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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 55, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) rely on repeat neuropsychological testing. The stability of the applied instruments, which are affected by natural variability in performance and measurement imprecision, is often unclear. We determined the stability of a neuropsychological test battery using a sample of older adults from the general population. Forty-five participants aged 65 to 89 years performed six computerized and non-computerized neuropsychological tests at baseline and again at 7 day and 3 months follow-up sessions. Mean scores on each test were compared across time points using repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) with pairwise comparison. Two-way mixed effects, absolute agreement analyses of variance intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) determined test-retest reliability. RESULTS: All tests had moderate to excellent test-retest reliability during 7-day (ICC range 0.63 to 0.94; all p < 0.01) and 3-month intervals (ICC range 0.60 to 0.92; all p < 0.01) though confidence intervals of ICC estimates were large throughout. Practice effects apparent at 7 days eased off by 3 months. No substantial differences between computerized and non-computerized tests were observed. We conclude that the present six-test neuropsychological test battery is appropriate for use in POCD research though small sample size of our study needs to be recognized as a limitation. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02265263 (15th October 2014).

2.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Presurgical cognitive impairment (PreCI) is frequently seen in older age, but the influence on postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains unclear. The present study sought to determine the association between PreCI, POD and POCD with special focus to different PreCI domains. METHODS: We analyzed 934 patients with complete baseline neurocognitive assessment. PreCI was determined as cognitive performance of at least 2 standard deviation (SD) below the mean performance of non-surgical controls. POD was assessed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4 (DSM-4). POCD at 3 months follow-up was calculated by the reliable change index (RCI). Associations between PreCI and POD or POCD were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, randomization, ASA status, type of anesthesia and type of surgery. RESULTS: PreCI was significantly associated with POD [OR 1.936 (95%CI 1.119 to 3.348); p=0.015] and POCD [OR 3.091 (95%CI 1.287 to 7.426); p=0.012]. Patients with coincident PreCI and POD were significantly more likely to develop POCD [OR 6.131 (95%CI 1.476 to 22.364); p=0.007]. Differentiation between no PreCI, amnestic and non-amnestic PreCI revealed a sole influence of amnestic PreCI on POD and POCD. CONCLUSIONS: Patients ≥ 60 years with PreCI were more likely to develop POD and POCD, respectively. The odds for POCD were highest in patients with PreCI whom also suffered from POD. Amnestic rather than non-amnestic PreCI might play a key role in the development of POD and POCD. These results warrant further pathophysiological investigations and demand preventive strategies.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900470

RESUMO

Frailty is a geriatric syndrome defined by coexistence of unintentional weight loss, low physical reserve or activity and is associated with adverse health events. Neuroimaging studies reported structural white matter changes in frail patients. In the current study, we hypothesized that clinical frailty is associated also with functional changes in motion-related cortical areas, i. e. (pre-)supplementary motor areas (SMA, pre-SMA). We expected that observed functional changes are related to motor-cognitive test performance. We studied a clinical sample of 143 cognitively healthy patients ≥65 years presenting for elective surgery, enrolled in the BioCog prospective multicentric cohort study on postoperative cognitive disorders. Participants underwent preoperative resting-state fMRI, motor-cognitive testing and assessment of Fried's modified frailty criteria. We analyzed functional connectivity associations with frailty and motor-cognitive test performance. Clinically robust patients (N=60) showed higher connectivity in the SMA network compared to frail (N=13) and pre-frail (N=70) patients. No changes were found in the pre-SMA network. SMA connectivity correlated with motor speed (Trail-Making-Test A) and manual dexterity (Grooved Pegboard Test). Our results suggest that diminished functional connectivity of the SMA is an early correlate of functional decline in the elderly. The SMA may serve as a potential treatment target in frailty.

