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1.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Opioid prescription rates worldwide suggest miscalibrated risk perceptions among those who prescribe, dispense, and take opioids. Findings from cognitive science show that risk perceptions can differ systematically depending on whether people learn about risks by description or experience. We investigated the effects of descriptive and simulated experience risk formats on patients' risk perceptions and behavior regarding long-term strong opioid use. METHODS: 300 German patients with chronic noncancer pain were randomly assigned in an exploratory randomized controlled trial to either a descriptive format (fact box) or a simulated experience format (interactive simulation). Primary endpoints were subjective and objective risk perceptions and intended intake behavior. RESULTS: Both formats significantly improved patients' objective risk perception; patients who saw the fact box estimated some outcomes more accurately (p = .031). Formats were equally effective in improving patients' subjective risk perception in terms of opioids' harms; however, patients receiving the simulation showed a greater reduction and termination of their opioid intake (p = .030) and a higher uptake of alternative therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Descriptive and simulated experience risk formats improve risk perceptions and behavior regarding potent but highly risky drugs. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: To eliminate risky behavior, simulated experience formats may be superior to descriptive formats.

2.
MDM Policy Pract ; 6(2): 23814683211042832, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604531

RESUMO

Objectives. High opioid prescription rates in the United States and Europe suggest miscalibrated risk perceptions among those who prescribe, dispense, and take opioids. Findings from cognitive decision science suggest that risk perceptions and behaviors can differ depending on whether people learn about risks by experience or description. This study investigated effects of a descriptive versus an experience-based risk education format on pharmacists' risk perceptions and counseling behavior in the long-term administration of strong opioids to patients with chronic noncancer pain. Methods. In an exploratory, randomized controlled online trial, 300 German pharmacists were randomly assigned to either a descriptive format (fact box) or a simulated experience format (interactive simulation). Primary Outcome Measures. 1) Objective risk perception, 2) subjective risk perception, and 3) intended and 4) actual counseling behavior. Results. Both risk formats significantly improved pharmacists' objective risk perception, but pharmacists exposed to the fact box estimated the benefit-harm ratio more accurately than those exposed to the simulation. Both formats proved equally effective in adjusting pharmacists' subjective risk perception toward a better recognition of opioids' harms; however, pharmacists receiving the simulation showed a greater change in their actual counseling behavior and higher consistency between their intended and actual counseling than pharmacists receiving the fact box. Conclusion. The simulated experience format was less effective than the descriptive format in improving pharmacists' objective risk perception, equally effective in motivating pharmacists to counsel patients on less risky treatment alternatives and more effective in changing the reported actual counseling behavior. Implications. These exploratory findings provide important insights into the relevance of the description-experience gap for drug safety and raise questions for future research regarding the specific mechanisms at work.

3.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 248, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) are frequent and serious complications after surgery. We aim to investigate the association between genetic variants in cholinergic candidate genes according to the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes - pathway: cholinergic neurotransmission with the development of POD or POCD in elderly patients. METHODS: This analysis is part of the European BioCog project ( www.biocog.eu ), a prospective multicenter observational study with elderly surgical patients. Patients with a Mini-Mental-State-Examination score ≤ 23 points were excluded. POD was assessed up to seven days after surgery using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale, Confusion Assessment Method and a patient chart review. POCD was assessed three months after surgery with a neuropsychological test battery. Genotyping was performed on the Illumina Infinium Global Screening Array. Associations with POD and POCD were analyzed using logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, comorbidities and duration of anesthesia (for POCD analysis additionally for education). Odds ratios (OR) refer to minor allele counts (0, 1, 2). RESULTS: 745 patients could be included in the POD analysis, and 452 in the POCD analysis. The rate of POD within this group was 20.8% (155 patients), and the rate of POCD was 10.2% (46 patients). In a candidate gene approach three genetic variants of the cholinergic genes CHRM2 and CHRM4 were associated with POD (OR [95% confidence interval], rs8191992: 0.61[0.46; 0.80]; rs8191992: 1.60[1.22; 2.09]; rs2067482: 1.64[1.10; 2.44]). No associations were found for POCD. CONCLUSIONS: We found an association between genetic variants of CHRM2 and CHRM4 and POD. Further studies are needed to investigate whether disturbances in acetylcholine release and synaptic plasticity are involved in the development of POD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02265263.

