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1.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 145(4): EL265, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046311

RESUMO

French participants learned English pseudowords either with the orthographic form displayed under the corresponding picture (Audio-Ortho) or without (Audio). In a naming task, pseudowords learned in the Audio-Ortho condition were produced faster and with fewer errors, providing a first piece of evidence that orthographic information facilitates the learning and on-line retrieval of productive vocabulary in a second language. Formant analyses, however, showed that productions from the Audio-Ortho condition were more French-like (i.e., less target-like), a result confirmed by a vowel categorization task performed by native speakers of English. It is argued that novel word learning and pronunciation accuracy should be considered together.

2.
Lang Speech ; 61(4): 615-631, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249146

RESUMO

This study investigates whether syntactic cues take precedence over distributional cues in native and non-native speech segmentation by examining native and non-native speech segmentation in potential French-liaison contexts. Native French listeners and English-speaking second-language learners of French completed a visual-world eye-tracking experiment. Half the stimuli contained the pivotal consonant /t/, a frequent word onset but infrequent liaison consonant, and half contained /z/, a frequent liaison consonant but rare word onset. In the adjective-noun condition (permitting liaison), participants heard a consonant-initial target (e.g., le petit tatoué; le fameux zélé) that was temporarily ambiguous at the segmental level with a vowel-initial competitor (e.g., le petit [t]athée; le fameux [z]élu); in the noun-adjective condition (not permitting liaison), they heard a consonant-initial target (e.g., le client tatoué; le Français zélé) that was not temporarily ambiguous with a vowel-initial competitor (e.g., le client [*t]athée; le Français [*z]élu). Growth-curve analyses revealed that syntactic context modulated both groups' fixations (noun-adjective > adjective-noun), and pivotal consonant modulated both groups' fixations (/t/ > /z/) only in the adjective-noun condition, with the effect of the consonant decreasing in more proficient French learners. These results suggest that syntactic cues override distributional cues in the segmentation of French words in potential liaison contexts.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Multilinguismo , Fonética , Semântica , Percepção da Fala , Feminino , França , Humanos , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
Behav Res Methods ; 50(3): 1285-1307, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791657

RESUMO

Using the megastudy approach, we report a new database (MEGALEX) of visual and auditory lexical decision times and accuracy rates for tens of thousands of words. We collected visual lexical decision data for 28,466 French words and the same number of pseudowords, and auditory lexical decision data for 17,876 French words and the same number of pseudowords (synthesized tokens were used for the auditory modality). This constitutes the first large-scale database for auditory lexical decision, and the first database to enable a direct comparison of word recognition in different modalities. Different regression analyses were conducted to illustrate potential ways to exploit this megastudy database. First, we compared the proportions of variance accounted for by five word frequency measures. Second, we conducted item-level regression analyses to examine the relative importance of the lexical variables influencing performance in the different modalities (visual and auditory). Finally, we compared the similarities and differences between the two modalities. All data are freely available on our website ( https://sedufau.shinyapps.io/megalex/ ) and are searchable at www.lexique.org , inside the Open Lexique search engine.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Tomada de Decisões , Estudos de Linguagem , Ferramenta de Busca , Confiabilidade dos Dados , França , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Análise de Regressão
4.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181709, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28738093

RESUMO

This study investigates whether listeners' experience with a second language learned later in life affects their use of fundamental frequency (F0) as a cue to word boundaries in the segmentation of an artificial language (AL), particularly when the cues to word boundaries conflict between the first language (L1) and second language (L2). F0 signals phrase-final (and thus word-final) boundaries in French but word-initial boundaries in English. Participants were functionally monolingual French listeners, functionally monolingual English listeners, bilingual L1-English L2-French listeners, and bilingual L1-French L2-English listeners. They completed the AL-segmentation task with F0 signaling word-final boundaries or without prosodic cues to word boundaries (monolingual groups only). After listening to the AL, participants completed a forced-choice word-identification task in which the foils were either non-words or part-words. The results show that the monolingual French listeners, but not the monolingual English listeners, performed better in the presence of F0 cues than in the absence of such cues. Moreover, bilingual status modulated listeners' use of F0 cues to word-final boundaries, with bilingual French listeners performing less accurately than monolingual French listeners on both word types but with bilingual English listeners performing more accurately than monolingual English listeners on non-words. These findings not only confirm that speech segmentation is modulated by the L1, but also newly demonstrate that listeners' experience with the L2 (French or English) affects their use of F0 cues in speech segmentation. This suggests that listeners' use of prosodic cues to word boundaries is adaptive and non-selective, and can change as a function of language experience.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Fonética , Espectrografia do Som/métodos , Acústica da Fala , Adulto Jovem
5.
Biol Psychol ; 127: 53-63, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28465047

