Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 86
Filtrar
1.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 393, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188205

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global public health challenge. Whilst the advent of genome-wide association studies has identified >400 genetic variants associated with T2D, our understanding of its biological mechanisms and translational insights is still limited. The EPIC-InterAct project, centred in 8 countries in the European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition study, is one of the largest prospective studies of T2D. Established as a nested case-cohort study to investigate the interplay between genetic and lifestyle behavioural factors on the risk of T2D, a total of 12,403 individuals were identified as incident T2D cases, and a representative sub-cohort of 16,154 individuals was selected from a larger cohort of 340,234 participants with a follow-up time of 3.99 million person-years. We describe the results from a genome-wide association analysis between more than 8.9 million SNPs and T2D risk among 22,326 individuals (9,978 cases and 12,348 non-cases) from the EPIC-InterAct study. The summary statistics to be shared provide a valuable resource to facilitate further investigations into the genetics of T2D.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants. RESULTS: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C (P < 5 × 10-8), with the strongest signal at SLC23A1, and 10 novel genetic loci including SLC23A3, CHPT1, BCAS3, SNRPF, RER1, MAF, GSTA5, RGS14, AKT1, and FADS1. Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding FADS1 variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.

3.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003394, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research suggested a differential association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) metabolites with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 inversely associated with T2D, but the epimeric form (C3-epi-25(OH)D3) positively associated with T2D. Whether or not these observational associations are causal remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the potential causality of these associations using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for total 25(OH)D (N = 120,618), 25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562), and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562) in participants of European descent (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [EPIC]-InterAct study, EPIC-Norfolk study, EPIC-CVD study, Ely study, and the SUNLIGHT consortium). We identified genetic variants for MR analysis to investigate the causal association of the 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D (including 80,983 T2D cases and 842,909 non-cases). We also estimated the observational association of 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D by performing random effects meta-analysis of results from previous studies and results from the EPIC-InterAct study. We identified 10 genetic loci associated with total 25(OH)D, 7 loci associated with 25(OH)D3 and 3 loci associated with C3-epi-25(OH)D3. Based on the meta-analysis of observational studies, each 1-standard deviation (SD) higher level of 25(OH)D was associated with a 20% lower risk of T2D (relative risk [RR]: 0.80; 95% CI 0.77, 0.84; p < 0.001), but a genetically predicted 1-SD increase in 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with T2D (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96; 95% CI 0.89, 1.03; p = 0.23); this result was consistent across sensitivity analyses. In EPIC-InterAct, 25(OH)D3 (per 1-SD) was associated with a lower risk of T2D (RR: 0.81; 95% CI 0.77, 0.86; p < 0.001), while C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (above versus below lower limit of quantification) was positively associated with T2D (RR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22; p = 0.006), but neither 25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.97; 95% CI 0.93, 1.01; p = 0.14) nor C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.93, 1.04; p = 0.53) was causally associated with T2D risk in the MR analysis. Main limitations include the lack of a non-linear MR analysis and of the generalisability of the current findings from European populations to other populations of different ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found discordant associations of biochemically measured and genetically predicted differences in blood 25(OH)D with T2D risk. The findings based on MR analysis in a large sample of European ancestry do not support a causal association of total 25(OH)D or 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D and argue against the use of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of T2D.

