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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545610

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of new systemic therapies approved in Canada for colorectal cancer on the frequency, intensity and duration of oncology clinic and infusion visits over five treatment phases from diagnosis (P1, P3) to treatment (P2, P4) of primary and metastatic disease, respectively, and during the last 6 months of life (P5). In total, 15,157 adult patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer and referred between 2000 and 2012 to any cancer clinic in British Columbia, Canada, were included. Frequency, intensity and duration of medical oncology clinic visits (CVs), oncology infusions (OIs) and oncology prescriptions (OPs) were measured by treatment phase. Mean, total and adjusted total duration for CVs increased for P1-5. CVs increased in P1-5, and in P1-4 when adjusted by treatment length. Adjusted and unadjusted OIs decreased in P1 coinciding with the introduction of an oral treatment option, but increased in P2-5. Mean OI duration increased in P1-5, while total and adjusted total decreased in P1 and increased in P2-5. OPs increased in P2-4, but were unchanged in P1 and P5. Multi-fold increases in resources and time required per patient were also observed, which have significant implications for demand projections in cancer care planning and delivery. In conclusion, patients required more visits in almost all treatment phases, visits on average took longer and patients were in treatment for longer periods of time.

2.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; : e1536, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing trend of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence in Canada, especially among females, few risk factors other than ultraviolet radiation exposure, have been identified. AIM: We conducted a case-control study of 406 CMM cases and 181 controls to evaluate the potential impact of body burdens of various persistent organic pollutants on CMM risk. METHODS: Detailed data on potential confounding factors, including lifetime repeated sun exposure and skin reaction to repeated sun exposure, were collected. Gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to assay plasma levels of 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 11 organochlorine (OC) pesticides among cases and controls. RESULTS: Statistically significant trends of increased CMM risk were observed with increasing plasma concentrations of multiple PCB congeners, including PCBs 138, 153, 170, 180, 183 and 187. For example, compared to lowest plasma concentration quartile of PCB-138, the second, third and fourth quartiles were associated with 1.7 (95% CI: 0.9-2.9), 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3-4.1) and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.3-4.5) -fold increased risks of CMM, respectively. Similarly, increasing plasma concentrations of several OC pesticides (i.e., ß-HCH, HCB, Mirex, oxychlordane and trans-Nonachlor) showed statistically significant trends with increased CMM risk. For example, compared to lowest plasma concentration quartile of ß-HCH, the second, third and fourth quartiles were associated with 1.3 (95% CI: 0.7-2.3), 2.1 (95% CI: 1.2-3.7) and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.2-4.4) -fold increased risks of CMM, respectively. CONCLUSION: Plasma levels of several persistent organic pollutants were highly correlated, suggesting that observed associations were not necessarily independent of each other. Given the highly correlated nature of exposure to PCB and OC analytes, sophisticated analyses that consider complex mixtures should be considered in future studies.

3.
Breast Cancer ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351578

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of environmental pollutants associated with multiple cancers, including female breast cancer. Several xenobiotic metabolism genes (XMGs), including the CYP450 family, play an important role in activating and detoxifying PAHs, and variations in the activity of the enzymes they encode can impact this process. This study aims to examine the association between XMGs and breast cancer, and to assess whether these variants modify the effects of PAH exposure on breast cancer risk. METHODS: In a case-control study in Vancouver, British Columbia, and Kingston, Ontario, 1037 breast cancer cases and 1046 controls had DNA extracted from blood or saliva and genotyped for 138 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and tagSNPs in 27 candidate XMGs. Occupational PAH exposure was assessed using a measurement-based job-exposure matrix. RESULTS: An association between genetic variants and breast cancer was observed among six XMGs, including increased risk among the minor allele carriers of AKR1C3 variant rs12387 (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.42-5.19) and AKR1C4 variant rs381267 (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.23-5.07). Heterogeneous effects of occupational PAH exposure were observed among carriers of AKR1C3/4 variants, as well as the PTGS2 variant rs5275. CONCLUSION: Our findings support an association between SNPs of XMGs and female breast cancer, including novel genetic variants that modify the toxicity of PAH exposure. These results highlight the interplay between genetic and environmental factors, which can be helpful in understanding the modifiable risks of breast cancer and its complex etiology.