4.
Behav Brain Res ; 381: 112352, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722240

RESUMO

The radial arm maze (RAM) is a common behavioral test to assess spatial working and reference memory in mice. However, conventional RAM experiments require a substantial degree of manual handling and animals are usually subjected to prolonged periods of food or water deprivation to achieve sufficient learning motivation resulting in stress-induced confounding effects and unwanted intra- and inter-subject variation. In a proof-of-concept approach to improve reliability and repeatability of results by refining the conventional maze methodology, we developed a voluntary, fully automated 8-arm RAM and tested its feasibility and usability using both spatial working and combined working/reference memory paradigms in ten female C57BL/6J mice. We demonstrate that experimental procedures of up to 7 days duration could be conducted without any manual animal handling and that mice up to 18 months of age showed robust spatial learning performance without any food or water restrictions being applied. Therefore, a voluntary, automated 8-arm RAM can serve to minimize variation in experimental results by reducing an animal's distress, suffering, and pain, which, in turn, contributes to the comprehensive application of 3R principles.

5.
J Clin Anesth ; 61: 109632, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common complication after surgery. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the association between preoperative anticholinergic load calculated using the anticholinergic drug scale (ADS) and POD in cancer patients over 65 years of age. DESIGN: A retrospective sub-investigation of a randomised controlled interventional trial. SETTING: Two tertiary university hospitals. PATIENTS: Overall, patients aged 65 years and older scheduled for surgical treatment of gastrointestinary, genitourinary or gynaecological cancers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the interaction between anticholinergic drug scale and occurrence of postoperative delirium. Patient clinical parameters and ADS scores were assessed preoperatively. POD screening was conducted for a total of 7 days following surgery using validated measures. Independent associations between ADS and POD were assessed using multivariate logistical regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 651 patients (mean age, 71.8 years; 68.5% males) were included. Of those, 66 patients (10.1%) developed POD. The ADS score was independently associated with the occurrence of POD (higher ADS per point OR 1.496; 95% CI 1.09-2.05; p = 0.01). Additionally, age (per year OR 1.06; CI 95% CI 1.01-1.11; p = 0.03) and ASA state (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.22-3.83; p = 0.01), as well as stay on ICU (yes vs. no OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.57-4.998; p < 0.01), were independently associated with POD. CONCLUSIONS: ADS assessment according to chronic medication use is a cost-effective, non-invasive method of identifying elderly cancer patients at risk for POD. TRIAL REGISTRY: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier NCT01278537. Ethics: IRB of Charité University-Medicine Berlin, Germany; EA2/241/08.

6.
Anesth Analg ; 130(2): 341-351, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle failure in critical illness (intensive care unit-acquired weakness) is a well-known complication developing early during intensive care unit stay. However, muscle weakness during the perioperative setting has not yet been investigated. METHODS: We performed a subgroup investigation of a prospective observational trial to investigate perioperative muscle weakness. Eighty-nine patients aged 65 years or older were assessed for handgrip strength preoperatively, on the first postoperative day, at intensive care unit discharge, at hospital discharge, and at 3-month follow-up. Functional status was evaluated perioperatively via Barthel index, instrumental activities of daily living, Timed Up and Go test, and functional independence measure. After exclusion of patients with intensive care unit-acquired weakness or intensive care unit stay of ≥72 hours, 59 patients were included into our analyses. Of these, 14 patients had additional pulmonary function tests preoperatively and on postoperative day 1. Blood glucose was measured intraoperatively every 20 minutes. RESULTS: Handgrip strength significantly decreased after surgery on postoperative day 1 by 16.4% (P < .001). Postoperative pulmonary function significantly decreased by 13.1% for vital capacity (P = .022) and 12.6% for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P = .001) on postoperative day 1. Handgrip strength remained significantly reduced at hospital discharge (P = .016) and at the 3-month follow-up (P = .012). Perioperative glucose levels showed no statistically significant impact on muscle weakness. Instrumental activities of daily living (P < .001) and functional independence measure (P < .001) were decreased at hospital discharge, while instrumental activities of daily living remained decreased at the 3-month follow-up (P = .026) compared to preoperative assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperatively acquired weakness occurred, indicated by a postoperatively decreased handgrip strength, decreased respiratory muscle function, and impaired functional status, which partly remained up to 3 months.