RESUMO

Rumination is predominantly experienced in the form of repetitive verbal thoughts. Verbal rumination is a particular case of inner speech. According to the Motor Simulation view, inner speech is a kind of motor action, recruiting the speech motor system. In this framework, we predicted an increase in speech muscle activity during rumination as compared to rest. We also predicted increased forehead activity, associated with anxiety during rumination. We measured electromyographic activity over the orbicularis oris superior and inferior, frontalis and flexor carpi radialis muscles. Results showed increased lip and forehead activity after rumination induction compared to an initial relaxed state, together with increased self-reported levels of rumination. Moreover, our data suggest that orofacial relaxation is more effective in reducing rumination than non-orofacial relaxation. Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that verbal rumination involves the speech motor system, and provide a promising psychophysiological index to assess the presence of verbal rumination.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Ruminação Cognitiva/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Testa/fisiologia , Humanos , Lábio/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Behav Res Methods ; 45(3): 758-64, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23239073

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to describe a database of diphone positional frequencies in French. More specifically, we provide frequencies for word-initial, word-internal, and word-final diphones of all words extracted from a subtitle corpus of 50 million words that come from movie and TV series dialogue. We also provide intra- and intersyllable diphone frequencies, as well as interword diphone frequencies. To our knowledge, no other such tool is available to psycholinguists for the study of French sequential probabilities. This database and its new indicators should help researchers conducting new studies on speech segmentation.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Idioma , Fonética , Fala/classificação , Adulto , Humanos , Psicolinguística , Semântica
7.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 140(3): 187-95, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22664316

RESUMO

Previous research showed that handwriting production is mediated by linguistically oriented processing units such as syllables and graphemes. The goal of this study was to investigate whether French adults also activate another kind of unit that is more related to semantics than phonology, namely morphemes. Experiment 1 revealed that letter duration and inter-letter intervals were longer for suffixed words than for pseudo-suffixed words. These results suggest that the handwriting production system chunks the letter components of the root and suffix into morpheme-sized units. Experiment 2 compared the production of prefixed and pseudo-prefixed words. The results did not yield significant differences. This asymmetry between suffix and prefix processing has also been observed in other linguistic tasks. In suffixed words, the suffix would be processed on-line during the production of the root, in an analytic fashion. Prefixed words, in contrast, seem to be processed without decomposition, as pseudo-affixed words.


Assuntos
Escrita Manual , Idioma , Semântica , Adulto , França , Humanos , Processos Mentais
8.
Mem Cognit ; 38(6): 762-70, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20852239

RESUMO

Recent studies on handwriting production and neuropsychological data have suggested that orthographic representations are multilevel structures that encode information on letter identity and order, but also on intermediate-grained processing units such as syllables and morphemes. This study on handwriting production examined whether orthographic representations also include a graphemic-processing level. French adults wrote words containing an embedded one-, two-, or three-letter grapheme (e.g., a in clavier, ai in prairie, ain in plainte) on a digitizer. The results for letter duration revealed that the timing of movement processing depends on grapheme length (e.g., the duration of a for one-letter graphemes was shorter than that for two-letter graphemes, which, in turn, was shorter than that for three-letter graphemes). Two- and three-letter graphemes start to be processed before we start to write them. The results therefore revealed that orthographic representations also encode information on grapheme complexity.


Assuntos
Escrita Manual , Fonética , Semântica , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicolinguística , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 72(3): 775-87, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20348582

RESUMO

We investigated the use of language-specific intonational cues to word segmentation in French. Participants listened to phonemically identical sequences such as /selafi/, C'est la fiche/l'affiche "It's the sheet/poster." We modified the f0 of the first vowel /a/ of the natural consonant-initial production la fiche, so that it was equal to that of the natural vowel-initial production l'affiche (resynth-consonant-equal condition), higher (resynth-consonant-higher condition), or lower (resynth-consonant-lower condition). In a two-alternative forced choice task (Experiment 1), increasing the f0 in the /a/ of la fiche increased the percentage of vowel-initial (affiche) responses. In Experiment 2, participants made visual lexical decisions to vowel-initial targets (affiche) following both the natural consonant-initial production (la fiche) and the resynth-consonant-equal version. Facilitation was found only for the resynth-consonant-equal condition, suggesting that raising the f0 allowed online activation of vowel-initial targets. The recognition system seems to exploit intonational information to guide segmentation toward the beginning of content words.


