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1.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(8): 1360-1369, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009812

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer risk in never-smokers is poorly understood. The major reason for this gap in knowledge is that this disease is relatively uncommon (except in Asians), making it difficult to assemble an adequate study sample. In this study we conducted a genome-wide association study on the largest, to date, set of European-descent never-smokers with lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase (discovery and replication) genome-wide association study in never-smokers of European descent. We further augmented the sample by performing a meta-analysis with never-smokers from the recent OncoArray study, which resulted in a total of 3636 cases and 6295 controls. We also compare our findings with those in smokers with lung cancer. RESULTS: We detected three genome-wide statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms rs31490 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.820; p value 5.31 × 10-16), rs380286 (OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.723-0.820; p value 4.32 × 10-16), and rs4975616 (OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.730-0.829; p value 1.04 × 10-14). All three mapped to Chromosome 5 CLPTM1L-TERT region, previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk in smokers and in never-smoker Asian women, and risk of other cancers including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate. CONCLUSIONS: We found that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smokers is associated to genetic variants with pan-cancer risk effects. The comparison with smokers shows that top variants previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk only confer risk in the presence of tobacco exposure, underscoring the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of this disease.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(4): 715-723, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying genetic variants with pleiotropic associations across multiple cancers can reveal shared biologic pathways. Prior pleiotropic studies have primarily focused on European-descent individuals. Yet population-specific genetic variation can occur, and potential pleiotropic associations among diverse racial/ethnic populations could be missed. We examined cross-cancer pleiotropic associations with lung cancer risk in African Americans. METHODS: We conducted a pleiotropic analysis among 1,410 African American lung cancer cases and 2,843 controls. We examined 36,958 variants previously associated (or in linkage disequilibrium) with cancer in prior genome-wide association studies. Logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for age, sex, global ancestry, study site, and smoking status. RESULTS: We identified three novel genomic regions significantly associated (FDR-corrected P <0.10) with lung cancer risk (rs336958 on 5q14.3, rs7186207 on 16q22.2, and rs11658063 on 17q12). On chromosome16q22.2, rs7186207 was significantly associated with reduced risk [OR = 0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.73-0.89], and functional annotation using GTEx showed rs7186207 modifies DHODH gene expression. The minor allele at rs336958 on 5q14.3 was associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.22-1.78), whereas the minor allele at rs11658063 on 17q12 was associated with reduced risk (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel associations on chromosomes 5q14.3, 16q22.2, and 17q12, which contain HNF1B, DHODH, and HAPLN1 genes, respectively. SNPs within these regions have been previously associated with multiple cancers. This is the first study to examine cross-cancer pleiotropic associations for lung cancer in African Americans. IMPACT: Our findings demonstrate novel cross-cancer pleiotropic associations with lung cancer risk in African Americans.

3.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; : 1-16, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652524

RESUMO

Mexican American adolescents report high rates of alcohol consumption as well as media use. Viewing alcohol images in the media is associated with increased alcohol consumption; however, to date, this association has not been examined across different ethnic groups in the United States. To bridge this gap, we examined the association between viewing alcohol use images in PG-13-rated movies and alcohol initiation in Mexican-heritage adolescents. A cohort of 1,154 Mexican-heritage youth, average age 14 years, was followed for 2 years; in 2008-2009, participants reported alcohol use in the past 30 days and again in 2010-2011. Exposure to alcohol use images in PG-13-rated movies was estimated from 50 movies randomly selected from a pool of 250 of the top box office hits in the United States using previously validated methods. A series of generalized linear models, adjusting for age, gender, peer and family alcohol use, family functioning, anxiety, sensation-seeking tendency, and acculturation were completed. Multiple imputation was utilized to address missing data. Overall, N = 652 participants reported no alcohol use in 2008-2009; by 2010-2011, 33.6% (n = 219) had initiated alcohol use. Adjusted models indicated an independent association between exposure to alcohol use images in PG-13-rated movies and alcohol initiation (comparing quartiles 3 to 1: RR =1.53; 95% CI [1.11, 2.10]). The findings emphasize that the relationship between viewing alcohol use scenes in American films and alcohol initiation holds among Mexican-heritage adolescents and underscore the need to limit adolescents' exposure to such powerful images in PG-13-rated movies.

