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2.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1546-1556, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294896

RESUMO

Testing for variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (commonly referred to as BRCA1/2), has emerged as a standard clinical practice and is helping countless women better understand and manage their heritable risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Yet the increased rate of BRCA1/2 testing has led to an increasing number of Variants of Uncertain Significance (VUS), and the rate of VUS discovery currently outpaces the rate of clinical variant interpretation. Computational prediction is a key component of the variant interpretation pipeline. In the CAGI5 ENIGMA Challenge, six prediction teams submitted predictions on 326 newly-interpreted variants from the ENIGMA Consortium. By evaluating these predictions against the new interpretations, we have gained a number of insights on the state of the art of variant prediction and specific steps to further advance this state of the art.

3.
Cancer Genet ; 235-236: 21-27, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296311

RESUMO

TP53 pathogenic germline variation is associated with the multi-cancer predisposition Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Next-generation sequencing and multigene panel testing are highlighting variability in the clinical presentation of patients with TP53 positive results. We aimed to investigate if the p53 variants considered as major hotspots at both germline and somatic levels (p.Arg175His, p.Gly245Asp, p.Gly245Ser, p.Arg248Gln, p.Arg248Trp, p.Arg273Cys, p.Arg273His, and p.Arg282Trp) were associated with poorer prognostic features compared to other pathogenic missense variants in the DNA-binding domain. To do so, we assessed clinical features from 1025 carriers of germline TP53 pathogenic variants (749 probands and 276 relatives) from three independent datasets (IARC TP53 Database, Ambry Single Gene Testing, and Ambry Multigene Panel Testing). We observed that, compared to carriers of non-hotspot germline variants, individuals that carried a hotspot germline variant were more likely to present with a Classic LFS phenotype, earlier age of first breast cancer onset, and shorter time to diagnosis to any cancer. Further studies with larger datasets addressing differences in cancer phenotypes by genotype are thus needed to replicate our findings and consider variant effect and position, towards future personalized clinical management of pathogenic variant carriers.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing has been conducted in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) using multi-gene panels, but no centralized guidelines for genetic testing exist. To overcome this limitation, we investigated the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pathogenic variants. METHODS: We sequenced eight genes associated with hereditary PCa in 7,636 unselected Japanese patients with PCa and 12,366 male, cancer-free controls. We assigned clinical significance for all 1,456 variants using the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines and ClinVar. We compared the frequency of carriers bearing pathogenic variants between cases and controls to calculated PCa risk in each gene and documented the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients bearing pathogenic variants. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 136 pathogenic variants, and 2.9% of patients and 0.8% of controls had a pathogenic variant. Association with PCa risk was statistically significant for variants in BRCA2 (P < 0.001, OR = 5.65, 95% CI = 3.55-9.32), HOXB13 (P < 0.001, OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.84-8.19), and ATM (P < 0.001, OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.63-5.15). We detected recurrent new pathogenic variants such as p.Gly132Glu of HOXB13. Patients with pathogenic variants were 2.0 years younger at diagnosis, more often had smoking and alcohol drinking histories, and family histories of breast, pancreatic, lung, and liver cancers. CONCLUSION: This largest sequencing study of PCa heredity provides additional evidence to the latest consensus among clinicians for developing genetic testing guidelines for PCa.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1095-1102, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040137

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries, has a heritable component. To date, 16 genetic risk regions have been robustly discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of endometrial cancer. Post-GWAS analyses including expression quantitative trait loci analysis and laboratory-based functional studies have been successful in identifying genes and pathways involved in endometrial carcinogenesis. Mendelian randomization analysis studies have confirmed factors causal for endometrial cancer risk, including increased body mass index and early onset of menarche. In this review, we summarize findings from GWAS and post-GWAS analyses of endometrial cancer. We discuss clinical implications of these findings, current knowledge gaps, and future directions for the study of endometrial cancer genetics.

