuals with confirmed uncomplicated malaria in the past 3 months. Total costs per episode were estimated from both provider (Ministry of Health, MoH) and patient perspectives. Direct costs were estimated using a standard costing estimation procedure, while the indirect costs considered the loss of incomes among patients, substitute labourers and companions due to illness in terms of the monthly minimum wage. Sensitivity analysis evaluated the uncertainty of the average cost per episode. RESULTS: The KAP survey showed that most individuals (79.3%) that had malaria went to a health facility for a diagnosis and treatment, 2.7% received those services from community health workers, and 8% went to a drugstore or were self-treated at home. The average total cost per episode in the Mazan district was US$ 161. The cost from the provider's perspective was US$ 30.85 per episode while from the patient's perspective the estimated cost was US$ 131 per episode. The average costs per Plasmodium falciparum episode (US$ 180) were higher than those per Plasmodium vivax episode (US$ 156) due to longer time lost from work by patients with P. falciparum infections (22.2 days) than by patients with P. vivax infections (17.0 days). The delayed malaria diagnosis (after 48 h of the onset of symptoms) was associated with the time lost from work due to illness (adjusted mean ratio 1.8; 95% CI 1.3, 2.6). The average cost per malaria episode was most sensitive to the uncertainty around the lost productivity cost due to malaria. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the provision of free malaria case management by MoH, there is delay in seeking care and the costs of uncomplicated malaria are mainly borne by the families. These costs are not well perceived by the society and the substantial financial impact of the disease can be frequently undervalued in public policy planning.

9.
Malar J ; 19(1): 121, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The loss of chloroquine (CQ) effectiveness has led to its withdrawal from national policies as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in several endemic countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The K76T mutation on the pfcrt gene has been identified as a marker of CQ resistance and the SVMNT haplotype in codons 72-76 on the same gene has been associated with resistance to amodiaquine (AQ). In the DRC, the prevalence of K76T has decreased from 100% in 2000 to 63.9% in 2014. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of K76T mutations in circulating strains of Plasmodium falciparum, 16 years after CQ withdrawal in the DRC and to investigate the presence of the SVMNT haplotype. METHODS: In 2017, ten geographical sites across the DRC were selected. Dried blood samples were collected from patients attending health centres. Malaria was first detected by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) available on site (SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf or CareStart Malaria Pf) or thick blood smear and then confirmed by a P. falciparum species-specific real-time PCR assay. A pfcrt gene segment containing a fragment that encodes amino acids at positions 72-76 was amplified by conventional PCR before sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 1070 patients were enrolled. Of the 806 PCR-confirmed P. falciparum positive samples, 764 were successfully sequenced. The K76T mutation was detected in 218 samples (28.5%; 95% CI 25.4%-31.9%), mainly (96%) with the CVIET haplotype. Prevalence of CQ resistance marker was unequally distributed across the country, ranging from 1.5% in Fungurume to 89.5% in Katana. The SVMNT haplotype, related to AQ resistance, was not detected. CONCLUSION: Overall, the frequency of the P. falciparum CQ resistance marker has decreased significantly and no resistance marker to AQ was detected in the DRC in 2017. However, the between regions variability of CQ resistance remains high in the country. Further studies are needed for continuous monitoring of the CQ resistance level for its prospective re-use in malaria management. The absence of the AQ resistance marker is in line with the use of this drug in the current DRC malaria treatment policy.