4.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E443-E450, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies show that digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) combined with digital mammography (DM) can reduce recall rates and increases rates of breast cancer detection. The objective of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of DBT plus DM versus DM alone in British Columbia and to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of breast cancer screening programs. METHODS: We conducted an economic analysis based on data from a cohort of screening participants in the BC Cancer Breast Screening Program. The decision model simulated lifetime costs and outcomes for participants in breast cancer screening who were aged 40-74 years between 2012 and 2017. We analyzed rates of health care resource utilization, health state costs and estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), to measure incremental cost differences per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained from the addition of DBT to DM-based screening, from the government payer's perspective. RESULTS: The model simulated economic outcomes for 112 249 screening participants. We found that the ICER was highly sensitive to recall rate reductions and insensitive to parameters related to cancer detection. If DBT plus DM can reduce absolute recall rates by more than 2.1%, the base-case scenario had an ICER of $17 149 per QALY. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per QALY, more than 95% of the probabilistic simulations favoured the adoption of DBT plus DM versus DM alone. The ICER depended heavily on the ability of DBT plus DM to reduce recall rates. INTERPRETATION: The addition of DBT to DM would be considered cost-effective owing to the low positive predictive value of screening with DM alone. Reductions in false-positive recall rates should be monitored closely.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Mamografia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia/economia , Mamografia/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
5.
Int J Cancer ; 149(1): 191-199, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586169

RESUMO

Since 2008, girls in British Columbia (BC), Canada, have been offered HPV vaccination through a school-based, publicly funded immunization program. The oldest birth cohort eligible for the vaccination program was born in 1994 and uptake is on average 63%. To evaluate the impact of the HPV vaccine in BC, ecological trends in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) rates were assessed in young women before and after the implementation of the HPV vaccination program. Information on all Pap smears and histopathological abnormalities, in calendar years 2004-2017 in women 16-28 years of age in BC were obtained from the population-based BC Cancer Cervix Screening Program database. Rates of CIN 2 and 3 were calculated as the number of cases divided by the number of cytology specimens for that period. Rate ratios (RR) were calculated by negative binomial piecewise regression. Age-centered incidence rates of CIN 2 and 3 in BC declined significantly among women 16-23 years of age after HPV vaccine introduction compared to before vaccine introduction. The overall reduction postvaccination for CIN2 and 3 in women 16-23 years was respectively 62% (95% CI 54-68%) and 65% (95% CI 58-71%). Age-specific rates for CIN2 significantly declined for those 18-22 years of age and for those 19, 20 and 23 years of age for CIN3. Among women 24-28 years of age no decline in CIN2 and 3 rate over time was observed. The observed reduction in CIN 2 and 3 rates since the introduction of the school-based HPV vaccine program might illustrate the population impact of the BC provincial school-based HPV vaccination program.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Papillomaviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prognóstico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096731

RESUMO

An understanding of relationships between different constructs of the neighbourhood environment and diet quality is needed to inform public health interventions. This study investigated associations between material deprivation, social deprivation and population density with diet quality in a cohort of 19,973 Canadian adults aged 35 to 69 years within the Atlantic PATH cohort study. Diet quality, a metric of how well diet conforms to recommendations was determined from a 24-item food frequency questionnaire. Neighbourhood environment data were derived from dissemination area level Census data. Two deprivation indices were evaluated: material and social deprivation, which reflect access to goods and amenities and social relationships. Multi-level models were used to estimate relationships (mean differences and 95% CI) between neighbourhood environment and diet quality, adjusting for covariates. Mean diet quality was lower in the most socially deprived neighbourhoods compared to the least socially deprived: -0.56, 95% CI (-0.88, -0.25). Relationships between diet quality and population density differed between urban and rural areas (p-interaction < 0.0001). In rural areas, diet quality was higher in intermediate-density neighbourhoods: 0.54, 95% CI (0.05, 1.03). In urban areas, diet quality was lower in intermediate-density and the most-dense neighbourhoods: -0.84, 95% CI (-1.28, -0.40) and -0.72, 95% CI (-1.20, -0.25). Our findings suggest socially deprived and high-density neighbourhoods are associated with lower diet quality and possible urban-rural differences in neighbourhood environment-diet quality relationships. Additional studies are needed to determine the temporal nature of relationships and whether differences in diet quality are meaningful.