Assuntos
Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Vocabulário , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Espectrografia do Som
10.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 102(3): 342-50, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18801494

RESUMO

This study investigates whether children's production and recognition of obligatory liaison sequences in French depend on the singular/plural orientation of nouns. Certain nouns occur more frequently in the plural (e.g., arbre "tree"), whereas others are found more often in the singular (e.g., arc-en-ciel "rainbow"). In the input, children more frequently encounter these plural-oriented nouns after determiners that indicate plurality (e.g., les,des "the", deux "two") and that are often associated with a /z/ liaison (e.g., deux arbres [døzarbr] "two trees"). In Experiment 1, 122 children (3 years 2 months to 6 years 3 months of age) were asked to produce nominal phrases with either /z/ liaisons (i.e., in plural contexts such as deux ours [døzurs] "two bears") or /n/ liaisons (i.e., in singular contexts such as un ours [oe nurs] "one bear"). We found correlations between the plural orientation of the nouns and (a) the probability that they will be preceded by an incorrect /z/ liaison in the singular context and (b) the probability that they will be preceded by a correct /z/ liaison in the plural context. This result was, however, restricted to the younger children. In Experiment 2, 20 children (5 years 5 months to 6 years 3 months of age) were asked to monitor target words in auditorily presented sentences. The results showed shorter reaction times for singular-oriented nouns when preceded by a singular determiner than when preceded by a plural determiner. Conversely, plural-oriented nouns were responded to faster when preceded by a plural determiner than when preceded by a singular determiner. Results are discussed within the framework of a two-stage model of liaison acquisition recently proposed by Chevrot, Chabanal, and Dugua (Journal of French Language Studies,17 [2007] 103-128) as well as by Chevrot, Dugua, and Fayol (Journal of Child Language [in press]).


Assuntos
Aprendizagem Verbal , Vocabulário , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino
11.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 96(3): 229-46, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17324673

RESUMO

The French language has a grammatical gender system in which all nouns are assigned either a masculine or a feminine gender. Nouns provide two types of gender cues that can potentially guide gender attribution: morphophonological cues carried by endings and semantic cues (natural gender). The first goal of this study was to describe the acquisition of the probabilistic system based on phonological oppositions on word endings by French-speaking children. The second goal was to explore the extent to which this system affects categorization. In the study, 3- to 9-year-olds assigned gender categorization to invented nouns whose endings were typically masculine, typically feminine, or neutral. Two response conditions were used. In the determiner condition, children indicated the gender class by orally providing the determiner un or une marked for gender. In the picture condition, responses were given by pointing to the picture of a Martian-like female or male person that would be best called by each spoken pseudoword. Results indicated that as young as 3 years, children associated the determiner corresponding to the ending bias at greater than chance levels. Ending-consistent performance increased from 3 to 9 years of age. Moreover, from 4 years of age onward, sensitivity to endings affected categorization. Starting at that age, pictures were selected according to endings at greater than chance levels. This effect also increased with age. The discussion deals with the mechanisms of language acquisition and the relation between language and cognition.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Cognição , Aprendizagem Verbal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética
12.
Cognition ; 104(2): 397-406, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16963014

RESUMO

In a crossmodal priming experiment, visual targets (e.g. RENARD, 'fox') were auditorily primed by either an intact [see text] 'the fox' or reduced form [see text] 'the fox' of the word. When schwa deletion gave rise to an initial cluster that respected the phonotactic constraints of French (e.g. [lapluz] 'the lawn' in which /pl/ is a legal word beginning in French), there was a processing cost for the targets primed by the reduced form of the word compared to intact primes (e.g. [see text] 'the lawn'). However, when schwa deletion produced an initial cluster that violated the phonotactic constraints of French (e.g. [see text], where /Rn/ is not allowed as a word beginning), there was no penalty for targets primed by reduced compared to intact forms of the word. Assuming that listeners change their phonemic percept when confronted with phonotactically illegal sequences (Segui, Frauenfelder, & Hallé, 2001), phonotactic constraints may help to restore the deleted schwa in sequences like le renard [see text] in French.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Tato , Vocabulário , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
13.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 29(6): 1256-69, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14622059