7.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 40(5): 673-686, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826268

RESUMO

Delirium, the most common form of acute brain dysfunction affecting up to 80% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients, has been shown to predict long-term cognitive impairment, one of the domains in "Post-ICU Syndrome" (PICS). The ICU environment affects several potentially modifiable risk factors for delirium, such as disorientation and disruption, of the sleep-wake cycle. Innovative solutions aim to transform standard concepts of ICU room design to limit potential stressors, and utilizing the patient care space as a treatment tool, exerting positive, therapeutic effects. The main areas affected by most architectural and interior design modifications are sound environment, light control, floor planning, and room arrangement. Implementation of corresponding solutions is challenging considering the significant medical and technical demands of ICUs. This article discusses innovative concepts and promising approaches in ICU design that may be used to prevent stress and to support the healing process of patients, potentially limiting the impact of delirium and PICS.

8.
Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther ; 54(11-12): 652-667, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805585

RESUMO

Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (pNCD) are relevant to long term treatment outcome after elective surgery. The detection of pNCD is challenging and based on extended neuropsychological testing that often is not feasible due to economy driven time constraints during preoperative risk assessment. Only recently new recommendations for the nomenclature of cognitive change associated with anaesthesia and surgery facilitated the transition of the former research diagnosis postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) as a clinical diagnosis based on DSM-5 criteria. In our article we provide an overview of the new recommended diagnostic criteria for pNCD based on the publication by the Nomenclature Consensus Working Group in November 2018. We discuss ideas for the implementation of clinical routine pNCD screening in patients aged 70 years or older with elective surgery and possible options for further support of patients screened positively and their families and care givers.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Transtornos Cognitivos , Delírio , Idoso , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/etiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
9.
Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther ; 54(11-12): 669-683, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805586