Assuntos
Dieta , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , População Rural , População Urbana
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3833, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737321

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been shown to predict breast cancer risk in European women, but their utility in Asian women is unclear. Here we evaluate the best performing PRSs for European-ancestry women using data from 17,262 breast cancer cases and 17,695 controls of Asian ancestry from 13 case-control studies, and 10,255 Chinese women from a prospective cohort (413 incident breast cancers). Compared to women in the middle quintile of the risk distribution, women in the highest 1% of PRS distribution have a ~2.7-fold risk and women in the lowest 1% of PRS distribution has ~0.4-fold risk of developing breast cancer. There is no evidence of heterogeneity in PRS performance in Chinese, Malay and Indian women. A PRS developed for European-ancestry women is also predictive of breast cancer risk in Asian women and can help in developing risk-stratified screening programmes in Asia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Risco
8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2093-2095, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tattoos may cause a variety of adverse reactions in the body, including immune reactions and infections. However, it is unknown whether tattoos may increase the risk of lymphatic cancers such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma. METHODS: Participants from two population-based case-control studies were included in logistic regression models to examine the association between tattoos and risk of NHL and multiple myeloma. RESULTS: A total of 1,518 participants from the NHL study (737 cases) and 742 participants from the multiple myeloma study (373 cases) were included in the analyses. No statistically significant associations were found between tattoos and risk of NHL or multiple myeloma after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, body mass index, and family history. CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify any significant associations between tattoos and risk of multiple myeloma, NHL, or NHL subtypes in these studies. IMPACT: Though biologically plausible, tattoos were not associated with increased risk of NHL or multiple myeloma in this study. Future studies with greater detail regarding tattoo exposure may provide further insights.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 147(12): 3370-3383, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574374

RESUMO

Insecticide use has been linked to increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), however, findings of epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent, particularly for NHL subtypes. We analyzed 1690 NHL cases and 5131 controls in the North American Pooled Project (NAPP) to investigate self-reported insecticide use and risk of NHL overall and by subtypes: follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for each insecticide were estimated using logistic regression. Subtype-specific associations were evaluated using ASSET (Association analysis for SubSETs). Increased risks of multiple NHL subtypes were observed for lindane (OR = 1.60, 1.20-2.10: FL, DLCBL, SLL), chlordane (OR = 1.59, 1.17-2.16: FL, SLL) and DDT (OR = 1.36, 1.06-1.73: DLBCL, SLL). Positive trends were observed, within the subsets with identified associations, for increasing categories of exposure duration for lindane (Ptrend = 1.7 × 10-4 ), chlordane (Ptrend = 1.0 × 10-3 ) and DDT (Ptrend = 4.2 × 10-3 ), however, the exposure-response relationship was nonlinear. Ever use of pyrethrum was associated with an increased risk of FL (OR = 3.65, 1.45-9.15), and the relationship with duration of use appeared monotonic (OR for >10 years: OR = 5.38, 1.75-16.53; Ptrend = 3.6 × 10-3 ). Our analysis identified several novel associations between insecticide use and specific NHL subtypes, suggesting possible etiologic heterogeneity in the context of pesticide exposure.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clordano/efeitos adversos , DDT/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hexaclorocicloexano/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Logísticos , Linfoma Folicular/induzido quimicamente , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos
10.
Blood Adv ; 4(12): 2789-2797, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569378

RESUMO

So far, 23 germline susceptibility loci have been associated with multiple myeloma (MM) risk. It is unclear whether the genetic variation associated with MM susceptibility also predisposes to its precursor, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Leveraging 2434 MM cases, 754 MGUS cases, and 2 independent sets of controls (2567/879), we investigated potential shared genetic susceptibility of MM and MGUS by (1) performing MM and MGUS genome-wide association studies (GWAS); (2) validating the association of a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 23 established MM loci (MM-PRS) with risk of MM, and for the first time with MGUS; and (3) examining genetic correlation of MM and MGUS. Heritability and genetic estimates yielded 17% (standard error [SE] ±0.04) and 15% (SE ±0.11) for MM and MGUS risk, respectively, and a 55% (SE ±0.30) genetic correlation. The MM-PRS was associated with risk of MM when assessed continuously (odds ratio [OR], 1.17 per SD; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.21) or categorically (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.38-2.09 for highest; OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.90 for lowest compared with middle quintile). The MM-PRS was similarly associated with MGUS (OR, 1.19 per SD; 95% CI, 1.14-1.26 as a continuous measure, OR, 1.77, 95%CI: 1.29-2.43 for highest and OR, 0.70, 95%CI: 0.50-0.98 for lowest compared with middle quintile). MM and MGUS associations did not differ by age, sex, or MM immunoglobulin isotype. We validated a 23-SNP MM-PRS in an independent series of MM cases and provide evidence for its association with MGUS. Our results suggest shared common genetic susceptibility to MM and MGUS.


