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2.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the prevalence of white-coat hypertension (WCH) and white-coat uncontrolled hypertension (WUCH) throughout the age spectrum among individuals with office isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH) who were untreated or treated with antihypertensive medications, respectively. METHODS: We cross-sectionally evaluated 8809 untreated (42% males, 52.1 ±â€Š16.2 years) and 9136 treated (39% males, 59.7 ±â€Š14.5 years) individuals from two independent Brazilian populations who underwent home blood pressure monitoring. Participants were also categorized as younger (<40 years), intermediate (≥40 and <60 years) and older (≥60 years) age. RESULTS: Unadjusted and adjusted analyses showed that the frequency of WCH and WUCH was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in ISH and IDH than SDH at all age groups. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex, BMI and studied population showed that, compared with SDH, ISH had in average 4.1, 3.1 and 1.6-fold greater risk of WCH and 3.3, 3.6 and 2.0-fold greater risk of WUCH at younger, intermediate and older ages, whereas IDH had in average 2.3, 2.6 and 2.0-fold greater risk of WCH and 3.8, 3.2 and 3.8-fold greater risk of WUCH at younger, intermediate and older ages, respectively. CONCLUSION: ISH and IDH were associated with higher prevalence of WCH and WUCH than SDH across all age spectrum. In addition, treated and untreated ISH individuals with age less than 60 years and treated IDH individuals of all ages had the highest risk of having WCH phenotypes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Obesity-related decline in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) functions such as cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) has supported the notion that this lipoprotein dysfunction may contribute for atherogenesis among obese patients. We investigated if potentially other HDL protective actions may be affected with weight gain and these changes may occur even before the obesity range in a cross-sectional analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lipid profile, body mass index (BMI), biochemical measurements, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were obtained in this cross-sectional study with 899 asymptomatic individuals. Lipoproteins were separated by ultracentrifugation and HDL physical-chemical characterization, CEC, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, HDL-mediated platelet aggregation inhibition were measured in a randomly-selected subgroup (n = 101). Individuals with increased HDL-C had an attenuated increase in cIMT with elevation of BMI (interaction effect ß = -0.054; CI 95% -0.0815, -0.0301). CEC, HDL-C, HDL size and HDL-antioxidant activity were negatively associated with cIMT. BMI was inversely correlated with HDL-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation (Spearman's rho -0.157, p < 0.03) and CEC (Spearman's rho -0.32, p < 0.001), but surprisingly it was directly correlated with the antioxidant activity (Spearman's rho 0.194, p = 0.052). Thus, even in non-obese, non-diabetic individuals, increased BMI is associated with a wide change in protective functions of HDL, reducing CEC and increasing antioxidant activity. In these subjects, decreased HDL concentration, size or function are related to increased atherosclerotic burden. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that in non-obese, non-diabetic individuals, the increasing values of BMI are associated with impaired protective functions of HDL and concomitant increase in atherosclerotic burden.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 292: 70-74, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Osteoporosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) are very common conditions among elderly people, and both represent a public health concern due to their prognostic consequences. Osteoporosis and CHD share many risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms, such as calcification pathways. Clinical evidence associates lower bone mass with cardiovascular diseases and endothelial dysfunction. Hence, this study aims to investigate whether bone mass density is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and/or endothelial dysfunction in the very elderly. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of cohort enrolled individuals, ages 80 years or older (n = 208), who had never manifested cardiovascular diseases. Medical evaluation, blood tests, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intimal-media thickness (IMT), Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and Coronary Calcium Score (CCS) were obtained. Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated by multivariate logistic regression models using CCS, FMD and IMT categories. Adjustments for covariates were done. RESULTS: Overall bone mass was independently and inversely associated with CCS categories [OR:1.68(1.16-8.85); p = 0.024] and IMT categories [OR:2.97(1.11-7.90); p = 0.030]. Conversely, overall bone mass was independent and directly associated with FMD categories [OR:2.73(1.36-70.39); p = 0.023]. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that overall bone mass is independently and inversely associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction and thickness of carotid in the very elderly.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16401, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704948

