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1.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(8): 1045-1055, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to demonstrate that cardiac magnetic resonance could reveal anthracycline-induced early tissue remodeling and its relation to cardiac dysfunction and left ventricular (LV) atrophy. BACKGROUND: Serum biomarkers of cardiac dysfunction, although elevated after chemotherapy, lack specificity for the mechanism of myocardial tissue alterations. METHODS: A total of 27 women with breast cancer (mean age 51.8 ± 8.9 years, mean body mass index 26.9 ± 3.6 kg/m2), underwent cardiac magnetic resonance before and up to 3 times after anthracycline therapy. Cardiac magnetic resonance variables were LV ejection fraction, normalized T2-weighted signal intensity for myocardial edema, extracellular volume (ECV), LV cardiomyocyte mass, intracellular water lifetime (τic; a marker of cardiomyocyte size), and late gadolinium enhancement. RESULTS: At baseline, patients had a relatively low (10-year) Framingham cardiovascular event risk (median 5%), normal LV ejection fractions (mean 69.4 ± 3.6%), and normal LV mass index (51.4 ± 8.0 g/m2), a mean ECV of 0.32 ± 0.038, mean τic of 169 ± 69 ms, and no late gadolinium enhancement. At 351 to 700 days after anthracycline therapy (240 mg/m2), mean LV ejection fraction had declined by 12% to 58 ± 6% (p < 0.001) and mean LV mass index by 19 g/m2 to 36 ± 6 g/m2 (p < 0.001), and mean ECV had increased by 0.037 to 0.36 ± 0.04 (p = 0.004), while mean τic had decreased by 62 ms to 119 ± 54 ms (p = 0.004). Myocardial edema peaked at about 146 to 231 days (p < 0.001). LV mass index was associated with τic (ß = 4.1 ± 1.5 g/m2 per 100-ms increase in τic, p = 0.007) but not with ECV. Cardiac troponin T (mean 4.6 ± 1.4 pg/ml at baseline) increased significantly after anthracycline treatment (p < 0.001). Total LV cardiomyocyte mass, estimated as: (1 - ECV) × LV mass, declined more rapidly after anthracycline therapy, with peak cardiac troponin T >10 pg/ml. There was no evidence for any significant interaction between 10-year cardiovascular event risk and the effect of anthracycline therapy. CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in LV mass after anthracycline therapy may result from cardiomyocyte atrophy, demonstrating that mechanisms other than interstitial fibrosis and edema can raise ECV. The loss of LV cardiomyocyte mass increased with the degree of cardiomyocyte injury, assessed by peak cardiac troponin T after anthracycline treatment. (Doxorubicin-Associated Cardiac Remodeling Followed by CMR in Breast Cancer Patients; NCT03000036).

2.
JAMA ; 319(13): 1331-1340, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525821

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of loading doses of statins on clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and planned invasive management remain uncertain. Objective: To determine if periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin decrease 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ACS and planned invasive management. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted at 53 sites in Brazil among 4191 patients with ACS evaluated with coronary angiography to proceed with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) if anatomically feasible. Enrollment occurred between April 18, 2012, and October 6, 2017. Final follow-up for 30-day outcomes was on November 6, 2017. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive 2 loading doses of 80 mg of atorvastatin (n = 2087) or matching placebo (n = 2104) before and 24 hours after a planned PCI. All patients received 40 mg of atorvastatin for 30 days starting 24 hours after the second dose of study medication. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was MACE, defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and unplanned coronary revascularization through 30 days. Results: Among the 4191 patients (mean age, 61.8 [SD, 11.5] years; 1085 women [25.9%]) enrolled, 4163 (99.3%) completed 30-day follow-up. A total of 2710 (64.7%) underwent PCI, 333 (8%) underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 1144 (27.3%) had exclusively medical management. At 30 days, 130 patients in the atorvastatin group (6.2%) and 149 in the placebo group (7.1%) had a MACE (absolute difference, 0.85% [95% CI, -0.70% to 2.41%]; hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.69-1.11; P = .27). No cases of hepatic failure were reported; 3 cases of rhabdomyolysis were reported in the placebo group (0.1%) and 0 in the atorvastatin group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with ACS and planned invasive management with PCI, periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin did not reduce the rate of MACE at 30 days. These findings do not support the routine use of loading doses of atorvastatin among unselected patients with ACS and intended invasive management. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01448642.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia
3.
In. Ramires, José Antonio Franchini; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Casella Filho, Antonio. Dislipidemias e prevenção da Aterosclerose / Dyslipidemias and prevention of Atherosclerosis. Rio de janeiro, Atheneu, 2018. p.189-197.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-880954
5.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 64(2): 173-176, Apr-Jun/2015.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-753117

