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1.
FEBS J ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971349

RESUMO

Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD) is the most common defect of long-chain fatty acid ß-oxidation. The recommended treatment includes the application of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs). However, long-term treatment of VLCAD-/- mice resulted in the development of a sex-specific metabolic syndrome due to the selective activation of the ERK/mTORc1 signalling in females and ERK/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma pathway in males. In order to investigate a subsequent sex-specific effect of MCT on the lipid composition of the cellular membranes, we performed lipidomic analysis, SILAC-based quantitative proteomics and gene expression in fibroblasts from WT and VLCAD-/- mice of both sexes. Treatment with octanoate (C8) affected the composition of complex lipids resulting in a sex-specific signature of the molecular profile. The content of ceramides and sphingomyelins in particular differed significantly under control conditions and increased markedly in cells from mutant female mice but remained unchanged in cells from mutant males. Moreover, we observed a specific upregulation of biosynthesis of plasmalogens only in male mice, whereas in females C8 led to the accumulation of higher concentration of phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines. Our data on membrane lipids in VLCAD after supplementation with C8 provide evidence of a sex-specific lipid perturbation. We hypothesize a likely C8-induced pro-inflammatory response contributing to the development of a severe metabolic syndrome in female VLCAD-/- mice on long-term MCT supplementation.

2.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 12, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal disorder caused by biallelic pathogenic mutations in the GBA1 gene that encodes beta-glucosidase (GCase), and more rarely, by a deficiency in the GCase activator, saposin C. Clinically, GD manifests with heterogeneous multiorgan involvement mainly affecting hematological, hepatic and neurological axes. This disorder is divided into three types, based on the absence (type I) or presence and severity (types II and III) of involvement of the central nervous system. At the cellular level, deficiency of GBA1 disturbs lysosomal storage with buildup of glucocerebroside. The consequences of disturbed lysosomal metabolism on biochemical pathways that require lysosomal processing are unknown. Abnormal systemic markers of cobalamin (Cbl, B12) metabolism have been reported in patients with GD, suggesting impairments in lysosomal handling of Cbl or in its downstream utilization events. METHODS: Cultured skin fibroblasts from control humans (n = 3), from patients with GD types I (n = 1), II (n = 1) and III (n = 1) and an asymptomatic carrier of GD were examined for their GCase enzymatic activity and lysosomal compartment intactness. Control human and GD fibroblasts were cultured in growth medium with and without 500 nM hydroxocobalamin supplementation. Cellular cobalamin status was examined via determination of metabolomic markers in cell lysate (intracellular) and conditioned culture medium (extracellular). The presence of transcobalamin (TC) in whole cell lysates was examined by Western blot. RESULTS: Cultured skin fibroblasts from GD patients exhibited reduced GCase activity compared to healthy individuals and an asymptomatic carrier of GD, demonstrating a preserved disease phenotype in this cell type. The concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA), cysteine (Cys) and methionine (Met) in GD cells were comparable to control levels, except in one patient with GD III. The response of these metabolomic markers to supplementation with hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl) yielded variable results. The content of transcobalamin in whole cell lysates was comparable in control human and GD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that cobalamin transport and cellular processing pathways are overall protected from lysosomal storage damage in GD fibroblasts. Extending these studies to hepatocytes, macrophages and plasma will shed light on cell- and compartment-specific vitamin B12 metabolism in Gaucher disease.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752105

RESUMO

Vegans are at an increased risk for certain micronutrient deficiencies, foremost of vitamin B12. Little is known about the short-term effects of dietary change to plant-based nutrition on vitamin B12 metabolism. Systemic biomarkers of vitamin B12 status, namely, serum vitamin B12 and holotranscobalamin, may respond quickly to a reduced intake of vitamin B12. To test this hypothesis, 53 healthy omnivore subjects were randomized to a controlled unsupplemented vegan diet (VD, n = 26) or meat-rich diet (MD, n = 27) for 4 weeks. Vitamin B12 status was examined by measurement of serum vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin (holo-TC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy). Holo-TC decreased significantly in the VD compared to the MD group after four weeks of intervention, whereas metabolites MMA and tHcy were unaffected. Body weight remained stable in both groups. VD intervention led to a significant reduction of cholesterol intake, and adequate profiles of nutrient and micronutrient status. Lower intake of vitamin B12 was observed in VD, which was mirrored by a lower concentration of serum vitamin B12 and reduced holo-TC after 4 weeks. Plasma holo-TC may be a fast-responding biomarker to monitor adequate supply of vitamin B12 in plant-based individuals.