RESUMO

Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common and serious complication after surgery. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as neurocognitive disorder and associated loss of autonomy and increased need for care. As professionals, it is our duty to treat our patients in a holistic individual concept with the aim to reintegrate our patients into their home and social environment afterwards. In addition to preoperative and intraoperative interventions, postoperative prevention is of particular importance. This article focuses on non-pharmacological prevention strategies to avoid postoperative delirium and neurocognitive disorder in postoperative inpatient care. It is based on the "Evidence-based and consensus-based guideline on postoperative delirium". Thus, risk factors are addressed and non-pharmacological strategies are presented, which include reorientation, mobilization and nutritional support. Interprofessional cooperation plays just as important a role as the implementation of the listed preventive measures. Finally, the modified Hospital Elder Life Program is presented, which presents and applies preventive measures as a system-oriented and interdisciplinary concept, which "prevents functional decline and allows older adults to return home at the maximal level of independence". From our point of view, the training of a professional delirium team is a future-oriented complementary measure in the treatment concept of Perioperative Neurocognitive Disorders (PND), which finds its justification as an interface in the treatment of high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Delírio , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Idoso , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
10.
Crit Care Med ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hyperferritinemia is frequently seen in critically ill patients. A rather rare though life-threatening condition related to severely elevated ferritin is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We analyze ferritin levels to differentiate hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis from other causes of hyperferritinemia in a mixed cohort of critically ill patients. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Adult surgical, anesthesiologic, and medical ICUs of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Critical care patients (≥ 18 yr old) admitted to any of the adult ICUs at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin between January 2006 and August 2018 with at least one ferritin value and hyperferritinemia (≥ 500 µg/L). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were categorized into hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, sepsis, septic shock, and other diagnoses. These were further categorized into 17 subgroups. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis diagnosis was based on Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-2004 criteria and the HScore. Of 2,623 patients with hyperferritinemia, 40 were considered to have hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (1.52%). Maximum ferritin levels were highest in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients compared with all other disease groups (each p < 0.001). Sepsis and septic shock patients had higher maximum ferritin levels than patients with other diagnoses (each p < 0.001). A maximum ferritin value of 9,083 µg/L was at 92.5% sensitivity and 91.9% specificity for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (area under the curve, 0.963; 95% CI, 0.949-0.978). Of all subgroups with other diagnoses, maximum ferritin levels were highest in patients with varicella-zoster virus, hepatitis, or malaria (median, 1,935, 1,928, and 1,587 µg/L, respectively). Maximum ferritin levels were associated with increased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.518 per log µg/L [95% CI, 1.384-1.665 per log µg/L]; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study of patients with ferritin available in a mixed ICU cohort. Ferritin levels in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, sepsis, septic shock, and other conditions were distinctly different, with the highest ferritin levels observed in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients. Maximum ferritin of 9,083 µg/L showed high sensitivity and specificity and, therefore, may contribute to improved diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in ICU. The inclusion of ferritin into the sepsis laboratory panel is warranted.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a severe brain dysfunction. Although data indicate a high relevance, no survey has investigated the routine practice to monitor delirium outside the ICU setting after surgery. Prior to publishing of the new European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) guidelines on POD, an international survey was conducted to assess current practice. METHODS: European Society of Anaesthesiology-endorsed online survey; Trial Registration: NCT-identifier: 02513537. RESULTS: In total, 566 respondents from 62 countries accessed, and 564 (99.6%) completed the survey (completion rate). Overall, 385 (68%) of the respondents reported that delirium is either "very relevant" or "relevant" for their daily clinical practice. In all, 38 (7%) of the respondents routinely monitor for delirium in >50% of all patients. Asked on the monitoring time point, more than half (n = 308, 55%) indicated to screen before or at recovery room discharge, 235 (42%) up to the first postoperative day, 143 (25%) up to 3 days, and 77 (14%) up to 5 postoperative days. Although there is a lack of long-term monitoring, nearly all respondents (n = 530, 94%) reported to treat delirium. Availability of EEG/EMG-based monitoring to assess the depth of anaesthesia was high in the study group (n = 547, 97%) and was used by more than one-third of the respondents to reduce risk of burst suppression (n = 189, 34%). CONCLUSION: Although delirium is perceived as a relevant condition among anaesthesiologists, there is a high demand for implementing monitoring strategies after publishing of the POD Guideline. The survey shows that tools necessary for POD Guideline implementation are available in the centres represented by the respondents.

12.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e032695, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666276

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in adults is characterised by toxic immune activation and a sepsis-like syndrome, leading to high numbers of undiagnosed cases and mortality rates of up to 68%. Early diagnosis and specific immune suppressive treatment are mandatory to avoid fatal outcome, but the diagnostic criteria (HLH-2004) are adopted from paediatric HLH and have not been validated in adults. Experimental studies suggest biomarkers to sufficiently diagnose HLH. However, biomarkers for the diagnosis of adult HLH have not yet been investigated. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The HEMICU (Diagnostic biomarkers for adult haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in critically ill patients) study aims to estimate the incidence rate of adult HLH among suspected adult patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Screening for HLH will be performed in 16 ICUs of Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. The inclusion criteria are bicytopaenia, hyperferritinaemia (≥500 µg/L), fever or when HLH is suspected by the clinician. Over a period of 2 years, we expect inclusion of about 100 patients with suspected HLH. HLH will be diagnosed if at least five of the HLH-2004 criteria are fulfilled, together with an expert review; all other included patients will serve as controls. Second, a panel of potential biomarker candidates will be explored. DNA, plasma and serum will be stored in a biobank. The primary endpoint of the study is the incidence rate of adult HLH among suspected adult patients during ICU stay. Out of a variety of measured biomarkers, this study furthermore aims to find highly potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of adult HLH in ICU. The results of this study will contribute to improved recognition and patient outcome of adult HLH in clinical routine. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The institutional ethics committee approved this study on 1 August 2018 (Ethics Committee of Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, EA4/006/18). The results of the study will be disseminated in an international peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03510650.