Assuntos
Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada , Mieloma Múltiplo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada/epidemiologia , Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Razão de Chances
12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(6): 583-599, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314107

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between pesticide exposures and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) using data from the North American Pooled Project (NAPP). METHODS: Three population-based studies conducted in Kansas, Nebraska, and six Canadian provinces (HL = 507, Controls = 3886) were pooled to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for single (never/ever) and multiple (0, 1, 2-4, ≥ 5) pesticides used, duration (years) and, for select pesticides, frequency (days/year) using adjusted logistic regression models. An age-stratified analysis (≤ 40/ > 40 years) was conducted when numbers were sufficient. RESULTS: In an analysis of 26 individual pesticides, ever use of terbufos was significantly associated with HL (OR: 2.53, 95% CI 1.04-6.17). In age-stratified analyses, associations were stronger among those ≤ 40 years of age. No significant associations were noted among those > 40 years old; however, HL cases ≤ 40 were three times more likely to report ever using dimethoate (OR: 3.76 95% CI 1.02-33.84) and almost twice as likely to have ever used malathion (OR: 1.86 95% CI 1.00-3.47). Those ≤ 40 years of age reporting use of 5 + organophosphate insecticides had triple the odds of HL (OR: 3.00 95% CI 1.28-7.03). Longer duration of use of 2,4-D, ≥ 6 vs. 0 years, was associated with elevated odds of HL (OR: 2.59 95% CI 1.34-4.97). CONCLUSION: In the NAPP, insecticide use may increase the risk of HL, but results are based on small numbers.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Praguicidas , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Kansas/epidemiologia , Nebraska/epidemiologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1217, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139696

RESUMO

Known risk variants explain only a small proportion of breast cancer heritability, particularly in Asian women. To search for additional genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer, here we perform a meta-analysis of data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Asians (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and European descendants (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls). We identified 31 potential novel loci with the lead variant showing an association with breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The associations for 10 of these loci were replicated in an independent sample of 16,787 cases and 16,680 controls of Asian women (P < 0.05). In addition, we replicated the associations for 78 of the 166 known risk variants at P < 0.05 in Asians. These findings improve our understanding of breast cancer genetics and etiology and extend previous findings from studies of European descendants to Asian women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Neurooncol ; 147(2): 427-440, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124185

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We used data from MOBI-Kids, a 14-country international collaborative case-control study of brain tumors (BTs), to study clinical characteristics of the tumors in older children (10 years or older), adolescents and young adults (up to the age of 24). METHODS: Information from clinical records was obtained for 899 BT cases, including signs and symptoms, symptom onset, diagnosis date, tumor type and location. RESULTS: Overall, 64% of all tumors were low-grade, 76% were neuroepithelial tumors and 62% gliomas. There were more males than females among neuroepithelial and embryonal tumor cases, but more females with meningeal tumors. The most frequent locations were cerebellum (22%) and frontal (16%) lobe. The most frequent symptom was headaches (60%), overall, as well as for gliomas, embryonal and 'non-neuroepithelial' tumors; it was convulsions/seizures for neuroepithelial tumors other than glioma, and visual signs and symptoms for meningiomas. A cluster analysis showed that headaches and nausea/vomiting was the only combination of symptoms that exceeded a cutoff of 50%, with a joint occurrence of 67%. Overall, the median time from first symptom to diagnosis was 1.42 months (IQR 0.53-4.80); it exceeded 1 year in 12% of cases, though no particular symptom was associated with exceptionally long or short delays. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest clinical epidemiology study of BT in young people conducted so far. Many signs and symptoms were identified, dominated by headaches and nausea/vomiting. Diagnosis was generally rapid but in 12% diagnostic delay exceeded 1 year with none of the symptoms been associated with a distinctly long time until diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/classificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(5): 451-462, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124188

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We explored the interaction between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), infectious mononucleosis (IM) history, and immune-related genotypes in a pooled case-control analysis. METHODS: A total of 7,926 NHL patients and 10,018 controls from 12 case-control studies were included. Studies were conducted during various time periods between 1988 and 2008, and participants were 17-96 years of age at the time of ascertainment/recruitment. Self-reported IM history and immune response genotypes were provided by the InterLymph Data Coordinating Center at Mayo Clinic. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, and interactions were estimated using the empirical Bayes method. PACT was used to account for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: There was evidence of an interaction effect between IM history and two variants on T-cell lymphoma (TCL) risk: rs1143627 in interleukin-1B (IL1B) (pinteraction = 0.04, ORinteraction = 0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01, 0.87) and rs1800797 in interleukin-6 (IL6) (pinteraction = 0.03, ORinteraction = 0.08, 95% CI 0.01, 0.80). Neither interaction effect withstood adjustment for multiple comparisons. There were no statistically significant interactions between immune response genotypes and IM on other NHL subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic risk variants in IL1B and IL6 may affect the association between IM and TCL, possibly by influencing T-cell activation, growth, and differentiation in the presence of IM, thereby decreasing risk of immune cell proliferation.