4.
Metabolites ; 9(10)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635306

RESUMO

The concentration of thiol and thioether metabolites in plasma has diagnostic value in genetic diseases of B-vitamin metabolism linked to methionine utilization. Among these, cysteine/cystine (Cys/CSSC) and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) act as cellular redox buffers. A new LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous detection of cystathionine (Cysta), methionine (Met), methionine sulfoxide (MSO), creatinine and the reduced and oxidized pairs of homocysteine (Hcy/HSSH), cysteine (Cys/CSSC) and glutathione (GSH/GSSG). A one-step thiol-blocking protocol with minimal sample preparation was established to determine redox thiol pairs in plasma and cells. The concentrations of diagnostic biomarkers Hcy, Met, Cysta, and Cys in a cohort of healthy adults (n = 53) agreed with reference ranges and published values. Metabolite concentrations were also validated in commercial samples of human, mouse, rat and Beagle dog plasma and by the use of a standardized ERNDIM quality control. Analysis of fibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells, human embryonic stem cells, and cancer cell lines showed cell specificity for both the speciation and concentration of thiol and thioether metabolites. This LC-MS/MS platform permits the fast and simultaneous quantification of 10 thiol and thioether metabolites and creatinine using 40 µL plasma, urine or culture medium, or 500,000 cells. The sample preparation protocols are directly transferable to automated metabolomic platforms.

5.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 231, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PMM2-CDG (Phosphomannomutase 2 - Congenital disorder of glycosylation-Ia; CDG-Ia) is the most common glycosylation defect, often presenting as a severe multisystem disorder that can be fatal within the first years of life. While mannose treatment has been shown to correct glycosylation in vitro and in vivo in mice, no convincing effects have been observed in short-term treatment trials in single patients so far. RESULTS: We report on a boy with a severe PMM2-CDG who received a continuous intravenous mannose infusion over a period of 5 months during the first year of life in a dose of 0.8 g/kg/day. N-glycosylation of serum glycoproteins and mannose concentrations in serum were studied regularly. Unfortunately, no biochemical or clinical improvement was observed, and the therapy was terminated at age 9 months. CONCLUSION: Postnatal intravenous D-mannose treatment seems to be ineffective in PMM2-CDG.

6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1864(11): 1591-1605, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394165

RESUMO

Medium-chain-triglycerides (MCT) are widely applied in the treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (lcFAOD). Long-term treatment with MCT led to a sexually dimorphic response in the mouse model of very-long-chain-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase-deficiency (VLCAD-/-) with the subsequent development of a metabolic syndrome in female mice. In order to evaluate the molecular mechanisms responsible for this sex specific response we performed a comprehensive metabolic phenotyping, SILAC-based quantitative proteomics and characterized the involved signaling pathways by western blot analysis and gene expression. WT and VLCAD-/- mice showed strong sex-dependent differences in basal metabolism and expression of proteins involved in the distinct metabolic pathways, even more prominent after treatment with octanoate. The investigation of molecular mechanisms responsible for the sexual dimorphisms delineated the selective activation of the ERK/mTORc1 signaling pathway leading to an increased biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in VLCAD-/- females. In contrast, octanoate induced the activation of ERK/PPARγ pathway and the subsequent upregulation of peroxisomal ߭oxidation in males. We here provide first evidence that sex has to be considered as important variable in disease phenotype. These findings may have implications on treatment strategies in the different sexes.