4.
Am J Cancer Res ; 8(9): 1775-1787, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The composition and structure of site-specific microbiota have been investigated as potential biomarkers for a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancers. While many studies have focused on the changes in the airway microbiota using respiratory specimens from patients with various respiratory diseases, more research is needed to explore the microbial profiles within the distal lung parenchyma in smokers with lung cancer and/or emphysema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To describe and contrast lung tissue-associated microbial signatures in smokers with lung cancer and/or emphysema, we employed culture-independent pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable V4 region and compositional analysis in non-malignant lung tissue samples obtained from 40 heavy smokers, including 10 emphysema-only, 11 lung cancer-only, and 19 with both lung cancer and emphysema. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The emphysema-only group presented a lower bacterial community evenness defined by a significantly lower Shannon diversity index compared to the lung cancer patients with or without emphysema (P = 0.006). Furthermore, community compositions of lung cancer patients with or without emphysema were characterized by a significantly lower abundance of Proteobacteria (primary the genera Acinetobacter and Acidovorax) and higher prevalence of Firmicutes (Streptococcus) and Bacteroidetes (Prevotella), compared to emphysema-only patients. In conclusion, the lung microbial composition and communities structures of smokers with lung cancer are distinct from the emphysema-only patients. Although preliminary, our findings suggest that lung microbiome changes could be a biomarker of lung cancer that could eventually be used to help screening for the disease.

5.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(10): 1483-1495, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies are widely used to map genomic regions contributing to lung cancer (LC) susceptibility, but they typically do not identify the precise disease-causing genes/variants. To unveil the inherited genetic variants that cause LC, we performed focused exome-sequencing analyses on genes located in 121 genome-wide association study-identified loci previously implicated in the risk of LC, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function level, and smoking behavior. METHODS: Germline DNA from 260 case patients with LC and 318 controls were sequenced by utilizing VCRome 2.1 exome capture. Filtering was based on enrichment of rare and potential deleterious variants in cases (risk alleles) or controls (protective alleles). Allelic association analyses of single-variant and gene-based burden tests of multiple variants were performed. Promising candidates were tested in two independent validation studies with a total of 1773 case patients and 1123 controls. RESULTS: We identified 48 rare variants with deleterious effects in the discovery analysis and validated 12 of the 43 candidates that were covered in the validation platforms. The top validated candidates included one well-established truncating variant, namely, BRCA2, DNA repair associated gene (BRCA2) K3326X (OR = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-3.99), and three newly identified variations, namely, lymphotoxin beta gene (LTB) p.Leu87Phe (OR = 7.52, 95% CI: 1.01-16.56), prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2 gene (P3H2) p.Gln185His (OR = 5.39, 95% CI: 0.75-15.43), and dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 2 gene (DAAM2) p.Asp762Gly (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.10-0.79). Burden tests revealed strong associations between zinc finger protein 93 gene (ZNF93), DAAM2, bromodomain containing 9 gene (BRD9), and the gene LTB and LC susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results extend the catalogue of regions associated with LC and highlight the importance of germline rare coding variants in LC susceptibility.

6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(21): 3801-3812, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060175

