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1.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(3): 358-371, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383211

RESUMO

Patients in whom mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient cancer develops in the absence of pathogenic variants of germline MMR genes or somatic hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter are classified as having suspected Lynch syndrome (SLS). Germline whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and targeted and genome-wide tumor sequencing were applied to identify the underlying cause of tumor MMR deficiency in SLS. Germline WGS was performed on samples from 14 cancer-affected patients with SLS, including two sets of first-degree relatives. MMR genes were assessed for germline pathogenic variants, including complex structural rearrangements and noncoding variants. Tumor tissue was assessed for somatic MMR gene mutations using targeted, whole-exome sequencing or WGS. Germline WGS identified pathogenic MMR variants in 3 of the 14 cases (21.4%), including a 9.5-megabase inversion disrupting MSH2 in a mother and daughter. Excluding these 3 MMR carriers, tumor sequencing identified at least two somatic MMR gene mutations in 8 of 11 tumors tested (72.7%). In a second mother-daughter pair, a somatic cause of tumor MMR deficiency was supported by the presence of double somatic MSH2 mutations in their respective tumors. More than 70% of SLS cases had double somatic MMR mutations in the absence of germline pathogenic variants in the MMR or other DNA repair-related genes on WGS, and, therefore, were confidently assigned a noninherited cause of tumor MMR deficiency.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300245

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in TP53 are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a cancer predisposition disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern associated with high risk of malignancy, including early onset breast cancers, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and brain tumors. Intense cancer surveillance for individuals with TP53 germline pathogenic variants is associated with reduced cancer-related mortality. Accurate and consistent classification of germline variants across clinical and research laboratories is important to ensure appropriate cancer surveillance recommendations. Here, we describe the work performed by the Clinical Genome Resource TP53 Variant Curation Expert Panel (ClinGen TP53 VCEP) focused on specifying the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines for germline variant classification to the TP53 gene. Specifications were developed for twenty ACMG/AMP criteria while nine were deemed not applicable. The original strength level for ten criteria was also adjusted due to current evidence. Use of TP53-specific guidelines and sharing of clinical data amongst experts and clinical laboratories led to a decrease in variants of uncertain significance from 28% to 12% compared with the original guidelines. The ClinGen TP53 VCEP recommends the use of these TP53-specific ACMG/AMP guidelines as the standard strategy for TP53 germline variant classification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The strength of evidence supporting the validity of gene-disease relationships is variable. Hereditary cancer has the additional complexity of low or moderate penetrance for some confirmed disease-associated alleles. METHODS: To promote national consistency in interpretation of hereditary cancer/tumour gene test results, we requested opinions of representatives from Australian Family Cancer Clinics regarding the clinical utility of 157 genes initially collated for a national research project. Viewpoints were sought by initial survey, face-to-face workshop and follow-up survey. Subsequent review was undertaken by the eviQ Cancer Genetics Reference Committee, a national resource providing evidence-based and consensus-driven cancer treatment protocols. RESULTS: Genes were categorised by clinical actionability as: relevant for testing on presentation of common cancer/tumour types (n=45); relevant for testing in the context of specific rare phenotypes (n=74); insufficient clinical utility (n=34) or contentious clinical utility (n=3). Opinions for several genes altered during the study time frame, due to new information. CONCLUSION: Through an iterative process, consensus was achieved on genes with clinical utility for hereditary cancer/tumour conditions in the Australian setting. This study highlighted need for regular review of gene-disease lists, a role assumed in Australia for hereditary cancer/tumour predisposition genes by the eviQ Cancer Genetics Reference Committee.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic screening for pathogenic variants in breast cancer susceptibility genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, PTEN and TP53, may be offered to New Zealanders from suspected high-risk breast (and ovarian) cancer families. However, it is unknown how many high-risk pathogenic variant carriers in New Zealand are not offered genetic screening using existing triage tools and guidelines for breast (and ovarian) cancer patients. METHODS: Panel-gene sequencing of the coding and non-coding regions of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and the coding regions and splice sites of CDH1, PALB2, PTEN and TP53, was undertaken for an unselected cohort of 367 female breast cancer patients. A total of 1685 variants were evaluated using the ENIGMA and the ACMG/AMP variant classification guidelines. RESULTS: Our study identified that 13 (3.5%) breast cancer patients carried a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, or PTEN. A significantly higher number of pathogenic variant carriers had grade 3 tumours (10/13) when compared to non-carriers; however, no other clinicopathological characteristics were found to be significantly different between (likely) pathogenic variant carriers and non-carriers, nor between variant of unknown significance carriers and non-carriers. Notably, 46% of the identified (likely) pathogenic variant carriers had not been referred for a genetic assessment and consideration of genetic testing. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a potential under-ascertainment of women carrying a (likely) pathogenic variant in a high-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene. These results suggest that further research into testing pathways for New Zealand breast cancer patients may be required to reduce the impact of hereditary cancer syndromes for these individuals and their families.