7.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1864(11): 1629-1643, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376476

RESUMO

Malonyl-CoA synthetase (ACSF3) catalyzes the first step of the mitochondrial fatty acid biosynthesis (mtFASII). Mutations in ACSF3 cause CMAMMA a rare inborn error of metabolism. The clinical phenotype is very heterogeneous, with some patients presenting with neurologic manifestations. In some children, presenting symptoms such as coma, ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia are suggestive of an intermediary metabolic disorder. The overall pathophysiological mechanisms are not understood. In order to study the role of mtFASII in the regulation of energy metabolism we performed a comprehensive metabolic phenotyping with Seahorse technology proteomics in fibroblasts from healthy controls and ACSF3 patients. SILAC-based proteomics and lipidomic analysis were performed to investigate the effects of hypofunctional mtFASII on proteome and lipid homeostasis of complex lipids. Our data clearly confirmed an impaired mitochondrial flexibility characterized by reduced mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic flux due to a lower lipoylation degree. These findings were accompanied by the adaptational upregulation of ß-oxidation and by the reduction of anaplerotic amino acids as compensatory mechanism to address the required energy need. Finally, lipidomic analysis demonstrated that the content of the bioactive lipids sphingomyelins and cardiolipins was strongly increased. Our data clearly demonstrate the role of mtFASII in metabolic regulation. Moreover, we show that mtFASII acts as mediator in the lipid-mediated signaling processes in the regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolic flexibility.

8.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 850-856, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957255

RESUMO

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder affecting mitochondrial ß-oxidation. Confirmation diagnostics are mostly based on molecular sequencing of the CPT2 gene, especially to distinguish CPT2 and carnitine:aclycarnitine translocase deficiencies, which present with identical acylcarnitine profiles on newborn screening (NBS). In the past, different enzyme tests in muscle biopsies have been developed in order to study the functional effect in one of the main target organs. In this study, we implemented a method for measurement of CPT2 enzyme activity in human lymphocytes with detection of the reaction products via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to enable the simultaneous evaluation of the functional impairment and the clear diagnosis of the disease. CPT2 activity was measured in samples collected from CPT2 patients (n = 11), heterozygous carriers (n = 6), and healthy individuals (n = 52). Seven patients out of 11 were homozygous for the common mutation c.338T>C and showed a residual activity with median values of 19.2 ± 3.7% of healthy controls. Heterozygous carriers showed a residual activity in the range of 42% to 75%. Four individuals carrying the heterozygous mutation c.338T>C showed a 2-fold higher residual activity as compared to homozygous individuals. Our optimized method for the measurement of CPT2 activity is able to clearly discriminate between patients and healthy individuals and offers the possibility to determine CPT2 activity in human lymphocytes avoiding the need of an invasive muscle biopsy. This method can be successfully used for confirmation diagnosis in case of positive NBS and would markedly reduce the time to define diagnosis.

9.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 41(6): 1169-1178, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194637

RESUMO

Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) is the most common defect of mitochondrial ß-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. However, the unambiguous diagnosis of true VLCADD patients may be challenging, and a high rate of false positive individuals identified by newborn screening undergo confirmation diagnostics. In this study, we show the outcome of enzyme testing in lymphocytes as a confirmatory tool in newborns identified by screening, and the correlation with molecular sequencing of the ACADVL gene. From April 2013 to March 2017, in 403 individuals with characteristic acylcarnitine profiles indicative of VLCADD, palmitoyl-CoA oxidation was measured followed by molecular genetic analysis in most of the patients with residual activity (RA) <50%. In almost 50% of the samples (209/403) the RA was >50%, one-third of the individuals (125/403) displayed a RA of 30-50% and 69/403 individuals showed a residual activity of 0-30%. Sequencing of the ACADVL gene revealed that all individuals with activities below 24% were true VLCADD patients, individuals with residual activities between 24 and 27% carried either one or two mutations. Twenty new mutations could be identified and functionally classified based on their effect on enzyme function. Finally, we observed an up-regulation of MCAD-activity in many patients. However, this did not correlate with the degree of VLCAD RA. Although the likely clinical phenotype cannot be fully foreseen by genetic and functional tests as it depends on many factors, our data demonstrate the strength of this functional enzyme test in lymphocytes as a quick and reliable method for confirmation diagnostics of VLCADD.