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one of the leading causes of death worldwide, is substantially influenced by genetic factors. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency demonstrates that rare coding variants of large effect can influence COPD susceptibility. To identify additional rare coding variants in patients with severe COPD, we conducted whole exome sequencing analysis in 2543 subjects from two family-based studies (Boston Early-Onset COPD Study and International COPD Genetics Network) and one case-control study (COPDGene). Applying a gene-based segregation test in the family-based data, we identified significant segregation of rare loss of function variants in TBC1D10A and RFPL1 (P-value < 2x10-6), but were unable to find similar variants in the case-control study. In single-variant, gene-based and pathway association analyses, we were unable to find significant findings that replicated or were significant in meta-analysis. However, we found that the top results in the two datasets were in proximity to each other in the protein-protein interaction network (P-value = 0.014), suggesting enrichment of these results for similar biological processes. A network of these association results and their neighbors was significantly enriched in the transforming growth factor beta-receptor binding and cilia-related pathways. Finally, in a more detailed examination of candidate genes, we identified individuals with putative high-risk variants, including patients harboring homozygous mutations in genes associated with cutis laxa and Niemann-Pick Disease Type C. Our results likely reflect heterogeneity of genetic risk for COPD along with limitations of statistical power and functional annotation, and highlight the potential of network analysis to gain insight into genetic association studies.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 11: 219-226, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent meta-analyses show that individuals with high risk variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25 are likely to develop lung cancer earlier than those with low-risk genotypes. The same high-risk genetic variants also predict nicotine dependence and delayed smoking cessation. It is unclear whether smoking cessation confers the same benefits in terms of lung cancer risk reduction for those who possess CHRNA5 risk variants versus those who do not. METHODS: Meta-analyses examined the association between smoking cessation and lung cancer risk in 15 studies of individuals with European ancestry who possessed varying rs16969968 genotypes (N=12,690 ever smokers, including 6988 cases of lung cancer and 5702 controls) in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. RESULTS: Smoking cessation (former vs. current smokers) was associated with a lower likelihood of lung cancer (OR=0.48, 95%CI=0.30-0.75, p=0.0015). Among lung cancer patients, smoking cessation was associated with a 7-year delay in median age of lung cancer diagnosis (HR=0.68, 95%CI=0.61-0.77, p=4.9∗10-10). The CHRNA5 rs16969968 risk genotype (AA) was associated with increased risk and earlier diagnosis for lung cancer, but the beneficial effects of smoking cessation were very similar in those with and without the risk genotype. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7years for those who develop it. These results: 1) underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2) suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3) have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Risco
8.
Lung Cancer ; 98: 33-42, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27393504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of lung cancer have identified regions of common genetic variation with lung cancer risk in Europeans who smoke and never-smoking Asian women. This study aimed to conduct a GWAS in African Americans, who have higher rates of lung cancer despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day when compared with Caucasians. This population provides a different genetic architecture based on underlying African ancestry allowing the identification of new regions and exploration of known regions for finer mapping. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped 1,024,001 SNPs in 1737 cases and 3602 controls in stage 1, followed by a replication phase of 20 SNPs (p<1.51×10(-5)) in an independent set of 866 cases and 796 controls in stage 2. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the combined analysis, we confirmed two loci to be associated with lung cancer that achieved the threshold of genome-wide significance: 15q25.1 marked by rs2036527 (p=1.3×10(-9); OR=1.32; 95% CI=1.20-1.44) near CHRNA5, and 5p15.33 marked by rs2853677 (p=2.8×10(-9); OR=1.28; 95% CI=1.18-1.39) near TERT. The association with rs2853677 is driven by the adenocarcinoma subtype of lung cancer (p=1.3×10(-8); OR=1.37; 95% CI=1.23-1.54). No SNPs reached genome-wide significance for either of the main effect models examining smoking - cigarettes per day and current or former smoker. Our study was powered to identify strong risk loci for lung cancer in African Americans; we confirmed results previously reported in African Americans and other populations for two loci near plausible candidate genes, CHRNA5 and TERT, on 15q25.1 and 5p15.33 respectively, are associated with lung cancer. Additional work is required to map and understand the biological underpinnings of the strong association of these loci with lung cancer risk in African Americans.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População
10.
EBioMedicine ; 4: 153-61, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26981579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms linked to both smoking exposure and risk of lung cancer. The degree to which lung cancer risk is driven by increased smoking, genetics, or gene-environment interactions is not well understood. METHODS: We analyzed associations between 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with smoking quantity and lung cancer in 7156 African-American females in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), then analyzed main effects of top nominally significant SNPs and interactions between SNPs, cigarettes per day (CPD) and pack-years for lung cancer in an independent, multi-center case-control study of African-American females and males (1078 lung cancer cases and 822 controls). FINDINGS: Nine nominally significant SNPs for CPD in WHI were associated with incident lung cancer (corrected p-values from 0.027 to 6.09 × 10(-5)). CPD was found to be a nominally significant effect modifier between SNP and lung cancer for six SNPs, including CHRNA5 rs2036527[A](betaSNP*CPD = - 0.017, p = 0.0061, corrected p = 0.054), which was associated with CPD in a previous genome-wide meta-analysis of African-Americans. INTERPRETATION: These results suggest that chromosome 15q25.1 variants are robustly associated with CPD and lung cancer in African-Americans and that the allelic dose effect of these polymorphisms on lung cancer risk is most pronounced in lighter smokers.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Afro-Americanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Feminino , Genes Modificadores , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética
11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 11(1): 52-61, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26762739