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia during myocardial infarction (MI) has a strong and direct association with mortality. In stable patients and experimental models, statins favor the elevation of glycaemia. The present study investigated whether short-course treatment with statins during MI can influence glucose homeostasis and thus the clinical outcome. In this prospective study, euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) was performed at second (D2) and sixth (D6) day after MI in patients randomized to simvastatin (S)10 or 80 mg/day during hospitalization (n = 27). In addition, patients (n = 550) were treated without (WS) or with simvastatin (S) at 20, 40 or 80 mg/day had HOMA2S on admission (D1) and fifth (D5) day after MI. According to EHC, insulin sensitivity increased by 20 ± 60% in S10 and decreased by -6 ± 28% in S80 (p = 0.025). Consistently, the changes in HOMA2S between D1 and D5 were 40 ± 145% (WS), 22 ± 117% (S20), 16 ± 61% (S40) and -2% ± 88% (S80) (p = 0.001). In conclusion, statin during the acute phase of MI reduces insulin sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner.

6.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(4): 787-891, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691761
7.
Hypertens Res ; 42(12): 1989-1995, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506647

RESUMO

Data on the association of blood pressure (BP) phenotypes with office and out-of-office markers of vascular stiffness and pressure wave reflection are sparse. This study investigated office and 24-h measures of brachial BP, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central augmentation index (AIx) across hypertension phenotypes among individuals not using BP-lowering medications [normotension (NT), white-coat hypertension (WH), masked hypertension (MH) and sustained hypertension (SH)] and those using BP-lowering medications [controlled hypertension (CH), white-coat uncontrolled hypertension (WUCH), masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) and sustained uncontrolled hypertension (SUCH)]. We evaluated 454 untreated (age = 45 ± 15 years, 50% males) and 238 treated (age = 52 ± 15 years, 45% males) individuals who underwent office and 24-h brachial BP, PWV, and AIx measures using a Mobil-O-Graph PWA monitor. In the analysis adjusted for age and sex, WH had higher (p < 0.05) office PWV (7.53 ± 0.09 vs 6.89 ± 0.05), office AIx (27.9 ± 1.3 vs 23.8 ± 0.8), and daytime AIx (24.6 ± 0.7 vs 22.7 ± 0.4) compared with those of NT, while WUCH had higher (p < 0.05) office PWV (8.28 ± 0.11 vs 7.43 ± 0.08) and 24-h PWV (7.54 ± 0.09 vs 7.21 ± 0.07) than those of CH. MH had higher (p < 0.05) 24-h PWV (7.00 ± 0.09 vs 6.69 ± 0.04) and 24-h AIx (24.3 ± 0.9 vs 21.9 ± 0.4) than those of NT, whereas MUCH had higher (p < 0.05) 24-h PWV (7.64 ± 0.13 vs 7.21 ± 0.07) than that of CH. Lastly, SH or SUCH had significantly higher office and 24-h PWV and AIx than those of NT and CH, respectively. In conclusion, these results suggest that individuals with masked BP phenotypes are more predisposed to have adverse out-of-office vascular characteristics, while individuals with white-coat phenotypes have adverse office and out-of-office vascular characteristics compared with those of individuals with normal BP levels.