Assuntos
Acil-CoA Desidrogenase de Cadeia Longa/deficiência , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculares/genética , Mutação , Acil-CoA Desidrogenase de Cadeia Longa/genética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Nutr J ; 17(1): 51, 2018 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Patients with MSUD are at risk of life-threatening metabolic decompensations with ketoacidosis and encephalopathy. These episodes are often triggered by physiological stress. Only few cases of pregnancies in MSUD mothers have been reported so far. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the favorable outcome of a pregnancy in a woman with classical MSUD. She presented in the metabolic outpatient clinic in week 7 of gestation. Branched-chain amino acid concentrations were measured at least weekly to adjust dietary leucine intake. Despite excellent compliance, leucine concentrations frequently exceeded the target value of < 300 µmol/L during the first trimester. From the second trimester until delivery, protein and leucine intake increased continuously to about threefold compared to pre-pregnancy values. To maximize patient safety during delivery and the postpartum period, a detailed plan including peripartal infusion therapy, dietary recommendations and monitoring parameters was developed. Primary Caesarean section was performed in week 38 of gestation, and the patient gave birth to a healthy girl. Lactation was successfully implemented. Leucine levels were maintained within the target range throughout the complete postpartum period. In addition to our case, we give an overview about all cases of pregnancies in MSUD mothers published so far. CONCLUSIONS: Management of pregnancy, delivery, postpartum period and lactation may be challenging in patients with MSUD. Careful monitoring and interdisciplinary collaboration is essential to minimize the risk of metabolic crisis, especially after delivery.


Assuntos
Doença da Urina de Xarope de Bordo/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/sangue , Cesárea , Dieta , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Leucina/administração & dosagem , Leucina/sangue , Doença da Urina de Xarope de Bordo/sangue , Doença da Urina de Xarope de Bordo/terapia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(5): 1513-1524, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545352

RESUMO

Background The kidneys have a central role in the generation, turnover, transport, and excretion of metabolites, and these functions can be altered in CKD. Genetic studies of metabolite concentrations can identify proteins performing these functions.Methods We conducted genome-wide association studies and aggregate rare variant tests of the concentrations of 139 serum metabolites and 41 urine metabolites, as well as their pairwise ratios and fractional excretions in up to 1168 patients with CKD.Results After correction for multiple testing, genome-wide significant associations were detected for 25 serum metabolites, two urine metabolites, and 259 serum and 14 urinary metabolite ratios. These included associations already known from population-based studies. Additional findings included an association for the uremic toxin putrescine and variants upstream of an enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deamination of polyamines (AOC1, P-min=2.4×10-12), a relatively high carrier frequency (2%) for rare deleterious missense variants in ACADM that are collectively associated with serum ratios of medium-chain acylcarnitines (P-burden=6.6×10-16), and associations of a common variant in SLC7A9 with several ratios of lysine to neutral amino acids in urine, including the lysine/glutamine ratio (P=2.2×10-23). The associations of this SLC7A9 variant with ratios of lysine to specific neutral amino acids were much stronger than the association with lysine concentration alone. This finding is consistent with SLC7A9 functioning as an exchanger of urinary cationic amino acids against specific intracellular neutral amino acids at the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells.Conclusions Metabolomic indices of specific kidney functions in genetic studies may provide insight into human renal physiology.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Básicos/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Acil-CoA Desidrogenase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Básicos/metabolismo , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/metabolismo , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glutamina/urina , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Lisina/urina , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Putrescina/metabolismo
12.
FEBS Lett ; 592(2): 219-232, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237229