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association between smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer (LC) is well documented. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 28 susceptibility loci for LC, 10 for COPD, 32 for smoking behavior, and 63 for pulmonary function, totaling 107 nonoverlapping loci. Given that common variants have been found to be associated with LC in genome-wide association studies, exome sequencing of these high-priority regions has great potential to identify novel rare causal variants. METHODS: To search for disease-causing rare germline mutations, we used a variation of the extreme phenotype approach to select 48 patients with sporadic LC who reported histories of heavy smoking-37 of whom also exhibited carefully documented severe COPD (in whom smoking is considered the overwhelming determinant)-and 54 unique familial LC cases from families with at least three first-degree relatives with LC (who are likely enriched for genomic effects). RESULTS: By focusing on exome profiles of the 107 target loci, we identified two key rare mutations. A heterozygous p.Arg696Cys variant in the coiled-coil domain containing 147 (CCDC147) gene at 10q25.1 was identified in one sporadic and two familial cases. The minor allele frequency (MAF) of this variant in the 1000 Genomes database is 0.0026. The p.Val26Met variant in the dopamine ß-hydroxylase (DBH) gene at 9q34.2 was identified in two sporadic cases; the minor allele frequency of this mutation is 0.0034 according to the 1000 Genomes database. We also observed three suggestive rare mutations on 15q25.1: iron-responsive element binding protein neuronal 2 (IREB2); cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 5 (neuronal) (CHRNA5); and cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 4 (CHRNB4). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated highly disruptive risk-conferring CCDC147 and DBH mutations.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/genética , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/patologia , Fumar
12.
Carcinogenesis ; 36(11): 1314-26, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26363033