13.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 19(1): 204, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is a frequent and underdiagnosed functional syndrome involving reduced physiological reserves and an increased vulnerability against stressors, with severe individual and socioeconomic consequences. A routine frailty assessment was implemented at our preoperative anaesthesia clinic to identify patients at risk. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship between frailty status and the incidence of in-hospital postoperative complications in elderly surgical patients across several surgical disciplines. DESIGN: Retrospective observational analysis. SETTING: Single center, major tertiary care university hospital. Data collection took place between June 2016 and March 2017. PATIENTS: Patients 65 years old or older were evaluated for frailty using Fried's 5-point frailty assessment prior to elective non-cardiac surgery. Patients were classified into non-frail (0 criteria, reference group), pre-frail (1-2 positive criteria) and frail (3-5 positive criteria) groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence of postoperative complications was assessed until discharge from the hospital, using the roster from the National VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: From 1186 elderly patients, 46.9% were classified as pre-frail (n = 556), and 11.4% as frail (n = 135). The rate of complications were significantly higher in the pre-frail (34.7%) and frail groups (47.4%), as compared to the non-frail group (27.5%). Similarly, length of stay (non-frail: 5.0 [3.0;7.0], pre-frail: 7.0 [3.0;9.0], frail 8.0 [4.5;12.0]; p < 0.001) and discharges to care facilities (non-frail:1.6%, pre-frail: 7.4%, frail: 17.8%); p < 0.001) were significantly associated with frailty status. After propensity score matching and logistic regression analysis, the risk for developing postoperative complications was approximately two-fold for pre-frail (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.04-3.05) and frail (OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.21-3.60) patients. CONCLUSIONS: The preoperative frailty assessment of elderly patients identified pre-frail and frail subgroups to have the highest rate of postoperative complications, regardless of age, surgical discipline, and surgical risk. Significantly increased length of hospitalisation and discharges to care facilities were also observed. Implementation of routine frailty assessments appear to be an effective tool in identifying patients with increased risk. Now future studies are needed to investigate whether patients benefit from optimization of patient counselling, process planning, and risk reduction protocols based on the application of risk stratification.

14.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 116(38): 627-634, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Illnesses that necessitate intensive care can impair cognitive function severely over the long term, leaving patients less able to cope with the demands of everyday living and markedly lowering their quality of life. There has not yet been any comprehensive study of the cognitive sequelae of critical illness among non- surgical patients treated in intensive care. The purpose of this review is to present the available study findings on cognitive deficits in such patients, with particular at- tention to prevalence, types of deficit, clinical course, risk factors, prevention, and treatment. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in MEDLINE. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 3360 hits, among which there were 14 studies that met our inclusion criteria. 17-78% of patients had cognitive deficits after dis- charge from the intensive care unit; most had never had a cognitive deficit before. Cognitive impairment often persisted for up to several years after discharge (0.5 to 9 years) and tended to improve over time. The only definite risk factor is delirium. CONCLUSION: Cognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of the treatment of non-surgical patients in intensive care units. It is a serious problem for the affected persons and an increasingly important socio-economic problem as well. The effective management of delirium is very important. General conclusions are hard to draw from the available data because of heterogeneous study designs, varying methods of measurement, and differences among patient cohorts. Further studies are needed so that study designs and clinical testing procedures can be standard- ized and effective measures for prevention and treatment can be identified.