6.
J Med Genet ; 56(6): 347-357, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962250

RESUMO

The vocabulary currently used to describe genetic variants and their consequences reflects many years of studying and discovering monogenic disease with high penetrance. With the recent rapid expansion of genetic testing brought about by wide availability of high-throughput massively parallel sequencing platforms, accurate variant interpretation has become a major issue. The vocabulary used to describe single genetic variants in silico, in vitro, in vivo and as a contributor to human disease uses terms in common, but the meaning is not necessarily shared across all these contexts. In the setting of cancer genetic tests, the added dimension of using data from genetic sequencing of tumour DNA to direct treatment is an additional source of confusion to those who are not experienced in cancer genetics. The language used to describe variants identified in cancer susceptibility genetic testing typically still reflects an outdated paradigm of Mendelian inheritance with dichotomous outcomes. Cancer is a common disease with complex genetic architecture; an improved lexicon is required to better communicate among scientists, clinicians and patients, the risks and implications of genetic variants detected. This review arises from a recognition of, and discussion about, inconsistencies in vocabulary usage by members of the ENIGMA international multidisciplinary consortium focused on variant classification in breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility genes. It sets out the vocabulary commonly used in genetic variant interpretation and reporting, and suggests a framework for a common vocabulary that may facilitate understanding and clarity in clinical reporting of germline genetic tests for cancer susceptibility.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 40(6): 788-800, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840781

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in the TP53 gene cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a condition that predisposes individuals to a wide range of cancer types. Identification of individuals carrying a TP53 pathogenic variant is linked to clinical management decisions, such as the avoidance of radiotherapy and use of high-intensity screening programs. The aim of this study was to develop an evidence-based quantitative model that integrates independent in silico data (Align-GVGD and BayesDel) and somatic to germline ratio (SGR), to assign pathogenicity to every possible missense variant in the TP53 gene. To do this, a likelihood ratio for pathogenicity (LR) was derived from each component calibrated using reference sets of assumed pathogenic and benign missense variants. A posterior probability of pathogenicity was generated by combining LRs, and algorithm outputs were validated using different approaches. A total of 730 TP53 missense variants could be assigned to a clinically interpretable class. The outputs of the model correlated well with existing clinical information, functional data, and ClinVar classifications. In conclusion, these quantitative outputs provide the basis for individualized assessment of cancer risk useful for clinical interpretation. In addition, we propose the value of the novel SGR approach for use within the ACMG/AMP guidelines for variant classification.

8.
J Med Genet ; 56(7): 453-460, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PALB2 monoallelic loss-of-function germ-line variants confer a breast cancer risk comparable to the average BRCA2 pathogenic variant. Recommendations for risk reduction strategies in carriers are similar. Elaborating robust criteria to identify loss-of-function variants in PALB2-without incurring overprediction-is thus of paramount clinical relevance. Towards this aim, we have performed a comprehensive characterisation of alternative splicing in PALB2, analysing its relevance for the classification of truncating and splice site variants according to the 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology guidelines. METHODS: Alternative splicing was characterised in RNAs extracted from blood, breast and fimbriae/ovary-related human specimens (n=112). RNAseq, RT-PCR/CE and CloneSeq experiments were performed by five contributing laboratories. Centralised revision/curation was performed to assure high-quality annotations. Additional splicing analyses were performed in PALB2 c.212-1G>A, c.1684+1G>A, c.2748+2T>G, c.3113+5G>A, c.3350+1G>A, c.3350+4A>C and c.3350+5G>A carriers. The impact of the findings on PVS1 status was evaluated for truncating and splice site variant. RESULTS: We identified 88 naturally occurring alternative splicing events (81 newly described), including 4 in-frame events predicted relevant to evaluate PVS1 status of splice site variants. We did not identify tissue-specific alternate gene transcripts in breast or ovarian-related samples, supporting the clinical relevance of blood-based splicing studies. CONCLUSIONS: PVS1 is not necessarily warranted for splice site variants targeting four PALB2 acceptor sites (exons 2, 5, 7 and 10). As a result, rare variants at these splice sites cannot be assumed pathogenic/likely pathogenic without further evidences. Our study puts a warning in up to five PALB2 genetic variants that are currently reported as pathogenic/likely pathogenic in ClinVar.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736279