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have likely uncovered all common variants at the GWAS significance level. Additional variants within the suggestive range (0.0001> P > 5×10(-8)) are, however, still of interest for identifying causal associations. This analysis aimed to apply novel variant prioritization approaches to identify additional lung cancer variants that may not reach the GWAS level. Effects were combined across studies with a total of 33456 controls and 6756 adenocarcinoma (AC; 13 studies), 5061 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 12 studies) and 2216 small cell lung cancer cases (9 studies). Based on prior information such as variant physical properties and functional significance, we applied stratified false discovery rates, hierarchical modeling and Bayesian false discovery probabilities for variant prioritization. We conducted a fine mapping analysis as validation of our methods by examining top-ranking novel variants in six independent populations with a total of 3128 cases and 2966 controls. Three novel loci in the suggestive range were identified based on our Bayesian framework analyses: KCNIP4 at 4p15.2 (rs6448050, P = 4.6×10(-7)) and MTMR2 at 11q21 (rs10501831, P = 3.1×10(-6)) with SCC, as well as GAREM at 18q12.1 (rs11662168, P = 3.4×10(-7)) with AC. Use of our prioritization methods validated two of the top three loci associated with SCC (P = 1.05×10(-4) for KCNIP4, represented by rs9799795) and AC (P = 2.16×10(-4) for GAREM, represented by rs3786309) in the independent fine mapping populations. This study highlights the utility of using prior functional data for sequence variants in prioritization analyses to search for robust signals in the suggestive range.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Teorema de Bayes , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(11)2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26319099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been hypothesized to increase the risk of cancer development as an initiator or promoter, yet no large-scale study of inherited variation across cancer sites has been conducted. METHODS: We conducted a cross-cancer genomic analysis for the inflammation pathway based on 48 genome-wide association studies within the National Cancer Institute GAME-ON Network across five common cancer sites, with a total of 64 591 cancer patients and 74 467 control patients. Subset-based meta-analysis was used to account for possible disease heterogeneity, and hierarchical modeling was employed to estimate the effect of the subcomponents within the inflammation pathway. The network was visualized by enrichment map. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified three pleiotropic loci within the inflammation pathway, including one novel locus in Ch12q24 encoding SH2B3 (rs3184504), which reached GWAS significance with a P value of 1.78 x 10(-8), and it showed an association with lung cancer (P = 2.01 x 10(-6)), colorectal cancer (GECCO P = 6.72x10(-6); CORECT P = 3.32x10(-5)), and breast cancer (P = .009). We also identified five key subpathway components with genetic variants that are relevant for the risk of these five cancer sites: inflammatory response for colorectal cancer (P = .006), inflammation related cell cycle gene for lung cancer (P = 1.35x10(-6)), and activation of immune response for ovarian cancer (P = .009). In addition, sequence variations in immune system development played a role in breast cancer etiology (P = .001) and innate immune response was involved in the risk of both colorectal (P = .022) and ovarian cancer (P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations in inflammation and its related subpathway components are keys to the development of lung, colorectal, ovary, and breast cancer, including SH2B3, which is associated with lung, colorectal, and breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Inflamação/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Proteínas/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo
14.
BMC Med Genet ; 16: 43, 2015 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26111525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite well-established negative health consequences of smokeless tobacco use (STU), the number and variety of alternative non-combustible tobacco products on the market have increased tremendously over the last 10 years, as has the market share of these products relative to cigarettes. While STU among non-Hispanic white youth has decreased over the last 10 years, the prevalence has remained constant among Hispanic youth. Here we examine demographic, psychosocial, and genetic risk associated with STU among Mexican heritage youth. METHODS: Participants (50.5 % girls) reported on psychosocial risk factors in 2008-09 (n = 1,087, mean age = 14.3 years), and smokeless tobacco use in 2010-11 (mean age = 16.7 years). Participants provided a saliva sample that was genotyped for genes in the dopamine, serotonin and opioid pathways. RESULTS: Overall 62 (5.7 %) participants reported lifetime STU. We identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms that increased the risk for lifetime use. Specifically, rs2023902 on SERGEF (OR = 1.93; 95 % CI: 1.05-3.53), rs16941667 on ALDH2 (OR = 3.14; 95 % CI: 1.65-5.94), and rs17721739 on TPH1 (OR = 1.71; 95 % CI: 1.00-2.91) in the dopamine pathway, rs514912 on TRH-DE (OR = 1.84; 95 % CI: 1.25-2.71) in the serotonin pathway, and rs42451417 on the serotonin transporter gene, SLC6A4 (OR = 3.53; 95 % CI: 1.56-7.97). After controlling for genetic risk, being male (OR = 1.86; 95 % CI: 1.02-3.41), obesity status (OR = 2.22; 95 % CI: 1.21-4.09), and both higher levels of anxiety (OR = 1.04; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.08) and social disinhibition (OR = 1.26; 95 % CI: 1.07-1.48) were associated with increased use. High subjective social status (OR = 0.78; 95 % CI: 0.64-0.93) was protective against use, while higher parental education (OR = 2.01; 95 % CI: 1.03-3.93) was associated with increased use. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that use of genetic risk, along with psychosocial, demographic, and behavioral risk factors may increase our ability to identify youth at increased risk for STU, which in turn may improve our ability to effectively target prevention messages to Mexican heritage youth.


Assuntos
Americanos Mexicanos , Tabagismo , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/genética , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/genética , Tabagismo/psicologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Int J Cancer ; 137(9): 2155-62, 2015 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25924736

RESUMO

Lung cancer rates in Israeli Jews have remained stable over the last five decades and are much lower than in most developed countries despite high historical smoking rates. We compared lung cancer risk in Jews and non-Jews in Israel and in the United States. Data were derived from a population-based, case-control study in Israel (638 cases, 496 controls) to estimate lung cancer risk associated with smoking. Data were also acquired from a case-control study in the United States with information on religious affiliation (5,093 cases, 4,735 controls). Smoking was associated with lung cancer risk in all religion/gender groups in both studies. However, major differences in risk magnitude were noted between Jews and non-Jews; ever smoking was associated with a moderately elevated risk of lung cancer in Jewish men and women in Israel (OR = 4.61, 2.90-7.31 and OR = 2.10, 1.36-3.24, respectively), and in Jewish men and women in the United States (OR = 7.63, 5.34-10.90 and OR = 8.50, 5.94-12.17) but were significantly higher in Israeli non-Jewish men (OR = 12.96, 4.83-34.76) and US non-Jewish men and women (OR = 11.33, 9.09-14.12 and OR = 12.78, 10.45-15.63). A significant interaction between smoking and religion was evident in light, moderate and heavy male and female smokers. The differences in risk level between Israeli Jews and non-Jews could not be explained by lung cancer genetic risk variants which were identified in GWAS (genes in the CHRNA5, TERT and CLPTM1L regions). Data from the two studies support the notion of a reduced risk of lung cancer in Jewish compared to non-Jewish smokers in different areas of the world.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Judeus/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Adolesc Health ; 57(1): 24-30, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25911161