RESUMO

Lexical decision latencies to word targets presented either visually or auditorily were faster when directly preceded by a briefly presented (53-ms) pattern-masked visual prime that was the same word as the target (repetition primes), compared with different word primes. Primes that were pseudohomophones of target words did not significantly influence target processing compared with unrelated primes (Experiments 1-2) but did produce robust priming effects with slightly longer prime exposures (67 ms) in Experiment 3. Like repetition priming, these pseudohomophone priming effects did not interact with target modality. Experiments 4 and 5 replicated this general pattern of effects while introducing a different measure of prime visibility and an orthographic priming condition. Results are interpreted within the framework of a bimodal interactive activation model.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Aprendizagem por Associação de Pares , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Tempo de Reação , Leitura , Percepção da Fala , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Psicolinguística , Semântica
14.
Mem Cognit ; 30(5): 798-810, 2002 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12219896

RESUMO

In three experiments, we examined the effects of phonological resyllabification processes on the perception of French speech. Enchainment involves the resyllabification of a word-final consonant across a syllable boundary (e.g., in chaque avion, the /k/ crosses the syllable boundary to become syllable initial). Liaison involves a further process of realization of a latent consonant, alongside resyllabification (e.g., the /t/ in petit avion). If the syllable is a dominant unit of perception in French (Mehler, Dommergues, Frauenfelder, & Segui, 1981), these processes should cause problems for recognition of the following word. A cross-modal priming experiment showed no cost attached to either type of resyllabification in terms of reduced activation of the following word. Furthermore, word- and sequence-monitoring experiments again showed no cost and suggested that the recognition of vowel-initial words may be facilitated when they are preceded by a word that had undergone resyllabification through enchainment or liaison. We examine the sources of information that could underpin facilitation and propose a refinement of the syllable's role in the perception of French speech.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fonética , Semântica , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicolinguística
15.
Prensa méd. argent ; 73(8): 342-9, 20 jun. 1986. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-45492

RESUMO

Se efectúa un detenido estudio del estado actual de la microcirugia tubárica para la corrección de dicho factor de esterilidad. Incluye actualización de los conceptos de principios básicos de esta técnica operatória: empleo de la amplificación, exposición adecuada, hemostasia, evitación de la abrasión peritoneal, buen cierre, y uso de material no reactivo; exámenes previos para la selección rigurosa de la paciente que se someterá a la cirugía tubárica a los efectos de obtener los mejores resultados; selección cuidadosa de la técnica operatoria; enfoque farmacológico y técnica para reducir adherencias, control post-operatorio por histerosalpingografgía o laparoscopia, con insuflación de la trompa operada. Se realiza, además, una revisión de los resultados globales obtenidos, con las distintas técnicas microquirúrgicas empleadas, extractados de la literatura internaccional y una comparación de resultados entre macro y microcirugía


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Tubas Uterinas/cirurgia , Infertilidade Feminina/cirurgia , Microcirurgia
16.
Prensa méd. argent ; 73(8): 342-9, 20 jun. 1986. ilus, Tab
Artigo em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-31437

RESUMO

Se efectúa un detenido estudio del estado actual de la microcirugia tubárica para la corrección de dicho factor de esterilidad. Incluye actualización de los conceptos de principios básicos de esta técnica operatória: empleo de la amplificación, exposición adecuada, hemostasia, evitación de la abrasión peritoneal, buen cierre, y uso de material no reactivo; exámenes previos para la selección rigurosa de la paciente que se someterá a la cirugía tubárica a los efectos de obtener los mejores resultados; selección cuidadosa de la técnica operatoria; enfoque farmacológico y técnica para reducir adherencias, control post-operatorio por histerosalpingografgía o laparoscopia, con insuflación de la trompa operada. Se realiza, además, una revisión de los resultados globales obtenidos, con las distintas técnicas microquirúrgicas empleadas, extractados de la literatura internaccional y una comparación de resultados entre macro y microcirugía (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Infertilidade Feminina/cirurgia , Microcirurgia , Tubas Uterinas/cirurgia
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