Assuntos
Amodiaquina/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Malar J ; 19(1): 63, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efficient testing to identify poor quality artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is important to optimize efforts to control and eliminate malaria. Healthcare professionals interact with both ACT and malaria patients they treat and hence could observe, first-hand, suspect poor quality artemisinin-based combinations linked to poor malaria treatment outcomes and the factors associated with inappropriate use or treatment failure. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 685 HCP perspectives about the efficacy of ACT between June and July 2018 at selected health facilities in Uganda. Medicine samples were obtained from the seven regions of Uganda and tested for quality using the Germany Pharma Health Fund™ minilabs. RESULTS: The average age of the 685 respondents was 30 (SD = 7.4) years. There was an almost equal distribution between male and female respondents (51:49), respectively. Seventy percent (n = 480) were diploma holders and the nurses contributed to half (49%, n = 334) of the study population. Sixty-one percent of the HCPs reported having ever encountered ACT failures while treating uncomplicated malaria. Nineteen percent of HCPs thought that dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine gave the most satisfactory patient treatment outcomes, while 80% HCPs thought that artemether/lumefantrine gave the least satisfactory patient treatment outcomes, possibly due to dosing schedule and pill burden. Healthcare professionals from the Central region (OR = 3.0, CI 0.3-1.0; P = 0.0001), Eastern region (OR = 5.4, CI 2.9-9.8; P = 0.0001) and Northern region (OR = 5.3, CI 2.9-9.9; P = 0.0001) had a higher chance of encountering ACT failure in 4 weeks prior to the survey as compared to those from the western region. Healthcare professionals from private health facilities also had higher chances of encountering ACT failures in past 4 weeks as compared to those from public health facilities (OR = 2.7, CI 1.7-3.9; P = 0.0001). All 192 samples passed the quality screening tests. The random sample of 10% of all samples randomly obtained by the laboratory staff also passed the chemical content analysis and dissolution tests. CONCLUSION: ACT medicines are widely available over-the-counter to the public and it is very difficult to report and monitor a decrease in efficacy or treatment failure. The perspectives of HCPs on treatment failure or lack of efficacy may potentially guide optimization efforts of sampling methodologies for the quality survey of ACT medicines.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Pessoal de Saúde , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Adulto , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/classificação , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Sesquiterpenos/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comprimidos , Falha de Tratamento , Uganda
11.
PeerJ ; 8: e8516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095350

RESUMO

Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. Despite recommendations for HPV vaccination of young women from health authorities, parental concerns were raised whether vaccination could induce unsafe sexual behaviour in young women. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate if HPV vaccination in healthcare seeking adult women in Luxembourg was associated with unsafe sexual behaviour. Methods: Seven hundred twenty-nine women (mean age = 22.5; range 18-43 years) were recruited either at Luxembourg family planning centres or at private gynaecology practices. All participants completed a questionnaire on vaccination status and sexual behaviour. Poisson and logistic regressions were used to study the association between sexual behaviour and vaccination status (N = 538). Both models were restricted to women younger than 26 years, since the first cohort being vaccinated would be 25 years old at the time of sampling. Assortativity of sexual mixing by age was also assessed for further transmission modelling for women <30 years reporting age of last/current sexual partner (N = 649). Women older than 29 years were excluded from the assortativity analysis due to restricted sample size. Results: In total, 386/538 (71.8%) of participants reported receiving HPV vaccine. Vaccination uptake significantly varied by nationality and was higher in Portuguese 112/142 (78.9%) and in Luxembourgish 224/313(71.6%) residents, and lower in residents of other nationalities 50/83 (60.2%) (p = 0.011). HPV vaccination was not associated with unsafe sexual behaviour such as shorter relationship duration with current or last sexual partner (odds ratio (OR) = 1.05, 95% CI [0.94-1.16]), younger age of sexual debut (OR = 1.00, 95% CI [0.88-1.14]), increased number of lifetime sexual partners (OR = 0.95, 95% CI [0.87-1.03), higher age difference with sexual partner (OR = 1.01, 95% CI [0.95-1.08]), condom use (OR = 0.97, 95% CI [0.60-1.56]), nor with other factors like smoking (OR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.47-1.15]) and nationality. HPV vaccination was only associated with younger age (OR = 0.84, 95% CI [0.75-0.94]). Relationship duration, age of sexual debut, age difference with sexual partner, smoking, age and non-Portuguese foreign nationality were predictors of number of lifetime sexual partners. Assortativity analysis revealed that young women chose sexual partners who were 2.3 years older on average. Conclusions: Our study found no association between unsafe sexual behaviour and HPV vaccination.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15173, 2019 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645604