4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(9)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577853

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Mortality on Intensive Care Units (ICUs) is high and death frequently occurs after decisions to limit life-sustaining therapies. An advance directive is a tool meant to preserve patient autonomy by guiding anticipated future treatment decisions once decision-making capacity is lost. Since September 2009, advance directives are legally binding for the caregiver team and the patients' surrogate decision-maker in Germany. The change in frequencies of end-of-life decisions (EOLDs) and completed advance directives among deceased ICU patients ten years after the enactment of a law on advance directives in Germany is unknown. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis on all deceased patients of surgical ICUs of a German university medical center from 08/2008 to 09/2009 and from 01/2019 to 09/2019. Frequency of EOLDs and advance directives and the process of EOLDs were compared between patients admitted before and after the change in legislation. (No. of ethical approval EA2/308/20) Results: Significantly more EOLDs occurred in the 2019 cohort compared to the 2009 cohort (85.8% vs. 70.7% of deceased patients, p = 0.006). The number of patients possessing an advance directive to express a living or therapeutic will was higher in the 2019 cohort compared to the 2009 cohort (26.4% vs. 8.9%; difference: 17.5%, p < 0.001). Participation of the patients' family in the EOLD process (74.7% vs. 60.9%; difference: 13.8%, p = 0.048) and the frequency of documentation of EOLD-relevant information (50.0% vs. 18.7%; difference: 31.3%, p < 0.001) increased from 2009 to 2019. Discussion: During a ten-year period from 2009 to 2019, the frequency of EOLDs and the completion rate of advance directives have increased considerably. In addition, EOLD-associated communication and documentation have further improved.


Assuntos
Diretivas Antecipadas , Tomada de Decisões , Cuidados Críticos , Morte , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501376

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to synthesize quantitative research that identified ranking lists of the most severe stressors of patients in the intensive care unit, as perceived by patients, relatives, and health care professionals (HCP). We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library from 1989 to 15 May 2020. Data were analyzed with descriptive and semi-quantitative methods to yield summarizing ranking lists of the most severe stressors. We synthesized the results of 42 prospective cross-sectional observational studies from different international regions. All investigations had assessed patient ratings. Thirteen studies also measured HCP ratings, and four studies included ratings of relatives. Data indicated that patients rate the severity of stressors lower than HCPs and relatives do. Out of all ranking lists, we extracted 137 stressor items that were most frequently ranked among the most severe stressors. After allocation to four domains, a group of clinical ICU experts sorted these stressors with good to excellent agreement according to their stress levels. Our results may contribute to improve HCPs' and relatives' understanding of patients' perceptions of stressors in the ICU. The synthesized stressor rankings can be used for the development of new assessment instruments of stressors.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575204

RESUMO

The benzodiazepine, midazolam, is one of the most frequently used sedatives in intensive care medicine, but it has an unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile when continuously applied. As a consequence, patients are frequently prolonged and more deeply sedated than intended. Due to its distinct pharmacological features, including a cytochrome P450-independent metabolization, intravenous lormetazepam might be clinically advantageous compared to midazolam. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared patients who received either intravenous lormetazepam or midazolam with respect to their survival and sedation characteristics. The cohort included 3314 mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients that received one of the two drugs in a tertiary medical center in Germany between 2006 and 2018. A Cox proportional hazards model with mortality as outcome and APACHE II, age, gender, and admission mode as covariates revealed a hazard ratio of 1.75 [95% CI 1.46-2.09; p < 0.001] for in-hospital mortality associated with the use of midazolam. After additionally adjusting for sedation intensity, the HR became 1.04 [95% CI 0.83-1.31; p = 0.97]. Thus, we concluded that excessive sedation occurs more frequently in critically ill patients treated with midazolam than in patients treated with lormetazepam. These findings require further investigation in prospective trials to assess if lormetazepam, due to its ability to maintain light sedation, might be favorable over other benzodiazepines for sedation in the ICU.