4.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048171

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Given its role in ovarian follicle development, circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is considered to be a marker of reproductive ageing. Although accelerated reproductive ageing has been associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, research on the relationship between AMH and type 2 diabetes risk is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether age-specific AMH levels and age-related AMH trajectories are associated with type 2 diabetes risk in women. METHODS: We measured AMH in repeated plasma samples from 3293 female participants (12,460 samples in total), aged 20-59 years at recruitment, from the Doetinchem Cohort Study, a longitudinal study with follow-up visits every 5 years. We calculated age-specific AMH tertiles at baseline to account for the strong AMH-age correlation. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used to assess the association between baseline age-specific AMH tertiles and incident type 2 diabetes. We applied linear mixed models to compare age-related AMH trajectories for women who developed type 2 diabetes with trajectories for women who did not develop diabetes. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 20 years, 163 women developed type 2 diabetes. Lower baseline age-specific AMH levels were associated with a higher type 2 diabetes risk (HRT2vsT3 1.24 [95% CI 0.81, 1.92]; HRT1vsT3 1.62 [95% CI 1.06, 2.48]; ptrend = 0.02). These findings seem to be supported by predicted AMH trajectories, which suggested that plasma AMH levels were lower at younger ages in women who developed type 2 diabetes compared with women who did not. The trajectories also suggested that AMH levels declined at a slower rate in women who developed type 2 diabetes, although differences in trajectories were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We observed that lower age-specific AMH levels were associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Longitudinal analyses did not show clear evidence of differing AMH trajectories between women who developed type 2 diabetes compared with women who did not, possibly because these analyses were underpowered. Further research is needed to investigate whether AMH is part of the biological mechanism explaining the association between reproductive ageing and type 2 diabetes. Graphical abstract.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2660-2667, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is sparse evidence for the association of suitable food substitutions for red and processed meat on the risk of type 2 diabetes. We modeled the association between replacing red and processed meat with other protein sources and the risk of type 2 diabetes and estimated its population impact. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct case cohort included 11,741 individuals with type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 15,450 participants in eight countries. We modeled the replacement of self-reported red and processed meat with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, cheese, cereals, yogurt, milk, and nuts. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: There was a lower hazard for type 2 diabetes for the modeled replacement of red and processed meat (50 g/day) with cheese (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97) (30 g/day), yogurt (0.90, 0.86-0.95) (70 g/day), nuts (0.90, 0.84-0.96) (10 g/day), or cereals (0.92, 0.88-0.96) (30 g/day) but not for replacements with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, or milk. If a causal association is assumed, replacing red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, or nuts could prevent 8.8%, 8.3%, or 7.5%, respectively, of new cases of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Replacement of red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, nuts, or cereals was associated with a lower rate of type 2 diabetes. Substituting red and processed meat by other protein sources may contribute to the prevention of incident type 2 diabetes in European populations.

6.
BMJ ; 370: m2194, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective case-cohort study. SETTING: Populations from eight European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Carotenoides/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Frutas , Verduras , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 14, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe obesity is a growing, worldwide burden and conventional therapies including radical change of diet and/or increased physical activity have limited results. Bariatric surgery has been proposed as an alternative therapy showing promising results. It leads to substantial weight loss and improvement of comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. Increased adiposity is associated with changes in epigenetic profile, including DNA methylation. We investigated the effect of bariatric surgery on clinical profile, DNA methylation, and biological age estimated using Horvath's epigenetic clock. RESULTS: To determine the impact of bariatric surgery and subsequent weight loss on clinical traits, a cohort of 40 severely obese individuals (BMI = 30-73 kg/m2) was examined at the time of surgery and at three follow-up visits, i.e., 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The majority of the individuals were women (65%) and the mean age at surgery was 45.1 ± 8.1 years. We observed a significant decrease over time in BMI, fasting glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and free fatty acids levels, and a significant small increase in HDL levels (all p values < 0.05). Epigenome-wide association analysis revealed 4857 differentially methylated CpG sites 12 months after surgery (at Bonferroni-corrected p value < 1.09 × 10-7). Including BMI change in the model decreased the number of significantly differentially methylated CpG sites by 51%. Gene set enrichment analysis identified overrepresentation of multiple processes including regulation of transcription, RNA metabolic, and biosynthetic processes in the cell. Bariatric surgery in severely obese patients resulted in a decrease in both biological age and epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) (mean = - 0.92, p value = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that bariatric surgery leads to substantial BMI decrease and improvement of clinical outcomes observed 12 months after surgery. These changes explained part of the association between bariatric surgery and DNA methylation. We also observed a small, but significant improvement of biological age. These epigenetic changes may be modifiable by environmental lifestyle factors and could be used as potential biomarkers for obesity and in the future for obesity related comorbidities.