RESUMO

This is the first study to assess the risk of co-endemic Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum transmission in the Peruvian Amazon using boosted regression tree (BRT) models based on social and environmental predictors derived from satellite imagery and data. Yearly cross-validated BRT models were created to discriminate high-risk (annual parasite index API > 10 cases/1000 people) and very-high-risk for malaria (API > 50 cases/1000 people) in 2766 georeferenced villages of Loreto department, between 2010-2017 as other parts in the article (graphs, tables, and texts). Predictors were cumulative annual rainfall, forest coverage, annual forest loss, annual mean land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), shortest distance to rivers, time to populated villages, and population density. BRT models built with predictor data of a given year efficiently discriminated the malaria risk for that year in villages (area under the ROC curve (AUC) > 0.80), and most models also effectively predicted malaria risk in the following year. Cumulative rainfall, population density and time to populated villages were consistently the top three predictors for both P. vivax and P. falciparum incidence. Maps created using the BRT models characterize the spatial distribution of the malaria incidence in Loreto and should contribute to malaria-related decision making in the area.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Imagens de Satélites , Meio Ambiente , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Biológicos , Peru/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 760, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, socioeconomic factors such as place of residence, mother's educational level, or household wealth, are strongly associated with risk factors of under-five mortality (U5M) such as health behavior or exposure to diseases and injuries. The aim of the study was to assess the relative contribution of four known socioeconomic factors to the variability in U5M in sub-Saharan countries. METHODS: The study was based on birth histories from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 32 sub-Saharan countries in 2010-2016. The relative contribution of sex of the child, place of residence, mother's educational level, and household wealth to the variability in U5M was assessed using a regression-based decomposition of a Gini-type index. RESULTS: The Gini index - measuring the variability in U5M related to the four socioeconomic factors - varied from 0.006 (95%CI: 0.001-0.010) in Liberia 2013 to 0.034 (95%CI: 0.029-0.039) in Côte d'Ivoire 2011/12. The main contributors to the Gini index (with a relative contribution higher than 25%) were different across countries: mother's educational level in 13 countries, sex of the child in 12 countries, household wealth in 11 countries, and place of residence in 8 countries (in some countries, more than one main contributor was identified). CONCLUSIONS: Factors related to socioeconomic status exert varied effects on the variability in U5M in sub-Saharan African countries. The findings provide evidence in support of prioritizing intersectoral interventions aiming at improving child survival in all subgroups of a population.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 662, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The slope (SII) and relative (RII) indices of inequality are commonly recommended to monitor health inequality policies. As an upwards shift of the educational level distribution (ELD) can be part of those policies, we examine how such a shift affects the SII, the RII and the population attributable fraction (PAF). METHODS: We simulated 632 distributions of 4 educational levels (ELs) by varying the share (p1 to p4) of each EL, with constant mortality rates (MR) and calculated the corresponding RII, SII and PAF. Second, we decomposed the effect on the three indices of a change affecting both the ELD and the MRs, into the contributions of each component. RESULTS: RIIs and SIIs sharply increase with p4 at fixed p1 values and evolve as reversed U-curves for p1 changing in complement to p4. The RII reaches a maximum, at much higher p4 values than the SII. PAFs monotonically decrease when p4 increases. CONCLUSION: If improving the educational attainment is part of a policy, an upwards shift of EL should be assessed as a progress; however the RII, and to a lesser extent the SII, frequently translate an increased EL4 share as a worsening. We warn against the use of SII and RII for monitoring inequality-tackling policies at changing socio-economic structures. Rather, we recommend to complement the assessment of changes in absolute and relative pairwise differentials, with changes in PAF and in the socio-economic group shares.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Simulação por Computador , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0203721, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients experiencing adverse drug events (ADE) in many developing countries are in the best position to report these events to the authorities but need to be empowered to do so. Systematic evaluation of community engagement and patient support especially in rural areas would provide evidence for a program to monitor potential harm from medicines. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a community dialogue and sensitization (CDS) program on the knowledge, attitude and practises of community members for reporting ADE. METHODS: This an uncontrolled before-after study was conducted in two eastern Ugandan districts between September 2016 and August 2017. RESULTS: After implementation of the community dialogue and sensitization (CDS) program, there was an overall 20% (95% CI:16% to 25%) increase in knowledge about ADE in the community compared to before the program began. Awareness levels increased by 50% (95% CI: 37% to 63%) among those with little or no education and by41% (95% CI: 31% to 52%) among young people (15-24 years). Furthermore, 5% (95% CI: 3% to 7%) more respondents recognized the need for reporting ADEs compared to before the program. Finally, there was a significant increase of 115% (95% CI:137% to 217%) in respondent recognition and reporting of ADEs compared to the beginning of the CDS program. Overall, this community found the CDS program acceptable and proposed aspects that could be improved for future use. CONCLUSION: Our evaluation showed that the CDS program increased knowledge and improved attitudes by catalyzing discussions among community members and healthcare professionals on health issues and monitoring safety of medicines compared to before the program. Successful implementation of the program depends on holistic health systems strengthening and adaptation to the community's way of life.