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1.
Future Virol ; 13(9): 671-680, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416535

RESUMO

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) do more than simply infect and kill host cells. The accepted mechanism of action for OVs consists of a primary lytic phase and a subsequent antitumor and antiviral immune response. However, not all cells are subject to the direct effects of OV therapy, and it is becoming clear that OVs can also impact uninfected cells in the periphery. This review discusses the effects of OVs on uninfected neighboring cells, so-called bystander effects, and implications for OV therapies alone or in combination with other standard of care chemotherapy.

2.
Viruses ; 10(3)2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543735

RESUMO

High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) is a multifunctional protein that plays various roles in the processes of inflammation, cancer, and other diseases. Many reports document abundant HMGB1 release following infection with oncolytic viruses (OVs). Further, other groups including previous reports from our laboratory highlight the synergistic effects of OVs with chemotherapy drugs. Here, we show that virus-free supernatants have varying cytotoxic potential, and HMGB1 is actively secreted by two established fibroblast cell lines (NIH 3T3 and 3T6-Swiss albino) following HSV1716 infection in vitro. Further, pharmacologic inhibition or genetic knock-down of HMGB1 reveals a role for HMGB1 in viral restriction, the ability to modulate bystander cell proliferation, and drug sensitivity in 3T6 cells. These data further support the multifactorial role of HMGB1, and suggest it could be a target for modulating the efficacy of oncolytic virus therapies alone or in combination with other frontline cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Herpes Simples/metabolismo , Herpes Simples/virologia , Simplexvirus/fisiologia , Animais , Efeito Espectador/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Vírus Oncolíticos/fisiologia , Simplexvirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Blood ; 127(13): 1666-75, 2016 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26825707

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) comprises an emerging spectrum of inherited and noninherited disorders of the immune system characterized by the excessive production of cytokines, including interferon-γ and interleukins 2, 6, and 10 (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10). The Janus kinases (JAKs) transduce signals initiated following engagement of specific receptors that bind a broad array of cytokines, including those overproduced in HLH. Based on the central role for cytokines in the pathogenesis of HLH, we sought to examine whether the inhibition of JAK function might lessen inflammation in murine models of the disease. Toward this end, we examined the effects of JAK inhibition using a model of primary (inherited) HLH in which perforin-deficient (Prf1(-∕-)) mice are infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and secondary (noninherited) HLH in which C57BL/6 mice receive repeated injections of CpG DNA. In both models, treatment with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib significantly lessened the clinical and laboratory manifestations of HLH, including weight loss, organomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypercytokinemia, and tissue inflammation. Importantly, ruxolitinib treatment also significantly improved the survival of LCMV-infectedPrf1(-∕-)mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that in vivo exposure to ruxolitinib inhibited signal transducer and activation of transcription 1-dependent gene expression, limited CD8(+)T-cell expansion, and greatly reduced proinflammatory cytokine production, without effecting degranulation and cytotoxic function. Collectively, these findings highlight the JAKs as novel, druggable targets for mitigating the cytokine-driven hyperinflammation that occurs in HLH. These observations also support the incorporation of JAK inhibitors such as ruxolitinib into future clinical trials for patients with these life-threatening disorders.


Assuntos
Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ilhas de CpG , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Perforina/genética , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Células Vero
4.
Exp Cell Res ; 323(1): 7-27, 2014 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24569142