RESUMO

The white skeletal muscle of very long-chain acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase-deficient (VLCAD-/- ) mice undergoes metabolic modification to compensate for defective ß-oxidation in a progressive and time-dependent manner by upregulating glucose oxidation. This metabolic regulation seems to be accompanied by morphologic adaptation of muscle fibers toward the glycolytic fiber type II with the concomitant upregulation of mitochondrial fatty acid biosynthesis (mFASII) and lipoic acid biosynthesis. Dietary supplementation of VLCAD-/- mice with different medium-chain triglycerides over 1 year revealed that odd-chain species has no effect on muscle fiber switch, whereas even-chain species inhibit progressive metabolic adaptation. Our study shows that muscle may undergo adaptive mechanisms that are modulated by dietary supplementation. We describe for the first time a concomitant change of mFASII in this muscular adaptation process.


Assuntos
Acil-CoA Desidrogenase de Cadeia Longa/deficiência , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares de Contração Rápida/fisiologia , Doenças Musculares/metabolismo , Acil-CoA Desidrogenase de Cadeia Longa/metabolismo , Animais , Plasticidade Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem
14.
World J Cardiol ; 9(2): 191-195, 2017 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289534

RESUMO

Aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria) is the most common congenital root anomaly, remaining asymptomatic in most cases. Nevertheless, some of the 20%-40% of those affected present tracheo-esophageal symptoms. We report on a 6-year-old previously healthy girl presenting with progressive dysphagia over 4 wk. Diagnostics including barium swallow, echocardiography and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed a retro-esophageal compression by an aberrant right subclavian artery. Despite the successful, uneventful transposition of this arteria lusoria to the right common carotid via right-sided thoracotomy, the girl was suffering from persisting dysphagia. Another barium swallow showed the persistent compression of the esophagus on the level where the arteria lusoria had originated. As MRA showed no evidence of a significant re-obstruction by the transected vascular stump, we suspected a persisting ligamentum arteriosum. After a second surgical intervention via left-sided thoracotomy consisting of transecting the obviously persisting ligamentum and shortening the remaining arterial stump of the aberrant right subclavian artery, the patient recovered fully. In this case report we discuss the potential relevance of a persisting ligamentum arteriosum for patients with left aortic arch suffering from dysphagia lusoria and rational means of diagnosing, as well as the surgical options to prevent re-do surgery.

15.
J Lipid Res ; 58(1): 196-207, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27884962

RESUMO

A rather new approach in the treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders is represented by triheptanoin, a triglyceride with three medium-odd-chain heptanoic acids (C7), due to its anaplerotic potential. We here investigate the effects of a 1-year triheptanoin-based diet on the clinical phenotype of very long-chain-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase-deficient (VLCAD-/-) mice. The cardiac function was assessed in VLCAD-/- mice by in vivo MRI. Metabolic adaptations were identified by the expression of genes regulating energy metabolism and anaplerotic processes using real-time PCR, and the results were correlated with the measurement of the glycolytic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase. Finally, the intrahepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in response to the long-term triheptanoin diet were assessed. Triheptanoin was not able to prevent the development of systolic dysfunction in VLCAD-/- mice despite an upregulation of cardiac glucose oxidation. Strikingly, the anaplerotic effects of triheptanoin were restricted to the liver. Despite this, the hepatic lipic content was increased upon triheptanoin supplementation. Our data demonstrate that the concept of anaplerosis does not apply to all tissues equally.