8.
Adv Clin Chem ; 92: 105-140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472752

RESUMO

The reduction of plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) containing lipoproteins has long been pursued as the main modifiable risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This has led to an intense search for strategies aiming at reducing plasma apoB-lipoproteins, culminating in reduction of overall CV risk. Despite 3 decades of progress, CVD remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, as such, new therapeutic targets are still warranted. Clinical and preclinical research has moved forward from the original concept, under which some lipids must be accumulated and other removed to achieve the ideal condition in disease prevention, into the concept that mechanisms that orchestrate lipid movement between lipoproteins, cells and organelles is equally involved in CVD. As such, this review scrutinizes potentially atherogenic changes in lipid trafficking and assesses the molecular mechanisms behind it. New developments in risk assessment and new targets for the mitigation of residual CVD risk are also addressed.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Humanos
9.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(5): 735-743, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension are major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the effects of alirocumab on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) differed according to age, hypertension, or smoking status. METHODS: Data were pooled from 10 Phase 3 ODYSSEY randomized trials (24-104 weeks' duration) in 4983 people with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) or non-familial hypercholesterolemia (3188 on alirocumab, 1795 on control [620 on ezetimibe and 1175 on placebo]). Most participants received concomitant maximum tolerated statin therapy. In 8 trials, the alirocumab dose was increased from 75 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) to 150 mg Q2W at Week 12 if predefined risk-based LDL-C goals were not achieved at Week 8 (≥70 mg/dL in very high cardiovascular risk; ≥100 mg/dL in moderate or high cardiovascular risk). Two trials compared alirocumab 150 mg Q2W vs placebo. The efficacy and safety of alirocumab were assessed post hoc in subgroups stratified by age (<65, ≥65 to <75, ≥75 years) and baseline hypertension or smoking status. RESULTS: Alirocumab reduced LDL-C by 23.7% (75/150 mg vs ezetimibe + statin) to 65.4% (150 mg vs placebo + statin) from baseline to Week 24 vs control. Subgroup analyses confirmed no significant interactions in response to alirocumab between age group, hypertension, or smoking status. Overall rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were similar between alirocumab and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this pooled analysis from 10 trials, alirocumab led to substantial LDL-C reductions vs control in every age group and regardless of hypertension or smoking status. Alirocumab was well tolerated in all subgroups.

10.
Hypertens Res ; 42(11): 1816-1823, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263210

RESUMO

The values used to define the presence of white-coat or masked blood pressure (BP) effects are arbitrary. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of several cutoff points based on the difference between office and home BP (ΔBP) values to detect white-coat uncontrolled (WUCH) and masked uncontrolled (MUCH) hypertension, which are phenotypes with adverse prognoses, in a large cohort of treated hypertensive patients. This multicenter cross-sectional study included 6,049 treated hypertensive patients (40% males, mean age 59.1 ± 14.4 years) who underwent office and home BP monitoring. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, area under curve (AUC), and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of several ΔBP cutoffs to detect WUCH and MUCH. The 15/9 mmHg cutoff, which reflects a 1.0 standard deviation of the ΔBP, showed the best AUC (0.783, 95% CI = 0.772-0.794) for the detection of WUCH, particularly in individuals with office grade 1 hypertension (AUC = 0.811, 95% CI = 0.793-0.829). The -1/-1 mmHg cutoff, which considers all individuals who had lower systolic or diastolic BP levels in the office than at home, had the highest AUC (0.822, 95% CI = 0.808-0.836) for the detection of MUCH. Both cutoff values also had the best performances for identifying all patients with higher and lower office-than-home BP grades. In conclusion, the 15/9 and -1/-1 mmHg cutoffs showed the best performance for the detection of treated hypertensive patients with WUCH and MUCH, respectively, and therefore might be markers of significant white-coat and masked effects and could be useful for identifying preferential targets for more routine home BP measures.

11.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(Suppl. 2b): 115-115, Jun. 2019.
Artigo em Português | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1008872