7.
Eur J Pain ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strong opioids can have unintended effects. Clinical studies of strong opioids mainly report physical side effects, psychiatric or opioid use disorders. To date, too little attention has been paid to the psychological effects of opioids to treat patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). This study aims to identify and measure (i) the nature and frequency of physical and psychological effects and (ii) the degree of physician counseling of patients with CNCP taking strong opioids. METHODS: Within a cross-sectional survey-conducted as part of a randomised controlled online intervention trial (ERONA [Experiencing the risk of overusing opioids among patients with chronic non-cancer pain in ambulatory care])-300 German CNCP patients were surveyed via patient-reported outcome measures regarding on both the side effects from their use of strong opioids as well as their counselling experience. RESULTS: Among the patients' reported effects, the psychological outcomes of the opioids in CNCP were: feeling relaxed (84%), fatigue (76%), dizziness (57%), listlessness (37%), difficulty with mental activities (23%), dulled emotions (17%) and poor memory (17%). Ninety-two per cent of the patients reported having received information about opioid effects, and 46% had discussed cessation of the opioid medication with their physicians before commencing the prescription. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the well-known physical side effects, patients with CNCP taking strong opioids experience significant psychological effects. In view of these effects, discontinuation of opioid therapy should be discussed early to ensure their benefits do not outweigh their harm. SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, patients with non-cancer pain notice that opioids they have taken do not only cause physical side effects but also may have an impact on their psyche and their emotions and, thus, may also affect quality of life substantially. Clinical trial number: DRKS00020358.

8.
Anesth Analg ; 133(6): 1598-1607, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative electroencephalography (EEG) signatures related to the development of postoperative delirium (POD) in older patients are frequently studied. However, a broad analysis of the EEG dynamics including preoperative, postinduction, intraoperative and postoperative scenarios and its correlation to POD development is still lacking. We explored the relationship between perioperative EEG spectra-derived parameters and POD development, aiming to ascertain the diagnostic utility of these parameters to detect patients developing POD. METHODS: Patients aged ≥65 years undergoing elective surgeries that were expected to last more than 60 minutes were included in this prospective, observational single center study (Biomarker Development for Postoperative Cognitive Impairment [BioCog] study). Frontal EEGs were recorded, starting before induction of anesthesia and lasting until recovery of consciousness. EEG data were analyzed based on raw EEG files and downloaded excel data files. We performed multitaper spectral analyses of relevant EEG epochs and further used multitaper spectral estimate to calculate a corresponding spectral parameter. POD assessments were performed twice daily up to the seventh postoperative day. Our primary aim was to analyze the relation between the perioperative spectral edge frequency (SEF) and the development of POD. RESULTS: Of the 237 included patients, 41 (17%) patients developed POD. The preoperative EEG in POD patients was associated with lower values in both SEF (POD 13.1 ± 4.6 Hz versus no postoperative delirium [NoPOD] 17.4 ± 6.9 Hz; P = .002) and corresponding γ-band power (POD -24.33 ± 2.8 dB versus NoPOD -17.9 ± 4.81 dB), as well as reduced postinduction absolute α-band power (POD -7.37 ± 4.52 dB versus NoPOD -5 ± 5.03 dB). The ratio of SEF from the preoperative to postinduction state (SEF ratio) was ~1 in POD patients, whereas NoPOD patients showed a SEF ratio >1, thus indicating a slowing of EEG with loss of unconscious. Preoperative SEF, preoperative γ-band power, and SEF ratio were independently associated with POD (P = .025; odds ratio [OR] = 0.892, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.808-0.986; P = .029; OR = 0.568, 95% CI, 0.342-0.944; and P = .009; OR = 0.108, 95% CI, 0.021-0.568, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Lower preoperative SEF, absence of slowing in EEG while transitioning from preoperative state to unconscious state, and lower EEG power in relevant frequency bands in both these states are related to POD development. These findings may suggest an underlying pathophysiology and might be used as EEG-based marker for early identification of patients at risk to develop POD.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357471