6.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 60: 103033, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recently recommended germline genetic testing for all pancreatic cancer patients. However, the genes targeted by genetic testing and the feasibility of selecting patients likely to carry pathogenic variants have not been sufficiently verified. The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize Japanese patients and examine whether the current guideline is applicable in this population. METHODS: Using targeted sequencing, we analyzed the coding regions of 27 cancer-predisposing genes in 1,005 pancreatic cancer patients and 23,705 controls in Japan. We compared the pathogenic variant frequency between cases and controls and documented the demographic and clinical characteristics of carrier patients. We then examined if it was possible to use machine learning to predict carrier status based on those characteristics. FINDINGS: We identified 205 pathogenic variants across the 27 genes. Pathogenic variants in BRCA2, ATM, and BRCA1 were significantly associated with pancreatic cancer. Characteristics associated with carrier status were inconsistent with previous investigations. Machine learning classifiers had a low performance in determining the carrier status of pancreatic cancer patients, while the same classifiers, when applied to breast cancer data as a positive control, had a higher performance that was comparable to that of the NCCN guideline. INTERPRETATION: Our findings support the clinical significance of multigene panel testing for pancreatic cancer and indicate that at least 3.4% of Japanese patients may respond to poly (ADP ribose) polymerase inhibitor treatments. The difficulty in predicting carrier status suggests that offering germline genetic testing for all pancreatic cancer patients is reasonable. FUNDING: AMED under Grant Number JP19kk0305010 and Australian National Health and Medical Research funding (ID177524).

8.
Cancer Genet ; 248-249: 11-17, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966936

RESUMO

Pathogenic germline variants in the TP53 gene predispose to a wide range of cancers, known collectively as Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). There has been much research aimed to identify genotype-phenotype correlations, that is, differences between variant location and/or effect and cancer spectrum. These correlations, should they exist, have potential to impact clinical management of carriers. Review of previously published studies showed a variety of study designs and inconsistency in reported findings. Here, we used pooled data from 427 TP53 carriers who had undergone multigene panel testing and 154 TP53 carriers identified by single-gene testing to investigate correlations between TP53 genotype (truncating variants, hotspot variants, other missense variants with dominant-negative effect, missense variants without dominant-negative effect) and a number of LFS-selected malignancies. Our results suggest that carriers of truncating and hotspot variants might be more likely to present with LFS cancers and have shorter time to first cancer diagnosis compared to carriers of other variant types. However, the differences observed were minor, and we conclude that there is currently insufficient evidence to consider location and/or molecular effect of pathogenic variants to assist with clinical management of TP53 carriers. Larger studies are necessary to confirm the correlations suggested by our analysis.

9.
Front Genet ; 11: 798, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849802

RESUMO

Functional assays that assess mRNA splicing can be used in interpretation of the clinical significance of sequence variants, including the Lynch syndrome-associated mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of splicing assay data to the classification of MMR gene sequence variants. We assayed mRNA splicing for 24 sequence variants in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6, including 12 missense variants that were also assessed using a cell-free in vitro MMR activity (CIMRA) assay. Multifactorial likelihood analysis was conducted for each variant, combining CIMRA outputs and clinical data where available. We collated these results with existing public data to provide a dataset of splicing assay results for a total of 671 MMR gene sequence variants (328 missense/in-frame indel), and published and unpublished repair activity measurements for 154 of these variants. There were 241 variants for which a splicing aberration was detected: 92 complete impact, 33 incomplete impact, and 116 where it was not possible to determine complete versus incomplete splicing impact. Splicing results mostly aided in the interpretation of intronic (72%) and silent (92%) variants and were the least useful for missense substitutions/in-frame indels (10%). MMR protein functional activity assays were more useful in the analysis of these exonic variants but by design they were not able to detect clinically important splicing aberrations identified by parallel mRNA assays. The development of high throughput assays that can quantitatively assess impact on mRNA transcript expression and protein function in parallel will streamline classification of MMR gene sequence variants.