15.
Transfusion ; 59(12): 3589-3600, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) have the potential to impact the immunosurveillance of the recipient and may therefore increase the risk of recurrence after cancer surgery. In this article the relationship between perioperative RBC transfusion and the risk of recurrence after ovarian cancer surgery is examined. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospective database of patients who underwent surgery due to primary ovarian cancer between 2006 and 2014 and who had no residual disease after surgery. Patients who did and did not receive perioperative RBC transfusion were compared. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Propensity score matching (PSM) and Cox proportional hazards regression (CPH) was used to control for between-group differences of prognostic determinants. RESULTS: A total of 529 patients with a median follow-up of 51.4 months (95% CI, 46.1-56.5) were eligible for analysis. Of those, 408 patients (77.1%) received allogeneic, leukoreduced RBCs with a median of 4 units (IQR, 2-6) per patient. There was a strong selection bias of prognostic determinants between patients with and without transfusion. In unadjusted analysis, transfusion of RBCs was associated with an increased risk of cancer recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] of PFS 2.71 [95% CI, 1.94-3.77], p < 0.001). After bias reduction, transfusion of RBCs was no longer associated with an increased risk of cancer recurrence, neither in PSM-adjusted (HR 1.03 [95% CI, 0.59-1.80], p = 0.91), nor in multivariable CPH-adjusted analysis (HR 1.26 [95% CI, 0.85-1.86], p = 0.23). CONCLUSION: Perioperative transfusion of RBCs did not increase the risk of recurrence after ovarian cancer surgery.

16.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(Suppl 6): S192, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656771
17.
Minerva Pediatr ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different studies in adults reported significant outcome improvement for patients treated with high adherence to guidelines. The present study was initiated to evaluate the impact of adherence to antibiotic prescription guidelines on health outcomes of children on paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) suffering from pneumonia. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on a paediatric intensive care unit at Charité hospital Berlin. All patients with a length of stay (LOS) >24 hours, age <18 years, antimicrobial therapies and a radiologically confirmed diagnosis of pneumonia according to the "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention" definitions were included during the study period of 2009 and 2010. Adherence to national guidelines was evaluated daily and two groups were defined: Low adherence group (LAG) with a presence of <70% of days with compliant therapy and high adherence group (HAG) with an adherence of ≥70%. RESULTS: High adherence was observed in 65 patients compared with 61 in low-adherence group. Number of patients needing invasive ventilation did not vary between HAG and LAG (n=37 vs. n=41; p=0.235). There was a statistically significant shorter duration of ventilation in HAG patients (p=0.031). Time to clinical recovery from pneumonia tended to be shorter in HAG patients (7.5d vs. 10.9d; p=0.07). There was a significant reduction in LOS in HAG patients (9.3d vs. 13.7d; p=0.016). However, mortality appeared comparable between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to previous evidence in adult patients children with pneumonia seem to benefit from guideline-based antibiotic therapy. Further studies are needed to explore strategies to improve guideline adherence.

18.
Tob Induc Dis ; 17: 26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582937

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emergency departments (EDs) are opportune places for tobacco control interventions. The 'Tobacco Control in an Urban Emergency Department' (TED) study, ISRCTN41527831, originally evaluated the effect of motivational interviewing on-site plus up to four booster telephone calls on 12-month abstinence. This study's aim was to evaluate the effect of the intervention on 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at 10 years follow-up (primary outcome) as well as on repeated point-prevalence abstinence at 1, 3, 6, 12 months and at 10 years (continual smoking abstinence, secondary outcome). METHODS: At the 10 years follow-up and after informed consent, study participants responded to a mailed questionnaire. The primary outcome was analyzed in observed-only and in all-cases analyses. The secondary outcomes were analyzed using a multiple adjusted GLMM for binary outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 1012 TED-study participants, 986 (97.4%) were alive and 231 (23.4% of 986) responded to the follow-up at 10 years. For observed-only and all-cases analyses, the effect of the baseline intervention on 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at the 10 years follow-up was statistically non-significant. However, when taking into account all repeated measures, the intervention significantly influenced continual abstinence with odds ratio 1.32 (95% CI: 1.01-1.73; p=0.042). Baseline motivation, perceived self-efficacy to stop smoking, and nicotine dependency were independently associated with long-term continual smoking abstinence (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A conventional analysis failed to confirm a significant effect of the ED-initiated tobacco control intervention on the point-prevalence abstinence at 10 years. Results from a more integrative analysis nonetheless indicated an enduring intervention effect on continual abstinence among smokers first encountered in the emergency department setting 10 years earlier.