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO. A obesidade se associa a declínio na capacidade de efluxo de colesterol (CEC) mediada por HDL. Embora esse dado tenha apoiado a noção de que a disfunção do HDL contribui para a aterogênese em pacientes obesos, a perda funcional da HDL também pode envolver outros domínios funcionais e se estabelecer mesmo antes dos valores limiares para obesidade, ou seja, ainda em valores compatíveis com sobrepeso. MÉTODOS. Perfil lipídico, índice de massa corporal (IMC), medidas bioquímicas e espessura médio-intimal (cIMT) foram obtidos neste estudo transversal com 899 indivíduos assintomáticos. Funções de HDL e caracterização físico-química de HDL foram medidas em um subgrupo (n=101). RESULTADOS. Foi identificada interação do IMC sobre a associação entre HDL-C e cIMT (ß=-1,8; p<0,0001). Enquanto que, de forma geral, o HDL-C reduzido foi associado ao aumento da cIMT, os indivíduos com níveis elevados de HDL-C apresentaram associação atenuada entre o IMC e cIMT. Foi encontrada uma associação negativa entre CEC e cIMT (ß=-0,2; p<0,047) e entre atividade antioxidante de HDL e cIMT (ß=-0,2; p<0,038) mesmo após ajuste para idade, sexo, IMC, HDL-C e insulina no plasma. O IMC foi inversamente associado à inibição da agregação plaquetária mediada por HDL (r=-0,2, p<0,03) e CEC (r=-0,3, p<0,001), mas diretamente associada à atividade antioxidante (r=0,2, p<0,047). Uma variável composta de CEC e atividade antioxidante transformadas em z-score permaneceu aproximadamente constante à medida em que o tamanho de HDL se altera em função do excesso de peso. Valores crescentes dessa variável composta foram associados à cIMT (R2 polinomial=0,26, p<0,001), sugerindo que a alteração do tamanho da HDL pode representar uma adaptação biológica bem-sucedida ao excesso de peso. CONCLUSÃO. O aumento do IMC está associado à disfunção global da HDL, que contribui para aumentar a carga aterosclerótica. Nesse cenário, a alteração do tamanho da HDL não justifica o aumento do desenvolvimento da doença aterosclerótica. (AU)


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso , HDL-Colesterol
12.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(8): 1550-1564, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189429

RESUMO

Despite decades of therapeutic advances, myocardial infarction remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Recent studies have identified HDLs (high-density lipoproteins) as a potential candidate for mitigating coronary ischemia/reperfusion injury via a broad spectrum of signaling pathways. HDL ligands, such as S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate), Apo (apolipoprotein) A-I, clusterin, and miRNA, may influence the opening of the mitochondrial channel, insulin sensitivity, and production of vascular autacoids, such as NO, prostacyclin, and endothelin-1. In parallel, antioxidant activity and sequestration of oxidized molecules provided by HDL can attenuate the oxidative stress that triggers ischemia/reperfusion. Nevertheless, during myocardial infarction, oxidation and the capture of oxidized and proinflammatory molecules generate large phenotypic and functional changes in HDL, potentially limiting its beneficial properties. In this review, new findings from cellular and animal models, as well as from clinical studies, will be discussed to describe the cardioprotective benefits of HDL on myocardial infarction. Furthermore, mechanisms by which HDL modulates cardiac function and potential strategies to mitigate postmyocardial infarction risk damage by HDL will be detailed throughout the review.

13.
Nutr J ; 18(1): 29, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) elicits an intense acute inflammatory response that is essential for cardiac repair. However, an excessive inflammatory response also favors myocardial apoptosis, cardiac remodeling, and cardiovascular mortality. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) bear anti-inflammatory effects, which may mitigate the inflammatory response during MI. This study investigated whether ω-3 intake is associated with attenuation of the MI-related inflammatory response and cardiac remodeling. METHODS: ST-elevation MI (STEMI) patients (n = 421) underwent clinical, biochemical, nutritional, 3D echocardiogram, Cardiac Magnetic Resonance imaging (CMRi) at 30 days and 3D echocardiogram imaging at six months after the MI. Blood tests were performed at day one (D1) and day five (D5) of hospitalization. Changes in inflammatory markers (ΔD5-D1) were calculated. A validated food frequency questionnaire estimated the nutritional consumption and ω-3 intake in the last 3 months before admission. RESULTS: The intake of ω-3 below the median (< 1.7 g/day) was associated with a short-term increase in hs-C-reactive protein [OR:1.96(1.24-3.10); p = 0.004], Interleukin-2 [OR:2.46(1.20-5.04); p = 0.014], brain-type natriuretic peptide [OR:2.66(1.30-5.44); p = 0.007], left-ventricle end-diastolic volume [OR:5.12(1.11-23.52)]; p = 0.036] and decreases in left-ventricle ejection fraction [OR:2.86(1.47-6.88); p = 0.017] after adjustment for covariates. No differences were observed in the extension of infarcted mass obtained by CMRi. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a reduced daily intake of ω-3 may intensify outcome-determining mechanisms after STEMI, such as acute inflammatory response and late left ventricular remodeling. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry number and website: NCT02062554 .