10.
Genet Med ; 22(12): 2052-2059, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773770

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) have developed guidelines for classifying germline variants as pathogenic or benign to interpret genetic testing results. Cosegregation analysis is an important component of the guidelines. There are two main approaches for cosegregation analysis: meiosis counting and Bayes factor-based quantitative methods. Of these, the ACMG/AMP guidelines employ only meiosis counting. The accuracy of either approach has not been sufficiently addressed in previous works. METHODS: We analyzed hypothetical, simulated, and real-life data to evaluate the accuracy of each approach for cancer-associated genes. RESULTS: We demonstrate that meiosis counting can provide incorrect classifications when the underlying genetic basis of the disease departs from simple Mendelian situations. Some Bayes factor approaches are currently implemented with inappropriate penetrance. We propose an improved penetrance model and describe several critical considerations, including the accuracy of cosegregation for moderate-risk genes and the impact of pleiotropy, population, and birth year. We highlight a webserver, COOL (Co-segregation Online, http://BJFengLab.org/ ), that implements an accurate Bayes factor cosegregation analysis. CONCLUSION: An appropriate penetrance model improves the accuracy of Bayes factor cosegregation analysis for high-penetrant variants, and is a better choice than meiosis counting whenever feasible.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13906, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807831

RESUMO

ROR1 and ROR2 are receptor tyrosine kinases with altered expression in a range of cancers. Silencing ROR1 or ROR2 in different tumour types has been shown to inhibit proliferation and decrease metastatic potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ROR1 and ROR2 in endometrial cancer via immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a large endometrial cancer patient cohort (n = 499) and through in vitro analysis in endometrial cancer cell lines. Correlation was assessed between ROR1/2 expression and clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan Meier curves were produced for 5-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with low/moderate versus high ROR1/2 intensity. Cox multivariate regression was applied to analyse the effect of selected covariates on the PFS and OS. The effect of ROR1 and/or ROR2 modulation on cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion was analysed in two endometrial cancer cell lines (KLE and MFE-296). We observed a significant decrease in OS and PFS in patients with high ROR1 expression. ROR1 silencing and ROR2 overexpression significantly inhibited proliferation of KLE endometrial cancer cells and decreased migration. This study supports the oncogenic role of ROR1 in endometrial cancer, and warrants investigation of future application of ROR1-targeting therapies in endometrial cancer patients.

12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 102, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641106

RESUMO

Both colorectal (CRC, 15%) and endometrial cancers (EC, 30%) exhibit microsatellite instability (MSI) due to MLH1 hypermethylation and silencing. The MLH1 promoter polymorphism, rs1800734 is associated with MSI CRC risk, increased methylation and reduced MLH1 expression. In EC samples, we investigated rs1800734 risk using MSI and MSS cases and controls. We found no evidence that rs1800734 or other MLH1 SNPs were associated with the risk of MSI EC. We found the rs1800734 risk allele had no effect on MLH1 methylation or expression in ECs. We propose that MLH1 hypermethylation occurs by different mechanisms in CRC and EC.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3353, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620889

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of hundreds of susceptibility loci across cancers, but the impact of further studies remains uncertain. Here we analyse summary-level data from GWAS of European ancestry across fourteen cancer sites to estimate the number of common susceptibility variants (polygenicity) and underlying effect-size distribution. All cancers show a high degree of polygenicity, involving at a minimum of thousands of loci. We project that sample sizes required to explain 80% of GWAS heritability vary from 60,000 cases for testicular to over 1,000,000 cases for lung cancer. The maximum relative risk achievable for subjects at the 99th risk percentile of underlying polygenic risk scores (PRS), compared to average risk, ranges from 12 for testicular to 2.5 for ovarian cancer. We show that PRS have potential for risk stratification for cancers of breast, colon and prostate, but less so for others because of modest heritability and lower incidence.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Hum Mutat ; 2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623769