RESUMO

Objectives Unipolar depression (UPD) is a leading cause of global burden of diseases, particularly among the elderly, whose treatment may be challenging. In such cases, ECT is often recommended due to its safety and efficacy. This report presents a case of a 67-year-old male inpatient that developed a rare cardiac complication during ECT. Methods Clinical case report with patient’s consent and bibliographic review. Results A 67-year-old male inpatient with recurrent severe psychotic depression was hospitalized and ECT was indicated after failure of the pharmacological treatment. A comprehensive clinical pre-evaluation revealed only nonspecific ST-segment changes in electrocardiogram. During the 7th ECT session, it was observed transitory ST-segment depression followed by a discrete increase of plasma troponin I. Severe tri-vessel coronary artery stenosis was found and a percutaneous coronary angioplasty was performed, with satisfactory psychiatric and cardiac outcomes. Conclusions Unipolar depression (UPD) and cardiovascular disease are often coexistent conditions, especially among the elderly. In the current case, myocardial ischemia was detected lately during ECT therapy and its treatment allowed the UPD treatment to be completed adequately. .


Objetivos Depressão unipolar é uma das principais causas de sobrecarga global de doenças, particularmente entre os idosos, cujo tratamento pode ser desafiador. Nesses casos, a eletroconvulsoterapia (ECT) é frequentemente indicada, por causa de sua segurança e eficácia. Este relato apresenta o caso de um paciente de 67 anos internado e que desenvolveu uma complicação cardíaca rara após ECT. Métodos Relato de caso clínico e revisão da literatura. Resultados Um homem de 67 anos com transtorno depressivo grave, com sintomas psicóticos recorrentes, foi hospitalizado, sendo indicada ECT após falha do tratamento farmacológico. Foi realizada uma pré-avaliação clínica, a qual revelou alterações não específicas do segmento ST ao eletrocardiograma. Durante a sétima sessão de ECT, foi observada depressão transitória do segmento ST seguida por discreto aumento da troponina I sérica. Foi diagnosticada estenose coronária triarterial, sendo realizada angioplastia coronária percutânea, com boa evolução clínica e psiquiátrica. Conclusões Depressão unipolar e doença cardiovascular são condições que coexistem com frequência, especialmente entre os idosos. No presente relato, isquemia miocárdica foi detectada tardiamente durante a ECT e a sua correção permitiu que a depressão unipolar fosse tratada adequadamente. .

6.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0121842, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25816098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inflammatory response has been implicated in the pathogenesis of left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). An anthraquinone compound with anti-inflammatory properties, diacerein inhibits the synthesis and activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukins 1 and 6. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of diacerein on ventricular remodeling in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ligation of the left anterior descending artery was used to induce MI in an experimental rat model. Rats were divided into two groups: a control group that received saline solution (n = 16) and a group that received diacerein (80 mg/kg) daily (n = 10). After 4 weeks, the LV volume, cellular signaling, caspase 3 activity, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription were compared between the two groups. After 4 weeks, end-diastolic and end-systolic LV volumes were reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group (p < .01 and p < .01, respectively). Compared to control rats, diacerein-treated rats exhibited less fibrosis in the LV (14.65%± 7.27% vs. 22.57%± 8.94%; p < .01), lower levels of caspase-3 activity, and lower levels of NF-κB p65 transcription. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with diacerein once a day for 4 weeks after MI improved ventricular remodeling by promoting lower end-systolic and end-diastolic LV volumes. Diacerein also reduced fibrosis in the LV. These effects might be associated with partial blockage of the NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Caspase 3/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 23(4): 40-44, out.-dez.2013.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-742383