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 spliceogenic variants are often associated with an elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Analyses of BRCA1 and BRCA2 splicing patterns have traditionally used technologies that sample a population of cells but do not account for the variation that may be present between individual cells. This novel proof of concept study utilises RNA in situ hybridisation to measure the absolute expression of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mRNA splicing events in single lymphoblastoid cells containing known spliceogenic variants (BRCA1c.671-2 A>G or BRCA2c.7988 A>T). We observed a large proportion of cells (>42%) in each sample that did not express mRNA for the targeted gene. Increased levels (average mRNA molecules per cell) of BRCA2 ∆17_18 were observed in the cells containing the known spliceogenic variant BRCA2c.7988 A>T, but cells containing BRCA1c.671-2 A>G were not found to express significantly increased levels of BRCA1 ∆11, as had been shown previously. Instead, we show for each variant carrier sample that a higher proportion of cells expressed the targeted splicing event compared to control cells. These results indicate that BRCA1/2 mRNA is expressed stochastically, suggesting that previously reported results using RT-PCR may have been influenced by the number of cells with BRCA1/2 mRNA expression and may not represent an elevation of constitutive mRNA expression. Detection of mRNA expression in single cells allows for a more comprehensive understanding of how spliceogenic variants influence the expression of mRNA isoforms. However, further research is required to assess the utility of this technology to measure the expression of predicted spliceogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants in a diagnostic setting.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Alelos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Análise de Célula Única
10.
Int J Cancer ; 145(2): 401-414, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623411

RESUMO

A subset of genetic variants found through screening of patients with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome impact RNA splicing. Through target enrichment of the transcriptome, it is possible to perform deep-sequencing and to identify the different and even rare mRNA isoforms. A targeted RNA-seq approach was used to analyse the naturally-occurring splicing events for a panel of 8 breast and/or ovarian cancer susceptibility genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51C, RAD51D, PTEN, STK11, CDH1, TP53), 3 Lynch syndrome genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6) and the fanconi anaemia SLX4 gene, in which monoallelic mutations were found in non-BRCA families. For BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51C and RAD51D the results were validated by capillary electrophoresis and were compared to a non-targeted RNA-seq approach. We also compared splicing events from lymphoblastoid cell-lines with those from breast and ovarian fimbriae tissues. The potential of targeted RNA-seq to detect pathogenic changes in RNA-splicing was validated by the inclusion of samples with previously well characterized BRCA1/2 genetic variants. In our study, we update the catalogue of normal splicing events for BRCA1/2, provide an extensive catalogue of normal RAD51C and RAD51D alternative splicing, and list splicing events found for eight other genes. Additionally, we show that our approach allowed the identification of aberrant splicing events due to the presence of BRCA1/2 genetic variants and distinguished between complete and partial splicing events. In conclusion, targeted-RNA-seq can be very useful to classify variants based on their putative pathogenic impact on splicing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Processamento de RNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Eletroforese Capilar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação
11.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To enhance classification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes in the cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, we developed the cell-free in vitro MMR activity (CIMRA) assay. Here, we calibrate and validate the assay, enabling its integration with in silico and clinical data. METHODS: Two sets of previously classified MLH1 and MSH2 variants were selected from a curated MMR gene database, and their biochemical activity determined by the CIMRA assay. The assay was calibrated by regression analysis followed by symmetric cross-validation and Bayesian integration with in silico predictions of pathogenicity. CIMRA assay reproducibility was assessed in four laboratories. RESULTS: Concordance between the training runs met our prespecified validation criterion. The CIMRA assay alone correctly classified 65% of variants, with only 3% discordant classification. Bayesian integration with in silico predictions of pathogenicity increased the proportion of correctly classified variants to 87%, without changing the discordance rate. Interlaboratory results were highly reproducible. CONCLUSION: The CIMRA assay accurately predicts pathogenic and benign MMR gene variants. Quantitative combination of assay results with in silico analysis correctly classified the majority of variants. Using this calibration, CIMRA assay results can be integrated into the diagnostic algorithm for MMR gene variants.

12.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007752, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586411

RESUMO

The BRCA Challenge is a long-term data-sharing project initiated within the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH) to aggregate BRCA1 and BRCA2 data to support highly collaborative research activities. Its goal is to generate an informed and current understanding of the impact of genetic variation on cancer risk across the iconic cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Initially, reported variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 available from public databases were integrated into a single, newly created site, www.brcaexchange.org. The purpose of the BRCA Exchange is to provide the community with a reliable and easily accessible record of variants interpreted for a high-penetrance phenotype. More than 20,000 variants have been aggregated, three times the number found in the next-largest public database at the project's outset, of which approximately 7,250 have expert classifications. The data set is based on shared information from existing clinical databases-Breast Cancer Information Core (BIC), ClinVar, and the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)-as well as population databases, all linked to a single point of access. The BRCA Challenge has brought together the existing international Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium expert panel, along with expert clinicians, diagnosticians, researchers, and database providers, all with a common goal of advancing our understanding of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variation. Ongoing work includes direct contact with national centers with access to BRCA1 and BRCA2 diagnostic data to encourage data sharing, development of methods suitable for extraction of genetic variation at the level of individual laboratory reports, and engagement with participant communities to enable a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical significance of genetic variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Variação Genética , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas/ética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
13.
Bioinformatics ; 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475984