RESUMO

It is possible to estimate the prior probability of pathogenicity for germline disease gene variants based on bioinformatic prediction of variant effect/s. However, routinely used approaches have likely led to the underestimation and underreporting of variants located outside donor and acceptor splice site motifs that affect messenger RNA (mRNA) processing. This review presents information about hereditary cancer gene germline variants, outside native splice sites, with experimentally validated splicing effects. We list 95 exonic variants that impact splicing regulatory elements (SREs) in BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. We utilized a pre-existing large-scale BRCA1 functional data set to map functional SREs, and assess the relative performance of different tools to predict effects of 283 variants on such elements. We also describe rare examples of intronic variants that impact branchpoint (BP) sites and create pseudoexons. We discuss the challenges in predicting variant effect on BP site usage and pseudoexonization, and suggest strategies to improve the bioinformatic prioritization of such variants for experimental validation. Importantly, our review and analysis highlights the value of considering impact of variants outside donor and acceptor motifs on mRNA splicing and disease causation.

15.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e037740, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Medical research studies often rely on the manual collection of data from scanned typewritten clinical records, which can be laborious, time consuming and error prone because of the need to review individual clinical records. We aimed to use text mining to assist with the extraction of clinical features from complex text-based scanned pathology records for medical research studies. DESIGN: Text mining performance was measured by extracting and annotating three distinct pathological features from scanned photocopies of endometrial carcinoma clinical pathology reports, and comparing results to manually abstracted terms. Inclusion and exclusion keyword trigger terms to capture leiomyomas, endometriosis and adenomyosis were provided based on expert knowledge. Terms were expanded with character variations based on common optical character recognition (OCR) error patterns as well as negation phrases found in sample reports. The approach was evaluated on an unseen test set of 1293 scanned pathology reports originating from laboratories across Australia. SETTING: Scanned typewritten pathology reports for women aged 18-79 years with newly diagnosed endometrial cancer (2005-2007) in Australia. RESULTS: High concordance with final abstracted codes was observed for identifying the presence of three pathology features (94%-98% F-measure). The approach was more consistent and reliable than manual abstractions, identifying 3%-14% additional feature instances. CONCLUSION: Keyword trigger-based automation with OCR error correction and negation handling proved not only to be rapid and convenient, but also providing consistent and reliable data abstractions from scanned clinical records. In conjunction with manual review, it can assist in the generation of high-quality data abstractions for medical research studies.

16.
Hum Mutat ; 41(9): 1555-1562, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485079

RESUMO

Early onset breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, caused by germline TP53 pathogenic variants. It has repeatedly been suggested that breast tumors from TP53 carriers are more likely to be HER2+ than those of noncarriers, but this information has not been incorporated into variant interpretation models for TP53. Breast tumor pathology is already being used quantitatively for assessing pathogenicity of germline variants in other genes, and it has been suggested that this type of evidence can be incorporated into current American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines for germline variant classification. Here, by reviewing published data and using internal datasets separated by different age groups, we investigated if breast tumor HER2+ status has utility as a predictor of TP53 germline variant pathogenicity, considering age at diagnosis. Overall, our results showed that the identification of HER2+ breast tumors diagnosed before the age of 40 can be conservatively incorporated into the current TP53-specific ACMG/AMP PP4 criterion, following a point system detailed in this manuscript. Further larger studies will be needed to reassess the value of HER2+ breast tumors diagnosed at a later age.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3621, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108150

RESUMO

Leiomyomas, adenomyosis, and endometriosis are reported to be risk factors for endometrial carcinoma (EC), and adenomyosis and endometriosis also for ovarian carcinoma (OC). We aimed to describe the prevalence of these conditions in EC patients with or without an OC diagnosis, and to investigate their relationship with EC risk and prognostic factors in these patients. We evaluated the co-existence of these three conditions in 1399 EC patients, and compared the prevalence of epidemiological risk factors and tumor prognostic features in patients with each condition versus not. Prevalence of conditions was also assessed in the subset of patients with prior/concurrent OC. The observed coexistence of leiomyomas, adenomyosis and endometriosis significantly deviated from that expected (P = 1.2 × 10-8). Patients were more likely to: report a younger age at menarche (PTrend = 0.004) if they had leiomyomas; have used oral contraceptives (P = 6.6 × 10-5) or had ≥2 full-term pregnancies (PTrend = 2.0 × 10-9) if they had adenomyosis; be diagnosed with EC at younger age (P = 5.0 × 10-11) if they had endometriosis. Patients with prior/concurrent OC were more likely to be diagnosed at younger age (P = 5.0 × 10-5), have endometriosis (P = 9.9 × 10-7), and present with higher stage EC (PTrend = 6.6 × 10-5). These findings justify further consideration of these gynecologic conditions as independent risk and prognostic factors for EC.