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública , População Rural , Autorrelato , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vigilância da População , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS Med ; 16(5): e1002784, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, the importance of vivax malaria relative to falciparum during the past decade has steadily increased to 50%. This, together with the spread of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, is a major challenge for malaria elimination. A 2-year prospective cohort study to assess P. vivax morbidity after radical cure treatment and related risk factors was conducted in Central Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study was implemented between April 2009 and December 2011 in four neighboring villages in a remote forested area of Quang Nam province. P. vivax-infected patients were treated radically with chloroquine (CQ; 25 mg/kg over 3 days) and primaquine (PQ; 0.5 mg/kg/day for 10 days) and visited monthly (malaria symptoms and blood sampling) for up to 2 years. Time to first vivax recurrence was estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and risk factors for first and recurrent infections were identified by Cox regression models. Among the 260 P. vivax patients (61% males [159/260]; age range 3-60) recruited, 240 completed the 10-day treatment, 223 entered the second month of follow-up, and 219 were followed for at least 12 months. Most individuals (76.78%, 171/223) had recurrent vivax infections identified by molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]); in about half of them (55.61%, 124/223), infection was detected by microscopy, and 84 individuals (37.67%) had symptomatic recurrences. Median time to first recurrence by PCR was 118 days (IQR 59-208). The estimated probability of remaining free of recurrence by month 24 was 20.40% (95% CI [14.42; 27.13]) by PCR, 42.52% (95% CI [35.41; 49.44]) by microscopy, and 60.69% (95% CI [53.51; 67.11]) for symptomatic recurrences. The main risk factor for recurrence (first or recurrent) was prior P. falciparum infection. The main limitations of this study are the age of the results and the absence of a comparator arm, which does not allow estimating the proportion of vivax relapses among recurrent infections. CONCLUSION: A substantial number of P. vivax recurrences, mainly submicroscopic (SM) and asymptomatic, were observed after high-dose PQ treatment (5.0 mg/kg). Prior P. falciparum infection was an important risk factor for all types of vivax recurrences. Malaria elimination efforts need to address this largely undetected P. vivax transmission by simultaneously tackling the reservoir of P. falciparum and P. vivax infections.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos , Primaquina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium vivax/patogenicidade , Primaquina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007336, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite endemic throughout many low-income countries worldwide, including Zambia, where it causes human and pig diseases with high health and socioeconomic burdens. Lack of knowledge is a recognized risk factor, and consequently targeted health educational programs can decrease parasite transmission and disease occurrence in endemic areas. Preliminary assessment of the computer-based education program 'The Vicious Worm' in rural areas of eastern Zambia indicated that it was effective at increasing knowledge of T. solium in primary school students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 'The Vicious Worm' on knowledge retention by re-assessing the same primary school students one year after the initial education workshops. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Follow-up questionnaires were administered in the original three primary schools in eastern Zambia in 2017, 12 months after the original workshops. In total, 86 pupils participated in the follow-up sessions, representing 87% of the initial workshop respondents. Knowledge of T. solium at 'follow-up' was significantly higher than at the initial 'pre' questionnaire administered during the Vicious Worm workshop that took place one year earlier. While some specifics of the parasite's life cycle were not completely understood, the key messages for disease prevention, such as the importance of hand washing and properly cooking pork, remained well understood by the students, even one year later. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results of this study indicate that 'The Vicious Worm' may be an effective tool for both short- and long-term T. solium education of rural primary school students in Zambia. Inclusion of educational workshops using 'The Vicious Worm' could be recommended for integrated cysticercosis control/elimination programs in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly if the content is simplified to focus on the key messages for prevention of disease transmission.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Taenia solium/fisiologia , Teníase/psicologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Erradicação de Doenças , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Teníase/prevenção & controle , Zâmbia
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 329, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, few studies have determined the epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and no routine prenatal screening is in place. This study was conducted to evaluate the seroprevalence of this zoonotic parasitic infection in pregnant women in Northern Vietnam and to assess the association with awareness, risk factors and congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS: Approximately 800 pregnant women were included in the study from two hospitals, one in Hanoi and one in Thai Binh province, which is known to have a dense cat population. Serological immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) detection was performed to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and sero-incidence of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition, a survey was conducted about awareness, clinical history, presentation of signs and symptoms relating to toxoplasmosis and to detect biologically plausible and socio-demographic risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis. Associations with seroprevalence were assessed using univariable and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: The mean IgG seroprevalence after the full diagnostic process was 4.5% (95% confidence interval(CI): 2.7-7.0) and 5.8% (95% CI: 3.7-8.6) in Hanoi and Thai Binh hospital, respectively, and included one seroconversion diagnosed in Thai Binh hospital. Only 2.0% of the pregnant women in Hanoi hospital and 3.3% in Thai Binh hospital had heard about toxoplasmosis before this study. CONCLUSION: Since the percentage of seronegative, and thus susceptible, pregnant women was high and the awareness was low, we suggest to distribute information about toxoplasmosis and its prevention among women of child bearing age. Furthermore, future studies are recommended to investigate why such a low seroprevalence was seen in pregnant women in Northern Vietnam compared to other countries in South East Asia and globally.