RESUMO

Infections and perioperative stress can lead to neuroinflammation, which in turn is linked to cognitive impairments such as postoperative delirium or postoperative cognitive dysfunctions. The α2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine (DEX) prevents cognitive impairments and has organo-protective and anti-inflammatory properties. Macroautophagy (autophagy) regulates many biological processes, but its role in DEX-mediated anti-inflammation and the underlying mechanism of DEX remains largely unclear. We were interested how a pretreatment with DEX protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in adult male Wistar rats. We used Western blot and activity assays to study how DEX modulated autophagy- and apoptosis-associated proteins as well as molecules of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and qPCR to analyse the expression of autophagy and inflammation-associated microRNAs (miRNA) in the spleen, cortex and hippocampus at different time points (6 h, 24 h, 7 d). We showed that a DEX pretreatment prevents LPS-induced impairments in autophagic flux and attenuates the LPS-induced increase in the apoptosis-associated protein cleaved poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) in the spleen. Both, DEX and LPS altered miRNA expression and molecules of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the spleen and brain. While only a certain set of miRNAs was up- and/or downregulated by LPS in each tissue, which was prevented or attenuated by a DEX pretreatment in the spleen and hippocampus, all miRNAs were up- and/or downregulated by DEX itself - independent of whether or not they were altered by LPS. Our results indicate that the organo-protective effect of DEX may be mediated by autophagy, possibly by acting on associated miRNAs, and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Preventive effects of DEX on LPS-induced inflammation. DEX restores the LPS-induced impairments in autophagic flux, attenuates PARP cleavage and alters molecules of the cholinergic system in the spleen. Furthermore, DEX alters and prevents LPS-induced miRNA expression changes in the spleen and brain along with LPS.

10.
Neurocrit Care ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium screening instruments (DSIs) should be used to detect delirium, but they only show moderate sensitivity in patients with neurocritical illness. We explored whether, for these patients, DSI validity is impacted by patient-specific covariates. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected in a single-center quality improvement project. Patients were screened for delirium once daily using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU). Reference was the daily assessment using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). In a two-step receiver operating characteristics regression analysis adjusting for repeated measurements, the impact of acute diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), neurosurgical intervention, Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, and ventilation status on test validity was determined. RESULTS: Of 181 patients screened, 101 went into final analysis. Delirium incidence according to DSM-IV-TR was 29.7%. For the first complete assessment series (CAM-ICU, ICDSC, and DSM-IV-TR), sensitivity for the CAM-ICU and the ICDSC was 73.3% and 66.7%, and specificity was 91.8% and 94.1%, respectively. Consideration of daily repeated measurements increased sensitivity for the CAM-ICU and ICDSC to 75.7% and 73.4%, and specificity to 97.3% and 98.9%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristics regression revealed that lower Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale levels significantly impaired validity of the ICDSC (p = 0.029) and the CAM-ICU in its severity scale version (p = 0.004). Neither acute diagnosis of stroke or TIA nor neurosurgical intervention or mechanical ventilation significantly influenced DSI validity. CONCLUSIONS: The CAM-ICU and ICDSC perform well in patients requiring neurocritical care, regardless of the presence of acute stroke, TIA, or neurosurgical interventions. Yet, even very light or moderate sedation can significantly impair DSI performance.