14.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 23, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823882

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], based on the authors review, the GLP1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes published in Cardiovascular Diabetology, a meta-analysis of GLP-1 and non-GLP-1 based therapies was performed on cardiovascular outcomes.

15.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 33(3): 371-381, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778806

RESUMO

It is now apparent that a variety of deleterious mechanisms intrinsic to myocardial infarction (MI) exists and underlies its high residual lethality. Indeed, despite effective coronary patency therapies, ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury accounts for about 50% of the infarcted mass. In this context, recent studies in animal models have demonstrated that coronary reperfusion with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) may reduce MI size in up to 30%. A spectrum of mechanisms mediated by either HDL-related apolipoproteins or phospholipids attenuates myocardial cell death. Hence, promising therapeutic approaches such as infusion of reconstituted HDL particles, new HDL by genomic therapy, or the infusion of apoA-I mimetic peptides have been sought as a way of ensuring protection against I/R injury. In this review, we will explore the limitations and potential therapeutic effects of HDL therapies during the acute phase of MI.

16.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(1): 3-8, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular mortality. Over the last years, mortality has decreased significantly, more in individuals with diabetes than in healthy ones. That is mostly due to the control of other cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of our study was to analyze the dyslipidemia control in two diabetes cohorts. METHODS: Patients from two distinct cohorts were studied, 173 patients from the BHS (Brasília Heart Study) and 222 patients from the BDS (Brazilian Diabetes Study). The data on dyslipidemia control were studied in both different populations. All patients had diabetes. RESULTS: There are significant differences concerning comorbidities between the LDL-C and BDS groups. The average glycated hemoglobin is of 8.2 in the LDL-C > 100 group in comparison with 7.7 and 7.5 in the 70-100 and < 70 groups, respectively (p = 0.024). There is a higher percentage of hypertensive patients with LDL between 70-100 (63.9%), when comparing the < 70 and > 100 groups (54.3% and 54.9%, respectively; p = 0.005). Diastolic pressure is higher in the group with LDL > 100, with an average of 87 mmHg, in comparison with 82.6 mmHg and 81.9 mmHg in the 70-100 and < 70 groups, respectively (p = 0.019). The group with LDL > 100 has the greatest percentage of smokers (8.7%) in comparison with the groups with LDL between 70-100 and < 70 (5.6% and 4.3%, respectively; p = 0.015). There is also a difference in the previous incidence of coronaropathy. In the group with LDL < 70, 28.3% of patients had already experienced a previous infarction, compared with 11.1% and 10.6% in the 70-100 and > 100 groups, respectively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The data in our study have shown that the dyslipidemia control in diabetic patients is inadequate and there is a tendency of direct association between lack of blood glucose control and lack of dyslipidemia control, in addition to the association with other cardiovascular risk factors, such as diastolic hypertension and smoking. This worsened control might be related to the plateau in the descending curve of mortality, and investments in this regard can improve the cardiovascular health in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dislipidemias/complicações , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Brasil/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
17.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(1): 24-32, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758416