RESUMO

Summary: Assessing the pathogenicity of genetic variants can be a complex and challenging task. Spliceogenic variants, which alter mRNA splicing, may yield mature transcripts that encode non-functional protein products, an important predictor of Mendelian disease risk. However, most variant annotation tools do not adequately assess spliceogenicity outside the native splice site and thus the disease-causing potential of variants in other intronic and exonic regions is often overlooked. Here, we present a plugin for the Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor that packages MaxEntScan and extends its functionality to provide splice site predictions using a maximum entropy model. The plugin incorporates a sliding window algorithm to predict splice site loss or gain for any variant that overlaps a transcript feature. We also demonstrate the utility of the plugin by comparing our predictions to two mRNA splicing datasets containing several cancer-susceptibility genes. Availability: Source code is freely available under the Apache License, Version 2.0: https://github.com/Ensembl/VEP_plugins. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available online at Bioinformatics.

14.
Cancer Med ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485707

RESUMO

We hypothesized that endometrial carcinoma (EC) patients with a prior cancer diagnosis, after accounting for EC arising after tamoxifen-treated prior breast carcinoma, are more likely to have an underlying genetic basis. We used information from a population-based study to compare measured risk factors, tumor characteristics, survival, and known mismatch repair (MMR) pathogenic variant status for EC subgroups according to prior diagnosis of cancer (none, breast cancer tamoxifen-treated or not, Lynch Syndrome (LS)-associated cancer). Family history of any cancer was increased for EC cases with prior breast cancer, both tamoxifen treated (P = 0.005) and untreated (P = 0.01). EC cases with prior LS-associated cancer more often reported family history of LS-associated cancer (P = 0.04) and breast cancer (P = 0.05). EC patients with a germline pathogenic MMR gene variant were more likely to report a prior cancer than cases with a MMR proficient tumor (P = 0.0001), but more than half (54.5%) of MMR carriers reported no prior cancer. Women developing EC after tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer were significantly more likely to develop EC of malignant mixed mullerian tumor subtype (13.2% vs 2.6%, P = 1.3 × 10-6 ), present with stage IV disease (8.8% vs 1.2%, P = 1.6 × 10-6 ), and have poorer survival (HRadj 1.96; P = 0.001). While report of prior cancer is an indicator of MMR pathogenic variant status, molecular analysis of all ECs at diagnosis is warranted to detect all patients with LS. Results also indicate the importance of longer-term monitoring of women treated with tamoxifen for symptoms of EC, and the need for studies assessing the biological mechanism underlying the poorer prognosis of this subset of EC patients.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1553-1568, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311375

RESUMO

The variant curation guidelines published in 2015 by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) provided the genetics community with a framework to assess variant pathogenicity; however, these rules are not gene specific. Germline pathogenic variants in the CDH1 gene cause hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer, a clinically challenging cancer predisposition syndrome that often requires a multidisciplinary team of experts to be properly managed. Given this challenge, the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Hereditary Cancer Domain prioritized the development of the CDH1 variant curation expert panel (VCEP) to develop and implement rules for CDH1 variant classifications. Here, we describe the CDH1 specifications of the ACMG/AMP guidelines, which were developed and validated after a systematic evaluation of variants obtained from a cohort of clinical laboratory data encompassing ∼827,000 CDH1 sequenced alleles. Comparing previously reported germline variants that were classified using the 2015 ACMG/AMP guidelines to the CDH1 VCEP recommendations resulted in reduced variants of uncertain significance and facilitated resolution of variants with conflicted assertions in ClinVar. The ClinGen CDH1 VCEP recommends the use of these CDH1-specific guidelines for the assessment and classification of variants identified in this clinically actionable gene.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4083, 2018 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287823