8.
Diabetologia ; 63(2): 266-277, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713011

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes differ with respect to pathophysiological factors such as beta cell function, insulin resistance and phenotypic appearance, but there may be overlap between the two forms of diabetes. However, there are relatively few prospective studies that have characterised the relationship between autoimmunity and incident diabetes. We investigated associations of antibodies against the 65 kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores and incident diabetes in adults in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a case-cohort study nested in the EPIC cohort. METHODS: GAD65 antibodies were analysed in EPIC participants (over 40 years of age and free of known diabetes at baseline) by radioligand binding assay in a random subcohort (n = 15,802) and in incident diabetes cases (n = 11,981). Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores were calculated. Associations between GAD65 antibodies and incident diabetes were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. RESULTS: GAD65 antibody positivity at baseline was associated with development of diabetes during a median follow-up time of 10.9 years (HR for GAD65 antibody positive vs negative 1.78; 95% CI 1.43, 2.20) after adjustment for sex, centre, physical activity, smoking status and education. The genetic risk score for type 1 diabetes but not type 2 diabetes was associated with GAD65 antibody positivity in both the subcohort (OR per SD genetic risk 1.24; 95% CI 1.03, 1.50) and incident cases (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.72, 2.26) after adjusting for age and sex. The risk of incident diabetes in those in the top tertile of the type 1 diabetes genetic risk score who were also GAD65 antibody positive was 3.23 (95% CI 2.10, 4.97) compared with all other individuals, suggesting that 1.8% of incident diabetes in adults was attributable to this combination of risk factors. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our study indicates that incident diabetes in adults has an element of autoimmune aetiology. Thus, there might be a reason to re-evaluate the present subclassification of diabetes in adulthood.

9.
J Nutr ; 149(11): 1985-1993, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Beverage consumption is a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is insufficient evidence to inform the suitability of substituting 1 type of beverage for another. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of T2D when consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was replaced with consumption of fruit juice, milk, coffee, or tea. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study of 8 European countries (n = 27,662, with 12,333 cases of incident T2D, 1992-2007), beverage consumption was estimated at baseline by dietary questionnaires. Using Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusting for other beverages and potential confounders, we estimated associations of substituting 1 type of beverage for another on incident T2D. RESULTS: Mean ± SD of estimated consumption of SSB was 55 ± 105 g/d. Means ± SDs for the other beverages were as follows: fruit juice, 59 ± 101 g/d; milk, 209 ± 203 g/d; coffee, 381 ± 372 g/d; and tea, 152 ± 282 g/d. Substituting coffee for SSBs by 250 g/d was associated with a 21% lower incidence of T2D (95% CI: 12%, 29%). The rate difference was -12.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -5.0) per 10,000 person-years among adults consuming SSBs ≥250 g/d (absolute rate = 48.3/10,000). Substituting tea for SSBs was estimated to lower T2D incidence by 22% (95% CI: 15%, 28%) or -11.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -2.6) per 10,000 person-years, whereas substituting fruit juice or milk was estimated not to alter T2D risk significantly. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a potential benefit of substituting coffee or tea for SSBs for the primary prevention of T2D and may help formulate public health recommendations on beverage consumption in different populations.


Assuntos
Café , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Chá , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos
10.
Front Neurol ; 10: 497, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214102