RESUMO

PURPOSE: High levels of family conflict increase the risk for early smoking initiation and smoking escalation among adolescents, whereas high levels of warmth and cohesion in the family are protective against smoking initiation. However, little is known about the associations between changes in family function during adolescence on subsequent smoking initiation among Mexican heritage adolescents. METHODS: In 2005-2006, 1,328 Mexican heritage adolescents aged 11-14 years enrolled in a cohort study to examine nongenetic and genetic factors associated with cigarette experimentation. In 2008-2009, 1,154 participants completed a follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression models were computed to prospectively examine associations between smoking behavior assessed in 2008-2009 and changes in family cohesion and family conflict assessed in both 2005-2006 and 2008-2009, controlling for gender, age, and linguistic acculturation, positive outcome expectations associated with smoking, as well as friends and family smoking behavior. RESULTS: Overall 21% had tried cigarettes by 2008-2009. Consistently low levels of family cohesion (odds ratio [OR] = 3.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-6.73) and decreases in family cohesion (OR = 2.36; 95% CI, 1.37-4.07), as well as consistently high levels of family conflict (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.08-2.79) and increases in conflict (OR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.19-2.94) were independent risk factors for smoking initiation among Mexican heritage youth. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that family cohesion protects against adolescent smoking, whereas family conflict increases the risk for smoking. Therefore, intervention programs for adolescents and parents could focus on enhancing family bonding and closeness, which is protective against smoking initiation.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Conflito Familiar/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/etnologia , Apego ao Objeto , Fumar/etnologia
19.
Genet Epidemiol ; 39(3): 197-206, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25644374

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Although several genetic variants associated with lung cancer have been identified in the past, stringent selection criteria of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can lead to missed variants. The objective of this study was to uncover missed variants by using the known association between lung cancer and first-degree family history of lung cancer to enrich the variant prioritization for lung cancer susceptibility regions. In this two-stage GWAS study, we first selected a list of variants associated with both lung cancer and family history of lung cancer in four GWAS (3,953 cases, 4,730 controls), then replicated our findings for 30 variants in a meta-analysis of four additional studies (7,510 cases, 7,476 controls). The top ranked genetic variant rs12415204 in chr10q23.33 encoding FFAR4 in the Discovery set was validated in the Replication set with an overall OR of 1.09 (95% CI=1.04, 1.14, P=1.63×10(-4)). When combining the two stages of the study, the strongest association was found in rs1158970 at Ch4p15.2 encoding KCNIP4 with an OR of 0.89 (95% CI=0.85, 0.94, P=9.64×10(-6)). We performed a stratified analysis of rs12415204 and rs1158970 across all eight studies by age, gender, smoking status, and histology, and found consistent results across strata. Four of the 30 replicated variants act as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) sites in 1,111 nontumor lung tissues and meet the genome-wide 10% FDR threshold.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Fenótipo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 96(2): 301-8, 2015 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25640678

RESUMO

PARK2, a gene associated with Parkinson disease, is a tumor suppressor in human malignancies. Here, we show that c.823C>T (p.Arg275Trp), a germline mutation in PARK2, is present in a family with eight cases of lung cancer. The resulting amino acid change, p.Arg275Trp, is located in the highly conserved RING finger 1 domain of PARK2, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Upon further analysis, the c.823C>T mutation was detected in three additional families affected by lung cancer. The effect size for PARK2 c.823C>T (odds ratio = 5.24) in white individuals was larger than those reported for variants from lung cancer genome-wide association studies. These data implicate this PARK2 germline mutation as a genetic susceptibility factor for lung cancer. Our results provide a rationale for further investigations of this specific mutation and gene for evaluation of the possibility of developing targeted therapies against lung cancer in individuals with PARK2 variants by compensating for the loss-of-function effect caused by the associated variation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Razão de Chances , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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