Assuntos
Mononucleose Infecciosa/genética , Linfoma não Hodgkin/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Mononucleose Infecciosa/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(6): 1168-1178, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial aggregation of lymphoid cancers and immune-related disorders suggests a role for genetic susceptibility; however, few studies examine environmental factors. According to the hygiene hypothesis, adult-onset immune-related diseases may be a consequence of reduced childhood infectious exposures and aberrant immune development. In a cohort of 196 multiple-case lymphoid cancer families, we analyzed environmental factors related to the hygiene hypothesis. METHODS: Family structure, childhood environment, and immune-related disorders were examined among 196 lymphoid cancer families, in relation to risk of lymphoid cancer. We report on 450 lymphoid cancer cases and 1,018 unaffected siblings using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association. RESULTS: The risk of lymphoma tended to decrease with later birth order (OR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.78-0.89) and larger sibship size (OR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.85). High maternal education, above average family income during childhood, allergies (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.44-3.51), and tonsillectomy (OR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.14-2.78) were independent risk factors for lymphoma. Familial lymphoid cancer cases were more likely to report environment (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.21-2.98) and drug (OR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.41-3.73) allergies. CONCLUSIONS: These associations underscore the complex etiology of familial lymphoma. To our knowledge, this is the largest multiple-case family-based study that supports the hygiene hypothesis contributing to lymphoid cancer risk. IMPACT: Understanding the mechanism by which environmental and lifestyle factors affect lymphoid cancer risk may advance cancer prevention, even in the familial context.

17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(6): 579-589, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026169

RESUMO

Experimental and epidemiologic studies suggest that light at night (LAN) exposure disrupts circadian rhythm, and this disruption may increase breast cancer risk. We investigated the potential association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia and Kingston, Ontario, Canada with incident breast cancer cases, and controls frequency matched by age in the same region. This analysis was restricted to 844 cases and 905 controls who provided lifetime residential histories. Using time-weighted average duration at each home 5-20 years prior to study entry, two measures of cumulative average outdoor LAN were calculated using two satellite data sources. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between outdoor LAN and breast cancer risk, considering interactions for menopausal status and night shift work. We found no association between residential outdoor LAN and breast cancer for either measure of LAN [OR comparing highest vs. lowest tertile (DNB) = 0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.27]. We also found no association when considering interactions for menopausal status and past/current night work status. These findings were robust to changes to years of residential data considered, residential mobility, and longer exposure windows. Our findings are consistent with studies reporting that outdoor LAN has a small effect or no effect on breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Luz , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Características de Residência , Saúde da Mulher
19.
J Infect Dis ; 221(1): 81-90, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand real-world human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine impact, continuous evaluation using population-based data is critical. We evaluated the early impact of the school-based HPV immunization program on cervical dysplasia in women in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Data linkage was performed using records from provincial cervical screening and immunization registries. Precancerous outcomes were compared between unvaccinated and HPV-vaccinated women born 1994-2005. Incidence rate, relative rate (RR), and vaccine effectiveness (VE), using unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression of cytology (HSIL) and histopathology (CIN2, CIN3, and CIN2+) outcomes, were compared across vaccination status groups. RESULTS: Women who received a complete series of vaccine on schedule between age 9 and 14 years had an adjusted RR = 0.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.57) for CIN2+ over 7 years of follow-up compared to unvaccinated women, resulting in a VE of 57.9% (95% CI, 43.2%-69.0%). Adjusted RR for HSIL was 0.53 (95% CI, .43-.64), resulting in a VE of 47.1% (95% CI, 35.6%-56.7%). CONCLUSION: Women vaccinated against HPV have a lower incidence of cervical dysplasia compared to unvaccinated women. Immunization between 9 and 14 years of age should be encouraged. Continued program evaluation is important for measuring long-term population impact.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Criança , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Sistema de Registros , Instituições Acadêmicas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
20.
Lifetime Data Anal ; 26(3): 573-602, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732833

RESUMO

Motivated by a breast cancer research program, this paper is concerned with the joint survivor function of multiple event times when their observations are subject to informative censoring caused by a terminating event. We formulate the correlation of the multiple event times together with the time to the terminating event by an Archimedean copula to account for the informative censoring. Adapting the widely used two-stage procedure under a copula model, we propose an easy-to-implement pseudo-likelihood based procedure for estimating the model parameters. The approach yields a new estimator for the marginal distribution of a single event time with semicompeting-risks data. We conduct both asymptotics and simulation studies to examine the proposed approach in consistency, efficiency, and robustness. Data from the breast cancer program are employed to illustrate this research.

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