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In acute myocardial infarction (AMI), each 18 mg/dl (1 mmol/L) increment is associated with a 3% increase in mortality rates. All strategies applied for reducing blood glucose to this date, however, have not presented encouraging results. METHODOLOGY: We searched the Medline (PubMed) and Cochrane Library databases for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) from 1995 to 2017 that used the intensive strategy or GIK therapy for blood glucose control during the acute stage of the AMI. We included eight studies. In order to identify the effects of GIK or insulin therapy, we calculated a overall risk ratio (RR) with meta-analysis of fixed and random effects models. A two-tail p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 28,151 patients were included: 1,379 intensively treated with insulin, 13,031 in GIK group, and 13,741 in the control group. The total mortality was 10.5% (n=2,961) and the RR of 1.03 [95%CI 0.96-1.10]; I2 = 31%; p = 0.41 for the combined intensive insulin plus GIK groups in comparison with the control group. In meta-regression analyses, intense reductions in blood glucose (> 36 mg/dL) in relation to the estimated average blood glucose (estimated by HbA1c) were associated with higher mortality, whereas lower reductions in blood glucose (< 36 mg/dL) were not associated with mortality. The lowering of blood glucose in the acute phase of MI compared with the average blood glucose was more effective around 18 mg/dL. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that there may be a tenuous line between the effectiveness and safety of reducing blood glucose in the acute phase of MI. The targets must not exceed a reduction greater than 36 mg/dL in relation to estimated average blood glucose.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(1): 56-60, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758421

RESUMO

Diabetes is one of the most common chronic pathologies around the world, involving treatment with general clinicians, endocrinologists, cardiologists, ophthalmologists, nephrologists and a multidisciplinary team. Patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) can be affected by cardiac autonomic neuropathy, leading to increased mortality and morbidity. In this review, we will present current concepts, clinical features, diagnosis, prognosis, and possible treatment. New drugs recently developed to reduce glycemic level presented a pleiotropic effect of reducing sudden death, suggesting a potential use in patients at risk.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/terapia , Morte Súbita , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
19.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(1): 61-69, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758422

RESUMO

Although long ago described, there is no established consensus regarding the real existence of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy (CMPDM). Due to its complex pathophysiology, it has been difficult for clinical and experimental research to establish clear connections between diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF), as well as to solve the mechanisms of the underlying myocardial disease. However, the epidemiological evidence of the relationship of these conditions is undisputed. The interest in understanding this disease has intensified due to the recent results of clinical trials evaluating new glucose-lowering drugs, such as sodium-glucose transporter inhibitors 2, which demonstrated favorable responses considering the prevention and treatment of HF in patients with DM. In this review we cover aspects of the epidemiology of CMPDM and its possible pathogenic mechanisms, as well as, present the main cardiac phenotypes of CMPDM (HF with preserved and reduced ejection fraction) and implications of the therapeutic management of this disease.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/terapia , Ecocardiografia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
20.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(1): 70-86, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758423

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the elderly grew sharply over the last decade. Reduced insulin sensitivity and secretory capacity, weight gain, sarcopenia, and elevated adiposity are all common metabolic and body changes in the aging population that favor an increased risk of hypoglycemia, frailty syndrome, falls, and cognitive dysfunction. First line antidiabetic therapy is frequently not safe in older individuals because of its high risk of hypoglycemia and prevalent co-morbid diseases, such as chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) is a new class of antidiabetic therapy that inhibits glucose and sodium reabsorption on renal proximal convoluted tubule. Its effect is well demonstrated in various clinical scenarios in the younger population. This review and metanalysis describe particularities of the SGLT2i on the elderly, with mechanistic insights of the potential benefit and remaining challenges about the use of these drugs in this important age group. Further, we will present a meta-analysis of the main effects of SGLT2i reported in post-hoc studies in which the median age of the subgroups analyzed was over 60 years. Despite the absence of specific clinical trials for this population, our findings suggest that SGLT2i therapy on older individuals is effective to lower glucose and maintain its effect on systolic blood pressure and body weight.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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