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells found in the peripheral tissues where they sample the organism for infections or malignancies. There they take up antigens and migrate towards immunological organs to contact and activate T lymphocytes that specifically recognize the antigen presented by these antigen presenting cells. In the steady state there are several types of resident DCs present in various different organs. For example, in the mouse, splenic DC populations characterized by the co-expression of CD11c and CD8 surface markers are specialized in cross-presentation to CD8 T cells, while CD11c/SIRP-1α DCs seem to be dedicated to activating CD4 T cells. On the other hand, DCs have also been associated with the development of various diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, or inflammatory conditions. In such disease, DCs can participate by inducing angiogenesis or immunosuppression (tumors), promoting autoimmune responses, or exacerbating inflammation (atherosclerosis). This change in DC biology can be prompted by signals in the microenvironment. We have previously shown that the interaction of DCs with various extracellular matrix components modifies the immune properties and angiogenic potential of these cells. Building on those studies, herewith we analyzed the angiogenic profile of murine myeloid DCs upon interaction with 2D and 3D type-I collagen environments. As determined by PCR array technology and quantitative PCR analysis we observed that interaction with these collagen environments induced the expression of particular angiogenic molecules. In addition, DCs cultured on collagen environments specifically upregulated the expression of CXCL-1 and -2 chemokines. We were also able to establish DC cultures on type-IV collagen environments, a collagen type expressed in pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis. When we examined DC populations in atherosclerotic veins of Apolipoprotein E deficient mice we observed that they expressed adhesion molecules capable of interacting with collagen. Finally, to further investigate the interaction of DCs with collagen in other pathological conditions, we determined that both murine ovarian and breast cancer cells express several collagen molecules that can contribute to shape their particular tumor microenvironment. Consistently, tumor-associated DCs were shown to express adhesion molecules capable of interacting with collagen molecules as determined by flow cytometry analysis. Of particular relevance, tumor-associated DCs expressed high levels of CD305/LAIR-1, an immunosuppressive receptor. This suggests that signaling through this molecule upon interaction with collagen produced by tumor cells might help define the poorly immunogenic status of these cells in the tumor microenvironment. Overall, these studies demonstrate that through interaction with collagen proteins, DCs can be capable of modifying the microenvironments of inflammatory disease such as cancer or atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Receptores de Colágeno/metabolismo , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Antígeno CD11c/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Quimiocina CXCL1/biossíntese , Quimiocina CXCL2/biossíntese , Quimiotaxia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Feminino , Integrina alfa1beta1/biossíntese , Integrina alfa1beta1/metabolismo , Integrina alfa2beta1/biossíntese , Integrina alfa2beta1/metabolismo , Integrina alfa3beta1/biossíntese , Integrina alfa3beta1/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Receptores de Colágeno/biossíntese , Receptores Imunológicos/biossíntese , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/biossíntese , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Regulação para Cima
5.
Immunobiology ; 218(1): 64-75, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22551928

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells capable of inducing specific immune responses against microbial infections, transplant antigens, or tumors. DCs have been shown to possess a high plasticity showing different phenotypes in response to their microenvironment. For example, tumor-associated DCs can acquire an angiogenic phenotype thus promoting tumor growth. Further, DCs cultured in vitro under different conditions are able to upregulate the expression of endothelial markers and to express angiogenic factors. Indeed, it has been shown that soluble factors such as VEGF of PGE-2, that are present in the microenvironment of several tumors, affect the biology of these cells. We hypothesize that in addition to soluble factors the adhesion to different substrates will also define the phenotype and function of DCs. Herewith we demonstrate that murine myeloid(m) DCs upregulate endothelial markers such as VE-Cadherin, and to a lesser extent TIE-2, and decrease their immune capabilities when cultured on solid surfaces as compared with the same cells cultured on ultra-low binding (ULB) surfaces. On the other hand, the expression of angiogenic molecules at the level of RNA was not different among these cultures. In order to further investigate this phenomenon we used the murine ID8 model of ovarian cancer which can generate solid tumors when cancer cells are injected subcutaneously or a malignant ascites when they are injected intraperitoneally. This model gave us the unique opportunity to investigate DCs in suspension or attached to solid surfaces under the influence of the same tumor cells. We were able to determine that DCs present in solid tumors showed higher levels of expression of endothelial markers and angiogenic molecules but were not able to respond to inflammatory stimuli at the same extent as DCs recovered from ascites. Moreover, mDCs cultured on ULB surfaces in the presence of tumor factors do not expressed endothelial markers. Taking into account all these data we consider that tumor factors might be responsible for inducing angiogenic properties in DCs, but that in some settings the expression of endothelial markers such as VE-Cadherin and TIE-2 might be a function of attachment to solid surfaces and independent of the angiogenic properties of these cells.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Endotélio/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endotélio/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptor TIE-2/genética , Receptor TIE-2/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Regulação para Cima , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
ISRN Oncol ; 2012: 642141, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22530148