RESUMO

Background: Long-term changes in (bio)markers for cognitive frailty are not well characterized. Therefore, our aim is to explore (bio)marker trajectories in adults who became cognitively frail compared to age- and sex-matched controls who did not become cognitively frail over a 15 year follow-up. We hypothesize that those who become cognitively frail have more unfavorable trajectories of (bio)markers compared to controls. Methods: The Doetinchem Cohort Study is a longitudinal population-based study that started in 1987-1991 in men and women aged 20-59 years, with follow-up examinations every 5 years. For the current analyses, we used data of 17 potentially relevant (bio)markers (e.g., body mass index (BMI), urea) from rounds 2 to 5 (1993-2012). A global cognitive functioning score (based on memory, speed, and flexibility) was calculated for each round and transformed into education and examination round-adjusted z-scores. The z-score that corresponded to the 10th percentile in round 5 (z-score = -0.77) was applied as cut-off point for incident cognitive frailty in rounds 2-5. In total, 455 incident cognitively frail cases were identified retrospectively and were compared with 910 age- and sex-matched controls. Trajectories up to 15 years before and 10 years after incident cognitive frailty were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with stratification for sex and adjustment for age and, if appropriate, medication use. Results were further adjusted for level of education, depressive symptoms, BMI, and lifestyle factors. Results: In men, (bio)marker trajectories did not differ as they ran parallel and the difference in levels was not statistically significant between those who became cognitively frail compared to controls. In women, total cholesterol trajectories first increased and thereafter decreased in cognitively frail women and steadily increased in controls, gamma-glutamyltransferase trajectories were more or less stable in cognitively frail women and increased in controls, and urea trajectories increased in cognitively frail women and remained more or less stable in controls. Results were similar after additional adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions: Out of the 17 (bio)markers included in this explorative study, differential trajectories for three biomarkers were observed in women. We do not yet consider any of the studied (bio)markers as promising biomarkers for cognitive frailty.

11.
J Nutr ; 149(6): 1047-1055, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-specificity of exploratory dietary patterns limits their generalizability in investigations with type 2 diabetes incidence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to derive country-specific exploratory dietary patterns, investigate their association with type 2 diabetes incidence, and replicate diabetes-associated dietary patterns in other countries. METHODS: Dietary intake data were used, assessed by country-specific questionnaires at baseline of 11,183 incident diabetes cases and 14,694 subcohort members (mean age 52.9 y) from 8 countries, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (mean follow-up time 6.9 y). Exploratory dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. HRs for incident type 2 diabetes were calculated by Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models. Diabetes-associated dietary patterns were simplified or replicated to be applicable in other countries. A meta-analysis across all countries evaluated the generalizability of the diabetes-association. RESULTS: Two dietary patterns per country/UK-center, of which overall 3 dietary patterns were diabetes-associated, were identified. A risk-lowering French dietary pattern was not confirmed across other countries: pooled HRFrance per 1 SD: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.10. Risk-increasing dietary patterns, derived in Spain and UK-Norfolk, were confirmed, but only the latter statistically significantly: HRSpain: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.22 and HRUK-Norfolk: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.20. Respectively, this dietary pattern was characterized by relatively high intakes of potatoes, processed meat, vegetable oils, sugar, cake and cookies, and tea. CONCLUSIONS: Only few country/center-specific dietary patterns (3 of 18) were statistically significantly associated with diabetes incidence in this multicountry European study population. One pattern, whose association with diabetes was confirmed across other countries, showed overlaps in the food groups potatoes and processed meat with identified diabetes-associated dietary patterns from other studies. The study demonstrates that replication of associations of exploratory patterns with health outcomes is feasible and a necessary step to overcome population-specificity in associations from such analyses.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Risco
12.
Diabetes Care ; 42(4): 568-575, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the causal association between intake of dairy products and incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis included 21,820 European individuals (9,686 diabetes cases) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study. Participants were genotyped, and rs4988235 (LCT-12910C>T), a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for lactase persistence (LP) that enables digestion of dairy sugar, i.e., lactose, was imputed. Baseline dietary intakes were assessed with diet questionnaires. We investigated the associations between imputed SNP dosage for rs4988235 and intake of dairy products and other foods through linear regression. Mendelian randomization (MR) estimates for the milk-diabetes relationship were obtained through a two-stage least squares regression. RESULTS: Each additional LP allele was associated with a higher intake of milk (ß 17.1 g/day, 95% CI 10.6-23.6) and milk beverages (ß 2.8 g/day, 95% CI 1.0-4.5) but not with intake of other dairy products. Other dietary intakes associated with rs4988235 included fruits (ß -7.0 g/day, 95% CI -12.4 to -1.7 per additional LP allele), nonalcoholic beverages (ß -18.0 g/day, 95% CI -34.4 to -1.6), and wine (ß -4.8 g/day, 95% CI -9.1 to -0.6). In instrumental variable analysis, LP-associated milk intake was not associated with diabetes (hazard ratioper 15 g/day 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-1.05). CONCLUSIONS: rs4988235 was associated with milk intake but not with intake of other dairy products. This MR study does not suggest that milk intake is associated with diabetes, which is consistent with previous observational and genetic associations. LP may be associated with intake of other foods as well, but owing to the modest associations, we consider it unlikely that this caused the observed null result.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Lactase/genética , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Lactase/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Avaliação Nutricional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
13.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(3): 1125-1136, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29524001