11.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 295, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive Care Resources are heavily utilized during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, risk stratification and prediction of SARS-CoV-2 patient clinical outcomes upon ICU admission remain inadequate. This study aimed to develop a machine learning model, based on retrospective & prospective clinical data, to stratify patient risk and predict ICU survival and outcomes. METHODS: A Germany-wide electronic registry was established to pseudonymously collect admission, therapeutic and discharge information of SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients retrospectively and prospectively. Machine learning approaches were evaluated for the accuracy and interpretability of predictions. The Explainable Boosting Machine approach was selected as the most suitable method. Individual, non-linear shape functions for predictive parameters and parameter interactions are reported. RESULTS: 1039 patients were included in the Explainable Boosting Machine model, 596 patients retrospectively collected, and 443 patients prospectively collected. The model for prediction of general ICU outcome was shown to be more reliable to predict "survival". Age, inflammatory and thrombotic activity, and severity of ARDS at ICU admission were shown to be predictive of ICU survival. Patients' age, pulmonary dysfunction and transfer from an external institution were predictors for ECMO therapy. The interaction of patient age with D-dimer levels on admission and creatinine levels with SOFA score without GCS were predictors for renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Using Explainable Boosting Machine analysis, we confirmed and weighed previously reported and identified novel predictors for outcome in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Using this strategy, predictive modeling of COVID-19 ICU patient outcomes can be performed overcoming the limitations of linear regression models. Trial registration "ClinicalTrials" (clinicaltrials.gov) under NCT04455451.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
12.
J Clin Med ; 10(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Etomidate is typically used as an induction agent in cardiac surgery because it has little impact on hemodynamics. It is a known suppressor of adrenocortical function and may increase the risk for post-operative infections, sepsis, and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether etomidate increases the risk of postoperative sepsis (primary outcome) and infections (secondary outcome) compared to propofol. METHODS: This was a retrospective before-after trial (IRB EA1/143/20) performed at a tertiary medical center in Berlin, Germany, between 10/2012 and 01/2015. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were investigated within two observation intervals, during which etomidate and propofol were the sole induction agents. RESULTS: One-thousand, four-hundred, and sixty-two patients, and 622 matched pairs, after caliper propensity-score matching, were included in the final analysis. Sepsis rates did not differ in the matched cohort (etomidate: 11.5% vs. propofol: 8.2%, p = 0.052). Patients in the etomidate interval were more likely to develop hospital-acquired pneumonia (etomidate: 18.6% vs. propofol: 14.0%, p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that a single-dose of etomidate is not statistically associated with higher postoperative sepsis rates after cardiac surgery, but is associated with a higher incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia. However, there is a notable trend towards a higher sepsis rate.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254345, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ferritin is the major iron storage protein and an acute phase reactant. Hyperferritinemia is frequently seen in the critically ill where it has been hypothesized that not only underlying conditions but also factors such as transfusions, hemodialysis and extracorporeal life support (ECLS) lead to hyperferritinemia. This study aims to investigate the influence of transfusions, hemodialysis, and ECLS on hyperferritinemia in a multidisciplinary ICU cohort. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of a retrospective observational study including patients aged ≥ 18 years who were admitted to at least one adult ICU between January 2006 and August 2018 with hyperferritinemia ≥ 500 µg/L and of ≥ 14 days between two ICU ferritin measurements. Patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) were excluded. To identify the influence of transfusions, hemodialysis, and ECLS on ferritin change, multivariable linear regression analysis with ferritin change between two measurements as dependent variable was performed. RESULTS: A total of 268 patients was analyzed. Median duration between measurements was 36 days (22-57). Over all patients, ferritin significantly increased between the first and last measurement (p = 0.006). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed no effect of transfusions, hemodialysis, or ECLS on ferritin change. Changes in aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score were identified as influencing factors on ferritin change [unstandardized regression coefficient (B) = 2.6; (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9, 3.3); p < 0.001 and B = 376.5; (95% CI 113.8, 639.1); p = 0.005, respectively]. Using the same model for subgroups of SOFA score, we found SOFA platelet count to be associated with ferritin change [B = 1729.3; (95% CI 466.8, 2991.9); p = 0.007]. No association of ferritin change and in-hospital mortality was seen in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that transfusions, hemodialysis, and ECLS had no influence on ferritin increases in critically ill patients. Hyperferritinemia appears to be less the result of iatrogenic influences in the ICU thereby underscoring its unskewed diagnostic value. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02854943) on August 1, 2016.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Estado Terminal/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Hiperferritinemia/terapia , Diálise Renal , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hiperferritinemia/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13205, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168198

RESUMO

In a pandemic with a novel disease, disease-specific prognosis models are available only with a delay. To bridge the critical early phase, models built for similar diseases might be applied. To test the accuracy of such a knowledge transfer, we investigated how precise lethal courses in critically ill COVID-19 patients can be predicted by a model trained on critically ill non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia patients. We trained gradient boosted decision tree models on 718 (245 deceased) non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia patients to predict individual ICU mortality and applied it to 1054 (369 deceased) COVID-19 patients. Our model showed a significantly better predictive performance (AUROC 0.86 [95% CI 0.86-0.87]) than the clinical scores APACHE2 (0.63 [95% CI 0.61-0.65]), SAPS2 (0.72 [95% CI 0.71-0.74]) and SOFA (0.76 [95% CI 0.75-0.77]), the COVID-19-specific mortality prediction models of Zhou (0.76 [95% CI 0.73-0.78]) and Wang (laboratory: 0.62 [95% CI 0.59-0.65]; clinical: 0.56 [95% CI 0.55-0.58]) and the 4C COVID-19 Mortality score (0.71 [95% CI 0.70-0.72]). We conclude that lethal courses in critically ill COVID-19 patients can be predicted by a machine learning model trained on non-COVID-19 patients. Our results suggest that in a pandemic with a novel disease, prognosis models built for similar diseases can be applied, even when the diseases differ in time courses and in rates of critical and lethal courses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Teóricos , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 346, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that a higher education and occupation are each associated with a higher late-life cognitive ability, but their inter-relationships in their association with cognitive ability and the contribution of peak IQ in young adulthood ('pre-morbid IQ') often remain unclear. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 623 participants aged ≥65 years of the BioCog study. Education was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED; range 1 to 6). Occupation was coded as 'semi/unskilled', 'skilled manual', 'skilled non-manual', 'managerial', 'professional'. A summary score of global ability ('g') was constructed from six cognitive tests. Pre-morbid IQ was estimated from vocabulary. The Geriatric Depression Scale assessed symptoms of depression. Age- and sex-adjusted analyses of covariance were performed. RESULTS: Education (partial eta2 0.076; p < 0.001) and occupation (partial eta2 = 0.037; p < 0.001) were each significantly associated with g. For education, the association was attenuated but remained statistically significant when pre-morbid IQ was controlled for (partial eta2 0.036; p < 0.001) and was unchanged with additional adjustment for depression (partial eta2 0.037; p < 0.001). For occupation, the association with g was no longer significant when pre-morbid IQ (partial eta2 = 0.015; p = 0.06) and depression (partial eta2 = 0.011; p = 0.18) were entered as covariates in separate steps. When education and occupation were entered concurrently into the fully adjusted model, only education was independently associated with g (partial eta2 0.030; p < 0.001; occupation, p = 0.93). CONCLUSION: While a higher education and a higher occupation were each associated with a higher late-life cognitive ability, only for education some unique contribution to cognitive ability remained over and above its relationship with pre-morbid IQ, depression, and occupation. Further research is needed to address whether a longer time spent in education may promote late-life cognitive ability.


