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1.
Food Res Int ; 111: 244-255, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007683

RESUMO

Alginate hydrogels are often used for immobilization of plant-derived bioactive compounds by fast and simple ionic gelation technique. However, the structure of alginate gel network is very porous and mostly result with high-diffusion rates of encapsulated compound, what limits its application as delivery vehicle. In order to prevent losses of bioactives and prepare efficient encapsulation systems, the aim of this study was to evaluate a potential of new natural fillers, cocoa powder (CP) and carob (C) for structuring alginate network aimed for encapsulation of aqueous dandelion (Taraxacum officinale L.) leaf extract using ionic gelation. Whey protein isolates served as a standard filler. The influence of different concentrations of gelling medium (2% and 3% calcium chloride) on encapsulation properties of alginate systems was also evaluated. Calcium concentration affected morphological properties (more acceptable when using 3% CaCl2), while textural properties and encapsulation efficiency of polyphenols and retained antioxidant capacity were more influenced by selected delivery materials. Alginate-whey protein isolates beads were scored with the highest loading capacity of polyphenols (>93%), while newly formulated binary mixtures (alginate-cocoa powder and alginate-carob) also enabled highly efficient entrapment of polyphenols (>88%). The slowest release of polyphenols in simulated gastrointestinal fluids were obtained when alginate was combined with CP and C, where system alginate-cocoa powder prepared with lower concentration of calcium chloride (2% CaCl2) enabled the most extended release of total polyphenols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Obtained results strongly justified implementation of new plant-derived functional fillers (cocoa powder and carob) for encapsulation purposes and opened new directions for designing of binary carrier's.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Cacau/química , Galactanos/química , Mananas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Gomas Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Taraxacum/química , Alginatos/metabolismo , Cacau/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/metabolismo , Galactanos/metabolismo , Géis , Hidrogéis , Mananas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Gomas Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Taraxacum/metabolismo
2.
J Phycol ; 54(2): 275-298, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419886

RESUMO

The diatom genus Entomoneis is known from the benthos and plankton of marine, brackish, and freshwaters. Entomoneis includes diatoms with a bilobate keel elevated above the valve surface, a sigmoid canal raphe, and numerous girdle bands. Owing mostly to the scarcity of molecular data for a diverse set of species, the phylogeny of Entomoneis has not been investigated in depth. The few previous studies that included Entomoneis were focused on broader questions and the available data were from a small number of either unidentified Entomoneis or well-known species (e.g., E. paludosa). Since the first description of new species combining both molecular and morphological characters (E. tenera), we have continued to cultivate and investigate Entomoneis in the plankton of the Adriatic Sea. Combined multigene phylogeny (SSU rDNA sequences, rbcL, and psbC genes) and morphological observations (LM, SEM and TEM) revealed six new Entomoneis species supported by phylogenetic and morphological data: E. pusilla, E. gracilis, E. vilicicii, E. infula, E. adriatica, and E. umbratica. The most important morphological features for species delineation were cell shape, the degree and mode of torsion, valve apices, the appearance and structure of the transition between keel and valve body, the ultrastructure and the shape of the girdle bands, and the arrangement and density of perforations along the valve and valvocopulae. Our results highlight the underappreciated diversity of Entomoneis and call for a more in-depth morphological and molecular investigation of this genus especially in planktonic habitats.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/citologia , Proteínas de Algas/análise , Croácia , DNA de Algas/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Filogenia
3.
Food Technol Biotechnol ; 56(4): 494-505, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923446

RESUMO

The present study evaluates the potential of encapsulation of polyphenolic antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves by combining emulsification and spray drying techniques. To stabilize the emulsions and prepare samples suitable for use in dry products, double emulsions encapsulating rosemary polyphenolic extract and containing polyglycerol polyricinoleate (4%), whey protein isolates (2 and 4%) as emulsifiers, and maltodextrins (MDE 10 and 21) as enhancing coatings were subjected to spray drying. The obtained results show insignificant (p>0.05) effect of used maltodextrin type and protein content on mean particle size of double emulsions containing rosemary polyphenols. Morphology analyses showed that double emulsions were successfully prepared, spherical microcapsules were obtained after spray drying of double emulsions and double emulsion form was still preserved after rehydration of spray-dried microcapsules. Regardless of used maltodextrins, significantly (p>0.05) higher encapsulation efficiencies (EE) of total polyphenols (39.57 and 42.83%) in rehydrated samples were achieved when higher protein content (4% whey protein isolate) was used, indicating the major impact of protein content on EE of rosemary polyphenols. Also, using HPLC analysis, rosmarinic and caffeic acids, apigenin and luteolin derivatives were detected among specific polyphenols, where rosmarinic acid had notable encapsulation efficiency ranging from 62.15 to 67.43%. In this way, the obtained microcapsules encapsulating rosemary polyphenols could be easily blended with various dry mixtures, and serve for delivery in different functional products.

4.
Food Chem ; 167: 378-86, 2015 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25149001

RESUMO

Alginate-based blends consisting of carrageenan, pectin, chitosan or psyllium husk powder were prepared for assessment of the best formulation aimed at encapsulation of caffeine. Alginate-pectin blend exhibited the lowest viscosity and provided the smallest beads. Alginate-psyllium husk blend was characterised with higher viscosity, yielding the largest bead size and the highest caffeine encapsulation efficiency (83.6%). The release kinetics of caffeine indicated that the porosity of alginate hydrogel was not reduced sufficiently to retard the diffusion of caffeine from the beads. Chitosan coated alginate beads provided the most retarded release of caffeine in water. Morphological characteristics of beads encapsulating caffeine were adversely affected by freeze drying. Bitterness intensity of caffeine-containing beads in water was the lowest for alginate-psyllium beads and chitosan coated alginate beads. Higher sodium alginate concentration (3%) for production of hydrogel beads in combination with psyllium or chitosan coating would present the most favourable carrier systems for immobilization of caffeine.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Cafeína/química , Carragenina/química , Quitosana/química , Hidrogel de Polietilenoglicol-Dimetacrilato/análise , Pectinas/química , Psyllium/química , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Química Farmacêutica , Ácido Glucurônico/química , Ácidos Hexurônicos/química
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 95(13): 2607-18, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25377798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumer demands for healthy, functional foods are growing rapidly nowadays. Coffee, as one of the most widespread commodities, represents an interesting aspect for enrichment, since it is consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. The aim of this study was to formulate enriched instant coffee powders with the purpose of estimating the influence of storage time, functional ingredients and packaging material on physical and sensory properties of the mixtures. RESULTS: Storage time of 6 months significantly (P <0.05) influenced moisture content of the mixtures, which rose linearly with an increase in storage time. Packaging material proved to be an important variable affecting moisture content, particle size, colour and cohesion index. Functional ingredients (vitamins A and C, iron, inulin and oligofructose) influenced particle size, dispersibility, wettability and, in terms of sensory analysis, grades for aftertaste, chemical taste and overall acceptability. CONCLUSION: Addition of functional ingredients significantly influenced some particle size distribution parameters and reconstitution properties, causing an increase in wettability and dispersibility times. Furthermore, in sensory terms, it influenced aftertaste and chemical taste grades. Packaging material significantly influenced moisture content, some particle size distribution parameters, colour and cohesion index.


Assuntos
Café , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Fortificados , Inulina , Micronutrientes , Oligossacarídeos , Paladar , Bebidas/análise , Cor , Embalagem de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós , Água/análise
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