RESUMO

o benefício em longo prazo do tratamento com estatinas naprevenção de eventos coronarianos primários e secundários éindiscutível. Embora uma parte deste benefício esteja ligadaao efeito sobre a redução da circulação de lipoproteínasaterogênicas, outros mecanismos, como a modulação datrombogênese, a redução da inflamação e melhora da funçãoendotelial, têm sido investigados. O efeito da estatina sobrea função endotelial está ligado à sua inibição da produçãode superóxido e sua regulação positiva da síntese do óxidonítrico (NOS) no endotélio. Na prática clínica, o benefíciona função do endotélio depois do tratamento com estatinatem sido observado em uma ampla variedade de condiçõesque incluem a hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doença arterialcrônica e síndrome coronariana aguda. Esta breve revisãoincidirá sobre as principais conclusões relacionadas à terapiacom estatina sobre o tônus arterial sistêmico e doença arterialcoronariana aguda e crônica...


The long-term benefit of statin treatment on the prevention of primary and secondary coronary events is undisputed. Although a proportion of this effect has been linked to its reduction of circulating atherogenic lipoproteins, other mechanisms have been studied such as modulation of thrombogenesis, reduction of inflammation, and improvement of endothelia! function. Its favorable effect on endothelial function is tied to its inhibition of superoxide production and its positive regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the endothelium. In the clinica! setting, the gain in endothelia! function after statin treatment has been observed in a wide range of conditions that include systernic hypertension, chronic arterial disease, and acute coronary syndrome. This brief review will focus on the main findings related to statin therapy on the systernic arterial tone and both acute and chronic coronary artery disease...


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Endotélio/química , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/química , Teste de Esforço , Pravastatina/administração & dosagem , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem
8.
Lipids Health Dis ; 11: 130, 2012 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23039379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) plays a major role in lipid metabolism, but studies on the association of CETP polymorphisms with risks of cardiovascular disease are inconsistent. This study investigated whether the CETP gene I405V and Taq1B polymorphisms modified subclinical atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic Brazilian population sample. METHODS: The polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction in 207 adult volunteers. Serum lipid profiles, oxLDL Ab titers, C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations and CETP and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activities were determined, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured using ultrasonography. RESULTS: No differences in cIMT were observed between the presence or absence of the minor B2 and V alleles in either polymorphism. However, inverse correlations between mean cIMT and CETP activity in the presence of these polymorphisms were observed, and positive correlations of these polymorphisms with PLTP activity and oxLDL Ab titers were identified. Moreover, logistic multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the B2 allele was associated with a 5.1-fold (CI 95%, OR: 1.26 - 21.06) increased risk for cIMT, which was equal and above the 66th percentile and positively interacted with age. However, no associations with the V allele or CETP and PLTP activities were observed. CONCLUSIONS: None of the studied parameters, including CETP activity, explained the different relationships between these polymorphisms and cIMT, suggesting that other non-determined factors were affected by the genotypes and related to carotid atherosclerotic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Idoso , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Brasil , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/imunologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 88(5): 531-6, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17589627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the prognostic value and cost-effectiveness of the treadmill stress test (TST) in comparison to the dipyridamole myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (DIP), in individuals > or = 75 years of age. METHODS: Consecutive and prospective assessment of 66 patients (40% male) aged 81 +/- 5 years of which 57% were hypertensive, 38% had dyslipidemia and 28% were diabetics. The Bruce protocol was adapted for a tilt treadmill and the TST prognostic value was obtained using the Duke treadmill score. RESULTS: The TST duration, recommended maximum heart rate percentage and double product at peak exercise were respectively: 7 +/- 3 minutes, 95 +/- 9% and 24,946 +/- 4,576 (bpm x mmHg). The TST and DIP presented similar positive results for myocardial ischemia (21% vs 15%, respectively). The correlation between the tests was 88% (Kappa 0.63, p<0.01). During 685 +/- 120 days of follow-up, nine major events occurred: 6 deaths, 2 acute coronary syndromes and 1 myocardial revascularization. The variables associated with the major events were: age (83 +/- 6 vs 80 +/- 4 years; p=0.048), male gender (78% vs 33%; p=0.02), ST segment depression (1 +/- 1 mm vs 0.25 +/- 0.6 mm; p= 0.01), high or intermediate risk determined by the Duke treadmill score - combined in one group (44% vs 2%; p=0.001) and abnormal DIP (44% vs 10%, p= 0.02). CONCLUSION: For this elderly population, the TST was an efficient and viable option with a similar diagnostic value in comparison to the DIP. However, the TST was more accurate in the prediction of major events and offers a lower cost.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Teste de Esforço , Reperfusão Miocárdica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dipiridamol , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Cintilografia , Vasodilatadores
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 88(5): 531-536, maio 2007. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-453043