Assuntos
Cognição , Ocupações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e26494, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As one of the most essential technical components of the intensive care unit (ICU), continuous monitoring of patients' vital parameters has significantly improved patient safety by alerting staff through an alarm when a parameter deviates from the normal range. However, the vast number of alarms regularly overwhelms staff and may induce alarm fatigue, a condition recently exacerbated by COVID-19 and potentially endangering patients. OBJECTIVE: This study focused on providing a complete and repeatable analysis of the alarm data of an ICU's patient monitoring system. We aimed to develop do-it-yourself (DIY) instructions for technically versed ICU staff to analyze their monitoring data themselves, which is an essential element for developing efficient and effective alarm optimization strategies. METHODS: This observational study was conducted using alarm log data extracted from the patient monitoring system of a 21-bed surgical ICU in 2019. DIY instructions were iteratively developed in informal interdisciplinary team meetings. The data analysis was grounded in a framework consisting of 5 dimensions, each with specific metrics: alarm load (eg, alarms per bed per day, alarm flood conditions, alarm per device and per criticality), avoidable alarms, (eg, the number of technical alarms), responsiveness and alarm handling (eg alarm duration), sensing (eg, usage of the alarm pause function), and exposure (eg, alarms per room type). Results were visualized using the R package ggplot2 to provide detailed insights into the ICU's alarm situation. RESULTS: We developed 6 DIY instructions that should be followed iteratively step by step. Alarm load metrics should be (re)defined before alarm log data are collected and analyzed. Intuitive visualizations of the alarm metrics should be created next and presented to staff in order to help identify patterns in the alarm data for designing and implementing effective alarm management interventions. We provide the script we used for the data preparation and an R-Markdown file to create comprehensive alarm reports. The alarm load in the respective ICU was quantified by 152.5 (SD 42.2) alarms per bed per day on average and alarm flood conditions with, on average, 69.55 (SD 31.12) per day that both occurred mostly in the morning shifts. Most alarms were issued by the ventilator, invasive blood pressure device, and electrocardiogram (ie, high and low blood pressure, high respiratory rate, low heart rate). The exposure to alarms per bed per day was higher in single rooms (26%, mean 172.9/137.2 alarms per day per bed). CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing ICU alarm log data provides valuable insights into the current alarm situation. Our results call for alarm management interventions that effectively reduce the number of alarms in order to ensure patient safety and ICU staff's work satisfaction. We hope our DIY instructions encourage others to follow suit in analyzing and publishing their ICU alarm data.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Alarmes Clínicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/educação , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Segurança do Paciente , Linguagens de Programação
17.
J Intensive Care Soc ; 22(2): 159-174, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025756