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients. METHODS: 37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort were included in this study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. T2D risks were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for non-dietary and dietary covariates. RESULTS: 893 incident T2D cases were documented during 10.1-year follow-up. We observed no association between total SFA and T2D risk. Marginally inverse associations were found for lauric acid (HR per 1 SD of energy%, 95% CI 0.92, 0.85-0.99), myristic acid (0.89, 0.79-0.99), margaric acid (0.84, 0.73-0.97), odd-chain SFA (pentadecylic plus margaric acids; 0.88, 0.79-0.99), and cheese derived SFA (0.90, 0.83-0.98). Soft and liquid fats derived SFA was found related to higher T2D risk (1.08, 1.01-1.17). When substituting SFA by proteins, carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly higher risks of T2D were observed (HRs per 1 energy% ranging from 1.05 to 1.15). CONCLUSION: In this Dutch population, total SFA does not relate to T2D risk. Rather, the association may depend on the types and food sources of SFA. Cheese-derived SFA and individual SFA that are commonly found in cheese, were significantly related to lower T2D risks. We cannot exclude the higher T2D risks found for soft and liquid fats derived SFA and for substituting SFA with other macronutrients are influenced by residual confounding by trans fatty acids or limited intake variation in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetable protein.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 177: 135-143, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719199