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is an aggressive disease that affects approximately 1 in 70 women and has a poor prognosis (<50%, 5-year survival rate), in part because it is often diagnosed at a late stage. There are three main types of OC: neoplasms of surface epithelial, germ cell, or stromal origin, with surface epithelial tumors comprising about 80% of all OCs. In addition to improving diagnostics, it is necessary to develop more effective treatments for epithelial-origin OC. Here, we describe the paradoxical roles of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in the progression of cancer and discuss how its modulation may result in decreased tumor growth and metastasis via the attenuation of proangiogenic cytokines and potentiation of proapoptotic factors. In particular, it has been found that TLR activity can behave like a "double-edged sword", as its signaling pathways have been implicated as having both tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effects. With particular emphasis on OC, we discuss the need to consider the signaling details of TLRs and associated proteins in the multiple cell types present in the tumor milieu to achieve safe and effective design of TLR-based cancer therapies.

7.
J Biomed Biotechnol ; 2012: 425476, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22505809

RESUMO

Many clinical trials have been carried out or are in progress to assess the therapeutic potential of dendritic-cell- (DC-) based vaccines on cancer patients, and recently the first DC-based vaccine for human cancer was approved by the FDA. Herewith, we describe the general characteristics of DCs and different strategies to generate effective antitumor DC vaccines. In recent years, the relevance of the tumor microenvironment in the progression of cancer has been highlighted. It has been shown that the tumor microenvironment is capable of inactivating various components of the immune system responsible for tumor clearance. In particular, the effect of the tumor microenvironment on antigen-presenting cells, such as DCs, does not only render these immune cells unable to induce specific immune responses, but also turns them into promoters of tumor growth. We also describe strategies likely to increase the efficacy of DC vaccines by reprogramming the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/farmacologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
8.
BMC Immunol ; 12: 35, 2011 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21645356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells capable of inducing specific immune responses against microbial infections, transplant antigens, or tumors. Interestingly, microenvironment conditions such as those present in tumor settings might induce a DC phenotype that is poorly immunogenic and with the capability of promoting angiogenesis. We hypothesize that this plasticity may be caused not only by the action of specific cytokines or growth factors but also by the properties of the surfaces with which they interact, such as extracellular matrix (ECM) components. RESULTS: Herewith we studied the effect of different surfaces and soluble factors on the biology of DCs. To accomplish this, we cultured murine myeloid(m) DCs on surfaces coated with fibronectin, collagen I, gelatin, and Matrigel using poly-D-lysine and polystyrene as non-biological surfaces. Further, we cultured these cells in the presence of regular DC medium (RPMI 10% FBS) or commercially available endothelial medium (EGM-2). We determined that mDCs could be kept in culture up to 3 weeks in these conditions, but only in the presence of GM-CSF. We were able to determine that long-term DC cultures produce an array of angiogenic factors, and that some of these cultures still retain the capability to induce T cell responses. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether these data indicate that in order to design DC-based vaccines or treatments focused on changing the phenotype of DCs associated with diseases such as cancer or atherosclerosis, it becomes necessary to fully investigate the microenvironment in which these cells are present or will be delivered.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Células Mieloides/fisiologia , Proteínas Angiogênicas/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colágeno , Colágeno Tipo I/farmacologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fibronectinas/farmacologia , Gelatina/farmacologia , Laminina , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Polilisina , Poliestirenos , Proteoglicanas , Linfócitos T/imunologia
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