19.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 48(1-2): 83-92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive abilities decline with aging, leading to a higher risk for the development of postoperative delirium or postoperative neurocognitive disorders after general anesthesia. Since frontal α-band power is known to be highly correlated with cognitive function in general, we hypothesized that preoperative cognitive impairment is associated with lower baseline and intraoperative frontal α-band power in older adults. METHODS: Patients aged ≥65 years undergoing elective surgery were included in this prospective observational study. Cognitive function was assessed on the day before surgery using six age-sensitive cognitive tests. Scores on those tests were entered into a principal component analysis to calculate a composite "g score" of global cognitive ability. Patient groups were dichotomized into a lower cognitive group (LC) reaching the lower 1/3 of "g scores" and a normal cognitive group (NC) consisting of the upper 2/3 of "g scores." Continuous pre- and intraoperative frontal electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded. EEG spectra were analyzed at baseline, before start of anesthesia medication, and during a stable intraoperative period. Significant differences in band power between the NC and LC groups were computed by using a frequency domain (δ 0.5-3 Hz, θ 4-7 Hz, α 8-12 Hz, ß 13-30 Hz)-based bootstrapping algorithm. RESULTS: Of 38 included patients (mean age 72 years), 24 patients were in the NC group, and 14 patients had lower cognitive abilities (LC). Intraoperative α-band power was significantly reduced in the LC group compared to the NC group (NC -1.6 [-4.48/1.17] dB vs. LC -6.0 [-9.02/-2.64] dB), and intraoperative α-band power was positively correlated with "g score" (Spearman correlation: r = 0.381; p = 0.018). Baseline EEG power did not show any associations with "g." CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative cognitive impairment in older adults is associated with intraoperative absolute frontal α-band power, but not baseline α-band power.

20.
Crit Care Med ; 47(11): e911-e918, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mechanical ventilation can cause ventilator-induced brain injury via afferent vagal signaling and hippocampal neurotransmitter imbalances. The triggering mechanisms for vagal signaling during mechanical ventilation are unknown. The objective of this study was to assess whether pulmonary transient receptor potential vanilloid type-4 (TRPV4) mechanoreceptors and vagal afferent purinergic receptors (P2X) act as triggers of ventilator-induced brain injury. DESIGN: Controlled, human in vitro and ex vivo studies, as well as murine in vivo laboratory studies. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Wild-type, TRPV4-deficient C57BL/6J mice, 8-10 weeks old. Human postmortem lung tissue and human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. INTERVENTION: Mice subjected to mechanical ventilation were studied using functional MRI to assess hippocampal activity. The effects of lidocaine (a nonselective ion-channel inhibitor), P2X-purinoceptor antagonist (iso-PPADS), or genetic TRPV4 deficiency on hippocampal dopamine-dependent pro-apoptotic signaling were studied in mechanically ventilated mice. Human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were used to study the effects of mechanical stretch on TRPV4 and P2X expression and activation. TRPV4 levels were measured in postmortem lung tissue from ventilated and nonventilated patients. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Hippocampus functional MRI analysis revealed considerable changes in response to the increase in tidal volume during mechanical ventilation. Intratracheal lidocaine, iso-PPADS, and TRPV4 genetic deficiency protected mice against ventilationinduced hippocampal pro-apoptotic signaling. Mechanical stretch in both, BEAS-2B cells and ventilated wild-type mice, resulted in TRPV4 activation and reduced Trpv4 and P2x expression. Intratracheal replenishment of adenosine triphosphate in Trpv4 mice abrogated the protective effect of TRPV4 deficiency. Autopsy lung tissue from ventilated patients showed decreased lung TRPV4 levels compared with nonventilated CONCLUSIONS:: TRPV4 mechanosensors and purinergic receptors are involved in the mechanisms of ventilator-induced brain injury. Inhibition of this neural signaling, either using nonspecific or specific inhibitors targeting the TRPV4/adenosine triphosphate/P2X signaling axis, may represent a novel strategy to prevent or treat ventilator-induced brain injury.

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