RESUMO

Frailty among elderly people leads to an increased risk for negative health outcomes. To prevent frailty, we need a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and early detection of individuals at risk. Both may be served by identifying candidate (bio)markers, i.e. biomarkers and markers, for the physical, cognitive, and psychological frailty domains. We used univariate (Rank-ANOVA) and multivariate (elastic net) approaches on the RASIG study population (age range: 35-74 years, n = 2220) of the MARK-AGE study to study up to 331 (bio)markers between individuals with and without frailty for each domain. Biomarkers and markers identified by both approaches were studied further regarding their association with frailty using logistic regression. Univariately, we found lower levels of antioxidants, including ß-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, in those who were physically, cognitively or psychologically frail. Additionally, self-reported health was worse in these three frail groups. Multivariately, we observed lower levels of ß-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin in the cognitively frail. Levels of these carotenoids were inversely associated with the risk of being cognitively frail after adjusting for confounders. Antioxidants and self-reported health are potential (bio)markers to detect persons at risk of becoming frail. The biomarkers identified may indicate the involvement of inflammation in frailty, especially for physical and cognitive frailty.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , beta-Criptoxantina/sangue , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Zeaxantinas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(4): 1293-1303, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing evidence for the prospective association of vitamin D status with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is focused almost exclusively on circulating total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] without distinction between its subtypes: nonepimeric and epimeric 25(OH)D3 stereoisomers, and 25(OH)D2, the minor component of 25(OH)D. We aimed to investigate the prospective associations of circulating levels of the sum and each of these three metabolites with incident T2D. METHODS: This analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study for T2D included 9671 incident T2D cases and 13,562 subcohort members. Plasma vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a multivariable Prentice-weighted Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of T2D for each metabolite. Analyses were performed separately within country, and estimates were combined across countries using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: The mean concentrations (SD) of total 25(OH)D, nonepimeric 25(OH)D3, epimeric 25(OH)D3, and 25(OH)D2 were 41.1 (17.2), 40.7 (17.3), 2.13 (1.31), and 8.16 (6.52) nmol/L, respectively. Plasma total 25(OH)D and nonepimeric 25(OH)D3 were inversely associated with incident T2D [multivariable-adjusted HR per 1 SD = 0.81 (95% CI, 0.77, 0.86) for both variables], whereas epimeric 25(OH)D3 was positively associated [per 1 SD HR = 1.16 (1.09, 1.25)]. There was no statistically significant association with T2D for 25(OH)D2 [per 1 SD HR = 0.94 (0.76, 1.18)]. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma nonepimeric 25(OH)D3 was inversely associated with incident T2D, consistent with it being the major metabolite contributing to total 25(OH)D. The positive association of the epimeric form of 25(OH)D3 with incident T2D provides novel information to assess the biological relevance of vitamin D epimerization and vitamin D subtypes in diabetes etiology.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estereoisomerismo , Vitamina D/química
16.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 17(1): 45, 2018 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular calcifications are associated with a three- to fourfold increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and are highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes patients. Emerging evidence indicates that vascular calcification is a process of active bone formation regulated by stimulators and inhibitors of calcification. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether six bone markers are associated with CVD risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used data of a case-cohort study, nested in the EPIC-NL cohort, comprising 134 CVD cases and a random subcohort of 218 participants, all with type 2 diabetes at baseline. Six bone markers (osteocalcin, osteopontin, osteonectin, osteoprotegerin, alkaline phosphatase and sclerostin) were measured in baseline plasma samples with multiplex assays and information on CVD events was obtained. The association of bone makers with CVD risk was evaluated using Cox proportional hazard analyses. RESULTS: Higher concentrations of plasma osteopontin were associated (ptrend < 0.01) with an increased CVD risk with a hazard ratio of 2.00 (95%-CI 1.20-3.35) for the highest versus the lowest quartile in a multivariable adjusted model. The other bone markers were not associated with CVD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Higher osteopontin concentrations were associated with an increased CVD risk in type 2 diabetes patients. No consistent associations were found for the other five bone markers and risk of CVD in type 2 diabetes patients.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Osteopontina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
17.
Diabetologia ; 61(6): 1325-1332, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549418

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gene-macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a prospective case-cohort study across eight European countries (N = 21,900 with 9742 incident type 2 diabetes cases). Macronutrient intake was estimated from diets reported in questionnaires, including proportion of energy derived from total carbohydrate, protein, fat, plant and animal protein, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat and dietary fibre. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression, we estimated country-specific interaction results on the multiplicative scale, using random-effects meta-analysis. Secondary analysis used isocaloric macronutrient substitution. RESULTS: No interactions were identified between any of the three GRSs and any macronutrient intake, with low-to-moderate heterogeneity between countries (I2 range 0-51.6%). Results were similar using isocaloric macronutrient substitution analyses and when weighted and unweighted GRSs and individual SNPs were examined. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI did not modify the association between macronutrient intake and incident type 2 diabetes. This suggests that macronutrient intake recommendations to prevent type 2 diabetes do not need to account for differences in genetic predisposition to these three metabolic conditions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Dieta , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Diabetes ; 67(6): 1200-1205, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523632

RESUMO

Fetuin-A, a hepatic-origin protein, is strongly positively associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in human observational studies, but it is unknown whether this association is causal. We aimed to study the potential causal relation of circulating fetuin-A to risk of type 2 diabetes in a Mendelian randomization study with single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the fetuin-A-encoding AHSG gene. We used data from eight European countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study including 10,020 incident cases. Plasma fetuin-A concentration was measured in a subset of 965 subcohort participants and 654 case subjects. A genetic score of the AHSG single nucleotide polymorphisms was strongly associated with fetuin-A (28% explained variation). Using the genetic score as instrumental variable of fetuin-A, we observed no significant association of a 50 µg/mL higher fetuin-A concentration with diabetes risk (hazard ratio 1.02 [95% CI 0.97, 1.07]). Combining our results with those from the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) consortium (12,171 case subjects) also did not suggest a clear significant relation of fetuin-A with diabetes risk. In conclusion, although there is mechanistic evidence for an effect of fetuin-A on insulin sensitivity and secretion, this study does not support a strong, relevant relationship between circulating fetuin-A and diabetes risk in the general population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoturbidimetria , Incidência , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Risco , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/genética
19.
Diabetologia ; 61(2): 354-368, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29164275