Assuntos
Acil-CoA Desidrogenase de Cadeia Longa/genética , Cardiomiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/tratamento farmacológico , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Heptanoicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 223: 1014-1018, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27592043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac catheterisation requiring the use of contrast medium is increasingly utilised in infants with congenital heart disease. Thyroid function in infants is potentially vulnerable to relatively high doses of iodine. METHODS: Single-centre prospective study of 21 patients (10 neonates, 11 infants) exposed to iodine during cardiac catheterisation. Median age was 30days (1-180), median body weight 3.3kg (1.6-7.0). Serum-levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured at baseline before, and at three different times points after intervention. RESULTS: Baseline thyroidal levels were within normal range in all patients. After applying contrast media of median 6.8ml/kg (range 4.5-14.9), we observed a wide range of TSH values: median 5.01µg/l (range 0.59-37.73; reference 0.72-11.0) three to five days after catheterisation. Five of the 10 neonates demonstrated transient TSH elevation consistent with latent hypothyroidism, and a sixth a transient drop in all hormone levels typical of non-thyroidal illness syndrome. However, circulating thyroid hormones remained within normal range, except for two borderline-low fT4 values within the first week after catheterisation that normalised without any medical intervention. CONCLUSION: Systemic iodine exposure during cardiac catherterisation seems to be clinically well tolerated in early infancy. However, exposure to iodine has demonstrable but apparently reversible effects on thyroid hormones during a potentially important developmental period. The implications of this are unclear, but warrant further investigation in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Meios de Contraste , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Hipotireoidismo , Iodo/efeitos adversos , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Iodo/farmacologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estatística como Assunto , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue
17.
Front Mol Biosci ; 3: 27, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27446930

RESUMO

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl, B12) is an indispensable water-soluble micronutrient that serves as a coenzyme for cytosolic methionine synthase (MS) and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). Deficiency of Cbl, whether nutritional or due to inborn errors of Cbl metabolism, inactivate MS and MCM leading to the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), respectively. In conjunction with total B12 and its bioactive protein-bound form, holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC), Hcy, and MMA are the preferred serum biomarkers utilized to determine B12 status. Clinically, vitamin B12 deficiency leads to neurological deterioration and megaloblastic anemia, and, if left untreated, to death. Subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency (usually defined as a total serum B12 of <200 pmol/L) presents asymptomatically or with rather subtle generic symptoms that oftentimes are mistakenly ascribed to unrelated disorders. Numerous studies have now established that serum vitamin B12 has limited diagnostic value as a stand-alone marker. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 not always represent deficiency, and likewise, severe functional deficiency of the micronutrient has been documented in the presence of normal and even high levels of serum vitamin B12. This review discusses the usefulness and limitations of current biomarkers of B12 status in newborn screening, infant and adult diagnostics, the algorithms utilized to diagnose B12 deficiency and unusual findings of vitamin B12 status in various human disorders.

18.
Heart Rhythm ; 13(6): 1335-45, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26854997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Propionic acidemia (PROP) is a rare metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. PROP patients demonstrate QT prolongations associated with ventricular tachycardia and syncopes. Mechanisms responsible for this acquired long QT syndrome (acqLQTS) are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate acute and chronic effects of metabolites accumulating in PROP patients on major repolarizing potassium currents (IKs and IKr) and their channel subunits. METHODS: Voltage clamp studies were performed in CHO-KCNQ1/KCNE1 or HEK-KCNH2 cells to determine effects of propionic acid (PA; 1-10 mM), propionylcarnitine (PC; 25 µM-10 mM), methylcitrate (MC; 25 µM-10 mM), 0.2 M phosphate buffer (PB), or patient serum on IKs and IKr currents. Metabolite effects on action potentials were recorded in current clamp mode in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM). Protein expression of α- and ß-subunits of IKs (KCNQ1/KCNE1) and IKr (KCNH2) was evaluated with Western blots. RESULTS: Acute application of PA, PC, MC, and patient serum had no direct effect on net IKr densities (and KCNH2 expression), although it changed IKr gating kinetics. In contrast, PA, PC, MC, and patient serum all reduced IKs-tail (-67% ± 4.2%, -27% ± 6.7%, -16% ± 6.3%, -42.8% ± 5.15; P < .001) and IKs-end pulse currents. PA significantly prolonged action potential duration (APD) in hiPSC-CM and QT interval in wild-type but not in LQT1 rabbits lacking IKs. Moreover, PC and MC (1 mM) decreased KCNQ1 protein expression (relative density: 0.58 ± 0.08 and 0.16 ± 0.05; P < .01). Chronic exposure to 10 mM PA, in contrast, increased KCNQ1 5.4-fold (P < .001) owing to decreased protein degradation. CONCLUSION: Acute reduction of IKs by PROP metabolites may be responsible for APD prolongation and acqLQTS observed in PROP patients.