RESUMO

Background: There is no consensus on the instruments for diagnosis of post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). We present a proposal for a set of outcome measurement instruments of PICS in outpatient care. Methods: We conducted a three-round, semi-structured consensus-seeking process with medical experts, followed each by exploratory feasibility investigations with intensive care unit survivors (n1 = 5; n2 = 5; n3 = 7). Fourteen participants from nine stakeholder groups participated in the first and second consensus meeting. In the third consensus meeting, a core group of six clinical researchers refined the final outcome measurement instrument set proposal. Results: We suggest an outcome measurement instrument set used in a two-step process. First step: Screening with brief tests covering PICS domains of (1) mental health (Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4)), (2) cognition (MiniCog, Animal Naming), (3) physical function (Timed Up-and-Go (TUG), handgrip strength), and (4) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (EQ-5D-5L). Single items measure subjective health before and after the intensive care unit stay. If patients report new or worsened health problems after intensive care unit discharge and show relevant impairment in at least one of the screening tests, a second extended assessment follows: (1) Mental health (Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7), Impact of Event Scale - revised (IES-R)); (2) cognition (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B); (3) physical function (2-Minute Walk Test (2-MWT), handgrip strength, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)); and (4) HRQoL (EQ-5D-5L, 12-Item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0)). Conclusions: We propose an outcome measurement instrument set used in a two-step measurement of PICS, combining performance-based and patient-reported outcome measures. First-step screening is brief, free-of-charge, and easily applicable by health care professionals across different sectors. If indicated, specialized healthcare providers can perform the extended, second-step assessment. Usage of the first-step screening of our suggested outcome measurement instrument set in outpatient clinics with subsequent transfer to specialists is recommended for all intensive care unit survivors. This may increase awareness and reduce the burden of PICS. Trial registration: This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04175236; first posted 22 November 2019).

19.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): 1684-1693, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical trials evaluating the safety and effectiveness of sedative medication use in critically ill adults undergoing mechanical ventilation differ considerably in their methodological approach. This heterogeneity impedes the ability to compare results across studies. The Sedation Consortium on Endpoints and Procedures for Treatment, Education, and Research Recommendations convened a meeting of multidisciplinary experts to develop recommendations for key methodologic elements of sedation trials in the ICU to help guide academic and industry clinical investigators. DESIGN: A 2-day in-person meeting was held in Washington, DC, on March 28-29, 2019, followed by a three-round, online modified Delphi consensus process. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six participants from academia, industry, and the Food and Drug Administration with expertise in relevant content areas, including two former ICU patients attended the in-person meeting, and the majority completed an online follow-up survey and participated in the modified Delphi process. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The final recommendations were iteratively refined based on the survey results, participants' reactions to those results, summaries written by panel moderators, and a review of the meeting transcripts made from audio recordings. Fifteen recommendations were developed for study design and conduct, subject enrollment, outcomes, and measurement instruments. Consensus recommendations included obtaining input from ICU survivors and/or their families, ensuring adequate training for personnel using validated instruments for assessments of sedation, pain, and delirium in the ICU environment, and the need for methodological standardization. CONCLUSIONS: These recommendations are intended to assist researchers in the design, conduct, selection of endpoints, and reporting of clinical trials involving sedative medications and/or sedation protocols for adult ICU patients who require mechanical ventilation. These recommendations should be viewed as a starting point to improve clinical trials and help reduce methodological heterogeneity in future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacocinética , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Congressos como Assunto , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , District of Columbia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(7): 1677-1686, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic inflammation and monocyte counts have previously been associated with changes in resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. We therefore investigated this association in a longitudinal study of older patients. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from older patients who underwent functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI) scans before and 3 months after elective surgery. Additionally, serum levels of C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6 as markers of inflammation and leukocyte, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were determined. Correlations between these markers and pre- or postoperative rsFC between regions previously associated with inflammatory markers were investigated using general linear regression models. RESULTS: We found no significant correlations between inflammatory markers or blood cell counts and mean connectivity within four resting state networks (RSNs), neither preoperatively nor postoperatively. Significant inter-region rsFC was found within these RSNs between a few regions either pre- or postoperatively, but no inter-region connections were consistently observed in both pre- and postoperative fMRI scans. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory markers and monocyte counts were not associated with rsFC in our study, contrasting previous results. SIGNIFICANCE: Multiple measurements in the same individuals, as performed here, provide a way to reduce the high risk of false positive results in fMRI studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov (registration number NCT02265263).


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem
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