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Definir o valor prognóstico e a custo-efetividade do teste ergométrico (TE) em comparação à cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica com dipiridamol (DIP) em indivíduos com > 75 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, consecutiva e prospectivamente, 66 pacientes (40 por cento homens), com média de idade de 81 ± 5 anos. Desses pacientes, 57 por cento eram hipertensos, 38 por cento eram dislipidêmicos e 28 por cento, diabéticos. O protocolo de Bruce para rampa foi adaptado, obtendo-se o valor prognóstico do TE pelo escore de Duke. RESULTADOS: A duração do TE, o porcentual da freqüência cardíaca máxima preconizada e o duplo produto no pico do exercício foram, respectivamente, de 7 ± 3 minutos, 95 ± 9 por cento e 24.946 ± 4.576 (bpm x mmHg). O TE e a DIP apresentaram resultados positivos para isquemia miocárdica similares (21 por cento vs 15 por cento, respectivamente). A concordância entre os testes foi de 88 por cento (Kappa 0,63, p < 0,01). Durante 685 ± 120 dias, ocorreram nove eventos maiores: seis óbitos, duas síndromes coronarianas agudas e uma revascularização miocárdica. As variáveis associadas aos eventos maiores foram: idade (83 ± 6 anos vs 80 ± 4 anos; p = 0,048); sexo masculino (78 por cento vs 33 por cento; p = 0,02); infradesnível do ST (1,0 ± 1,0 mm vs 0,25 ± 0,6 mm; p = 0,01); escore de Duke alto e intermediário, unificados num único grupo (44 vs 2 por cento; p = 0,001); e DIP anormal (44 por cento vs 10 por cento; p = 0,02). CONCLUSÃO: O TE, nessa população muito idosa, foi eficaz, factível e diagnóstico, de forma semelhante à DIP, porém com maior predição de eventos maiores e com custo inferior.


OBJECTIVE: To define the prognostic value and cost-effectiveness of the treadmill stress test (TST) in comparison to the dipyridamole myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (DIP), in individuals >75 years of age. METHODS: Consecutive and prospective assessment of 66 patients (40 percent male) aged 81 ± 5 years of which 57 percent were hypertensive, 38 percent had dyslipidemia and 28 percent were diabetics. The Bruce protocol was adapted for a tilt treadmill and the TST prognostic value was obtained using the Duke treadmill score. RESULTS: The TST duration, recommended maximum heart rate percentage and double product at peak exercise were respectively: 7 ± 3 minutes, 95 ± 9 percent and 24,946 ± 4,576 (bpm x mmHg). The TST and DIP presented similar positive results for myocardial ischemia (21 percent vs 15 percent, respectively). The correlation between the tests was 88 percent (Kappa 0.63, p<0.01). During 685 ± 120 days of follow-up, nine major events occurred: 6 deaths, 2 acute coronary syndromes and 1 myocardial revascularization. The variables associated with the major events were: age (83 ± 6 vs 80 ± 4 years; p=0.048), male gender (78 percent vs 33 percent; p=0.02), ST segment depression (1 ± 1 mm vs 0.25 ± 0.6 mm; p= 0.01), high or intermediate risk determined by the Duke treadmill score - combined in one group (44 percent vs 2 percent; p=0.001) and abnormal DIP (44 percent vs 10 percent, p= 0.02). CONCLUSION: For this elderly population, the TST was an efficient and viable option with a similar diagnostic value in comparison to the DIP. However, the TST was more accurate in the prediction of major events and offers a lower cost.


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Teste de Esforço , Reperfusão Miocárdica/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Doença das Coronárias , Dipiridamol , Estudos de Viabilidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Vasodilatadores
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