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Epigenetic mechanisms may play an important role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes. Recent epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) identified several DNA methylation markers associated with type 2 diabetes, fasting glucose and HbA1c levels. Here we present a systematic review of these studies and attempt to replicate the CpG sites (CpGs) with the most significant associations from these EWASs in a case-control sample of the Lifelines study. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE for EWASs to test the association between DNA methylation and type 2 diabetes and/or glycaemic traits and reviewed the search results. For replication purposes we selected 100 unique CpGs identified in peripheral blood, pancreas, adipose tissue and liver from 15 EWASs, using study-specific Bonferroni-corrected significance thresholds. Methylation data (Illumina 450K array) in whole blood from 100 type 2 diabetic individuals and 100 control individuals from the Lifelines study were available. Multivariate linear models were used to examine the associations of the specific CpGs with type 2 diabetes and glycaemic traits. RESULTS: From the 52 CpGs identified in blood and selected for replication, 15 CpGs showed nominally significant associations with type 2 diabetes in the Lifelines sample (p < 0.05). The results for five CpGs (in ABCG1, LOXL2, TXNIP, SLC1A5 and SREBF1) remained significant after a stringent multiple-testing correction (changes in methylation from -3% up to 3.6%, p < 0.0009). All associations were directionally consistent with the original EWAS results. None of the selected CpGs from the tissue-specific EWASs were replicated in our methylation data from whole blood. We were also unable to replicate any of the CpGs associated with HbA1c levels in the healthy control individuals of our sample, while two CpGs (in ABCG1 and CCDC57) for fasting glucose were replicated at a nominal significance level (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A number of differentially methylated CpGs reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes in the EWAS literature were replicated in blood and show promise for clinical use as disease biomarkers. However, more prospective studies are needed to support the robustness of these findings.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Epigênese Genética/genética , Jejum/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos
20.
BMC Med ; 15(1): 203, 2017 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that individual circulating saturated fatty acids (SFAs) are heterogeneous in their associations with cardio-metabolic diseases, but evidence about associations of SFAs with metabolic markers of different pathogenic pathways is limited. We aimed to examine the associations between plasma phospholipid SFAs and the metabolic markers of lipid, hepatic, glycaemic and inflammation pathways. METHODS: We measured nine individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and derived three SFA groups (odd-chain: C15:0 + C17:0, even-chain: C14:0 + C16:0 + C18:0, and very-long-chain: C20:0 + C22:0 + C23:0 + C24:0) in individuals from the subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study across eight European countries. Using linear regression in 15,919 subcohort members, adjusted for potential confounders and corrected for multiple testing, we examined cross-sectional associations of SFAs with 13 metabolic markers. Multiplicative interactions of the three SFA groups with pre-specified factors, including body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption, were tested. RESULTS: Higher levels of odd-chain SFA group were associated with lower levels of major lipids (total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB)) and hepatic markers (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)). Higher even-chain SFA group levels were associated with higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglycerides, ApoB, ApoB/A1 ratio, ALT, AST, GGT and CRP, and lower levels of HDL-C and ApoA1. Very-long-chain SFA group levels showed inverse associations with triglycerides, ApoA1 and GGT, and positive associations with TC, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C, ApoB and ApoB/A1. Associations were generally stronger at higher levels of BMI or alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Subtypes of SFAs are associated in a differential way with metabolic markers of lipid metabolism, liver function and chronic inflammation, suggesting that odd-chain SFAs are associated with lower metabolic risk and even-chain SFAs with adverse metabolic risk, whereas mixed findings were obtained for very-long-chain SFAs. The clinical and biochemical implications of these findings may vary by adiposity and alcohol intake.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...