Assuntos
Adenomiose/complicações , Neoplasias do Endométrio/complicações , Endometriose/complicações , Leiomioma/complicações , Adenomiose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Endometriose/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomioma/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Genet Med ; 22(5): 847-856, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965077

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variants in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene MSH6, identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome, are difficult to classify owing to the low cancer penetrance of defects in that gene. This not only obfuscates personalized health care but also the development of a rapid and reliable classification procedure that does not require clinical data. METHODS: The complete in vitro MMR activity (CIMRA) assay was calibrated against clinically classified MSH6 variants and, employing Bayes' rule, integrated with computational predictions of pathogenicity. To enable the validation of this two-component classification procedure we have employed a genetic screen to generate a large set of inactivating Msh6 variants, as proxies for pathogenic variants. RESULTS: The genetic screen-derived variants established that the two-component classification procedure displays high sensitivities and specificities. Moreover, these inactivating variants enabled the direct reclassification of human variants of uncertain significance (VUS) as (likely) pathogenic. CONCLUSION: The two-component classification procedure and the genetic screens provide complementary approaches to rapidly and cost-effectively classify the large majority of human MSH6 variants. The approach followed here provides a template for the classification of variants in other disease-predisposing genes, facilitating the translation of personalized genomics into personalized health care.

19.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 86, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Branch points (BPs) map within short motifs upstream of acceptor splice sites (3'ss) and are essential for splicing of pre-mature mRNA. Several BP-dedicated bioinformatics tools, including HSF, SVM-BPfinder, BPP, Branchpointer, LaBranchoR and RNABPS were developed during the last decade. Here, we evaluated their capability to detect the position of BPs, and also to predict the impact on splicing of variants occurring upstream of 3'ss. RESULTS: We used a large set of constitutive and alternative human 3'ss collected from Ensembl (n = 264,787 3'ss) and from in-house RNAseq experiments (n = 51,986 3'ss). We also gathered an unprecedented collection of functional splicing data for 120 variants (62 unpublished) occurring in BP areas of disease-causing genes. Branchpointer showed the best performance to detect the relevant BPs upstream of constitutive and alternative 3'ss (99.48 and 65.84% accuracies, respectively). For variants occurring in a BP area, BPP emerged as having the best performance to predict effects on mRNA splicing, with an accuracy of 89.17%. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigations revealed that Branchpointer was optimal to detect BPs upstream of 3'ss, and that BPP was most relevant to predict splicing alteration due to variants in the BP area.


Assuntos
Íntrons , Precursores de RNA , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Processamento de RNA , Processamento Alternativo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Humanos , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Matrizes de Pontuação de Posição Específica , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Hum Mutat ; 41(3): 537-542, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898864

RESUMO

The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines for variant classification are widely used for clinical interpretation of gene test results. These guidelines may be specified to genes/syndromes of interest to improve their utility in the clinical setting. As part of these specifications, phenotype-related criteria can be detailed and weighted depending on the personal history of disease for a given variant carrier. We investigated how ascertainment can affect the significance and/or weight of patient phenotype as a predictor of germline-variant pathogenicity, using the Li-Fraumeni Syndrome gene TP53 as an example. Likelihood ratios in favor of variant pathogenicity were determined for a report of the personal history of several TP53-related cancers, using data from 2,656 probands undergoing single-gene testing (SGT) and 15,483 undergoing multi-gene panel testing (MGPT). Overall, TP53-associated cancers were more predictive of pathogenicity, and demonstrated greater evidence weight, in the MGPT versus SGT dataset. This observation is almost certainly explained by differences in proband ascertainment for the two streams of testing, and these findings have implications for germline-variant classification using ACMG/AMP guidelines.

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