Assuntos
Metilmalonil-CoA Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Acidemia Propiônica , Animais , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/metabolismo , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/etiologia , Síndrome do QT Longo/fisiopatologia , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/metabolismo , Acidemia Propiônica/complicações , Acidemia Propiônica/metabolismo , Acidemia Propiônica/fisiopatologia , Coelhos , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/prevenção & controle
19.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 11: 7, 2016 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26809514

RESUMO

A call from the EU for the set-up of European Reference Networks (ERNs) is expected to be launched in the first quarter of 2016. ERNs are intended to improve the care for patients with low prevalent or rare diseases throughout the EU by, among other things, facilitating the pooling and exchange of experience and knowledge and the development of protocols and guidelines. In the past, for example where costly orphan drugs have been concerned, industry has played an important role in facilitating consensus meetings and publication of guidelines. The ERNs should provide a unique opportunity for healthcare professionals and patients to lead these activities in an independent way. However, currently costs for networking activities are not to be covered by EU funds and alternative sources of funding are being explored. There is growing concern that any involvement of the industry in the funding of ERNs and their core activities may create a risk of undue influence. To date, the European Commission has not been explicit in how industry will be engaged in ERNs. We believe that public funding and a conflict of interest policy are needed at the level of the ERNs, Centers of Expertise (CEs), healthcare professionals and patient organizations with the aim of maintaining scientific integrity and independence. Specific attention is needed where it concerns the development of clinical practice guidelines. A proposal for a conflict of interest policy is presented, which may support the development of a framework to facilitate collaboration, safeguard professional integrity and to establish and maintain public acceptability and trust among patients, their organizations and the general public.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Defesa do Paciente/normas , Doenças Raras , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
20.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 39(1): 115-24, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26025547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a rare inborn defect disturbing the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine (<200 reported cases). This retrospective study evaluates clinical, biochemical genetic and in vitro enzymatic data in a cohort of 33 patients. METHODS: Clinical, biochemical and treatment data was obtained from physicians by using a questionnaire. MTHFR activity was measured in primary fibroblasts; genomic DNA was extracted from cultured fibroblasts. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients (mean age at follow-up 11.4 years; four deceased; median age at first presentation 5 weeks; 17 females) were included. Patients with very low (<1.5%) mean control values of enzyme activity (n = 14) presented earlier and with a pattern of feeding problems, encephalopathy, muscular hypotonia, neurocognitive impairment, apnoea, hydrocephalus, microcephaly and epilepsy. Patients with higher (>1.7-34.8%) residual enzyme activity had mainly psychiatric symptoms, mental retardation, myelopathy, ataxia and spasticity. Treatment with various combinations of betaine, methionine, folate and cobalamin improved the biochemical and clinical phenotype. During the disease course, patients with very low enzyme activity showed a progression of feeding problems, neurological symptoms, mental retardation, and psychiatric disease while in patients with higher residual enzyme activity, myelopathy, ataxia and spasticity increased. All other symptoms remained stable or improved in both groups upon treatment as did brain imaging in some cases. No clear genotype-phenotype correlation was obvious. DISCUSSION: MTHFR deficiency is a severe disease primarily affecting the central nervous system. Age at presentation and clinical pattern are correlated with residual enzyme activity. Treatment alleviates biochemical abnormalities and clinical symptoms partially.


Assuntos
Homocistinúria/enzimologia , Homocistinúria/genética , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/deficiência , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Espasticidade Muscular/enzimologia , Espasticidade Muscular/genética , Ataxia/genética , Betaína/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Homocistinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Metionina/uso terapêutico , Espasticidade Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/enzimologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/genética , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico
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