Assuntos
Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Densidade Demográfica , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Congênita/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
19.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(3): 598-605, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772196

RESUMO

Lyme borreliosis (LB) is an important tick-borne disease which can cause a broad range of symptoms mainly affecting the skin, the nervous system and the joints. This study aims to estimate the incidence of the different clinical manifestations of LB in Belgium. The incidence of erythema migrans (EM) was estimated through the network of sentinel general practices at 97.6/100,000 inhabitants (uncertainty interval [UI] 82.0-113.0) for the period 2015-2017. This result was used to estimate the incidence of other LB manifestations based on their proportional distribution (ratios) to EM reported in the neighboring countries of Belgium. To estimate these ratios, we performed a systematic review of studies published between February 1, 2008 and January 31, 2018 and pooled the results using a random effects meta-analysis. Six studies were retained in the systematic review, and the meta-analysis estimated the occurrence ratios for Lyme neuroborreliosis/EM, Lyme arthritis/EM and other manifestations/EM at 0.024 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.016-0.037), 0.022 (95% CI 0.020-0.024) and 0.014 (95% CI 0.012-0.016) respectively. Applying these ratios to the EM incidence in Belgium resulted in an incidence estimation of 2.4/100,000 inhabitants (95% UI 1.5-3.7) for Lyme neuroborreliosis, 2.1/100,000 (95% UI 1.7-2.6) for Lyme arthritis and 1.4/100,000 (95% UI 1.1-1.7) for other less frequent manifestations. Some of these LB manifestations, other than EM, are more severe, hence these estimates are essential to assess the health burden and economic cost of LB which would be highly relevant for patients, healthcare providers and policymakers. As both over- and underestimation of different clinical LB manifestations remain possible due to characteristics of the primary surveillance systems and the disease itself, future studies to validate these estimates would be of great value.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Doença de Lyme/complicações , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Eritema Migrans Crônico/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Doença de Lyme/economia , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/complicações
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