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in highly penetrant genes are useful for the diagnosis, therapy, and surveillance for hereditary breast cancer. Large-scale studies are needed to inform future testing and variant classification processes in Japanese. We performed a case-control association study for variants in coding regions of 11 hereditary breast cancer genes in 7051 unselected breast cancer patients and 11,241 female controls of Japanese ancestry. Here, we identify 244 germline pathogenic variants. Pathogenic variants are found in 5.7% of patients, ranging from 15% in women diagnosed <40 years to 3.2% in patients ≥80 years, with BRCA1/2, explaining two-thirds of pathogenic variants identified at all ages. BRCA1/2, PALB2, and TP53 are significant causative genes. Patients with pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2 or PTEN have significantly younger age at diagnosis. In conclusion, BRCA1/2, PALB2, and TP53 are the major hereditary breast cancer genes, irrespective of age at diagnosis, in Japanese women.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294856

RESUMO

AIM & METHODS: An electronic survey of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia accredited pathology services was conducted to assess Lynch syndrome tumor screening practices and to identify barriers and capabilities to screen newly diagnosed colorectal and endometrial tumors in Australia. RESULTS: Australia lacks a national policy for universal mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) testing of incident colorectal and endometrial tumors cases. Routine Lynch syndrome tumor screening program for colorectal and/or endometrial tumors was applied by 95% (37/39) of laboratories. Tumor dMMR screening methods varied; MMR protein immunohistochemistry (IHC) alone was undertaken by 77% of 39 laboratories, 18% performed both IHC and microsatellite instability testing, 5% did not have the capacity to perform in-house testing. For colorectal tumors, 47% (17/36) reported following a universal approach without age limit, 30% (11/36) tested only "red flag" cases; 6% (3/36) on clinician request only. For endometrial tumors, 37% (12/33) reported clinician request generated testing, 27% (9/33) were screening only "red flag" cases, and 12% (4/33) carried out universal screening without an age criteria. BRAF V600E mutation testing of colorectal tumors demonstrating aberrant MLH1 protein expression by IHC was the most common secondary tumor test, with 53% of laboratories performing the test; 15% of laboratories also applied the BRAF V600E test to endometrial tumors with aberrant MLH1 expression despite no evidence for its utility. Tumor testing for MLH1 promoter methylation was performed by less than 15% laboratories. CONCLUSION: Although use of tumor screening for evidence of dMMR is widely available, protocols for its use in Australia vary widely. This national survey provides a snapshot of the current availability and practice of tumor dMMR screening and identifies the need for a uniform national testing policy.

19.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 2025-2039, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204945

RESUMO

The widespread use of next generation sequencing for clinical testing is detecting an escalating number of variants in noncoding regions of the genome. The clinical significance of the majority of these variants is currently unknown, which presents a significant clinical challenge. We have screened over 6,000 early-onset and/or familial breast cancer (BC) cases collected by the ENIGMA consortium for sequence variants in the 5' noncoding regions of BC susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, and identified 141 rare variants with global minor allele frequency < 0.01, 76 of which have not been reported previously. Bioinformatic analysis identified a set of 21 variants most likely to impact transcriptional regulation, and luciferase reporter assays detected altered promoter activity for four of these variants. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that three of these altered the binding of proteins to the respective BRCA1 or BRCA2 promoter regions, including NFYA binding to BRCA1:c.-287C>T and PAX5 binding to BRCA2:c.-296C>T. Clinical classification of variants affecting promoter activity, using existing prediction models, found no evidence to suggest that these variants confer a high risk of disease. Further studies are required to determine if such variation may be associated with a moderate or low risk of BC.

20.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 1764-1773, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240537

RESUMO

Pathogenic germline variants in TP53 predispose carriers to the multi-cancer Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Widespread multigene panel testing is identifying TP53 pathogenic variants in breast cancer patients outside the strict clinical criteria recommended for LFS testing. We aimed to assess frequency and clinical implications of TP53 pathogenic variants in breast cancer cohorts ascertained outside LFS. Classification of TP53 germline variants reported in 59 breast cancer studies, and publicly available population control sets was reviewed and identified evidence for misclassification of variants. TP53 pathogenic variant frequency was determined for: breast cancer studies grouped by ascertainment characteristics; breast cancer cohorts undergoing panel testing; and population controls. Early age of breast cancer onset, regardless of family history or BRCA1/BRCA2 previous testing, had the highest pick-up rate for TP53 carriers. Patients at risk of hereditary breast cancer unselected for features of LFS carried TP53 pathogenic variants at a frequency comparable to that of other non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer predisposing genes, and ∼threefold more than reported in population controls. These results have implications for the implementation of TP53 testing in broader clinical settings, and suggest urgent need to investigate cancer risks associated with TP53 pathogenic variants in individuals outside the LFS spectrum.

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