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2.
J Hosp Infect ; 101(1): 53-59, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and with excess costs. Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are the most common HCAIs in neonates and children. AIM: To establish national benchmark data for rates of CLABSI in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (NICUs and PICUs) and paediatric oncology units (ONCs). METHODS: Active surveillance for CLABSI was conducted from June 2016 to February 2017. A collaborative of 14 NICUs, four PICUs, and six ONCs participated in the programme. Surveillance definitions of central line (CL), central line utilization (CLU) ratio, CLABSI event, and CLABSI rate were based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2014 National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. Medical records were assessed daily for calculating CL-days, patient-days, and susceptibility of isolated organisms. FINDINGS: A total of 111 CLABSI episodes were recorded. The overall mean CLABSI rate was 4.41 infections per 1000 CL-days, and the CLU ratio was 0.31. CLABSI rates were 6.02 in NICUs, 6.09 in PICUs, and 2.78 per 1000 CL-days in ONCs. A total of 123 pathogens were isolated. The most common pathogens were Enterobacteriaceae (36%), followed by Gram-positive cocci (29%), non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria (16%), and fungi (16%). Overall, 37% of Gram-negative pathogens were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and 37% to carbapenems. CONCLUSION: Nationally representative CLABSI rates were determined for paediatric patients. These data could be used to benchmark and serve as baseline data for the design and evaluation of infection control and antimicrobial stewardship interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Benchmarking , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Grécia/epidemiologia , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
3.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 52(3): 445-451, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27941776

RESUMO

We analyzed the use of low-dose alemtuzumab in a cohort of 158 consecutive patients who underwent allogeneic PBSC transplantation. Patients with high-risk acute leukemia were prospectively screened for prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusion (pDLI). Lymphocytes were administered repeatedly at low and non-escalating doses (0.5-1 × 106/kg). Low-dose alemtuzumab was effective in prevention of acute GvHD after sibling or well-matched unrelated transplantation, whereas a more intensified approach was needed after mismatched transplantation. The cumulative incidence of chronic moderate/severe chronic-GvHD (cGvHD) was 15.6%. In total, 63 high-risk leukemia patients were eligible for pDLI. Only 1 out of the 39 pDLI recipients relapsed as compared with 7 out of the 24 recipients, who did not receive pDLI due to logistical hurdles. In multivariate analysis, the use of adjuvant lymphocyte therapy was significantly associated with reduced incidence of relapse and improved disease-free survival. In summary, low-dose alemtuzumab confers to a low cGvHD incidence and the administration of pDLIs in this context is very likely to reduce relapse risk in high risk leukemia patients. This is translated in an estimated 5-year probability of GvHD-free and relapse-free survival of 43.3% for the 136 leukemia patients.


Assuntos
Alemtuzumab/administração & dosagem , Aloenxertos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia , Transfusão de Linfócitos , Irmãos , Doadores não Relacionados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Leucemia/mortalidade , Leucemia/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Arch Dis Child ; 101(1): 72-6, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26416900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the availability and source of guidelines for common infections in European paediatric hospitals and determine their content and characteristics. DESIGN: Participating hospitals completed an online questionnaire on the availability and characteristics of antibiotic prescribing guidelines and on empirical antibiotic treatment including duration of therapy for 5 common infection syndromes: respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin and soft tissue, osteoarticular and sepsis in neonates and children. RESULTS: 84 hospitals from 19 European countries participated in the survey of which 74 confirmed the existence of guidelines. Complete guidelines (existing guidelines for all requested infection syndromes) were reported by 20% of hospitals and the majority (71%) used a range of different sources. Guidelines most commonly available were those for urinary tract infection (UTI) (74%), neonatal sepsis (71%) and sepsis in children (65%). Penicillin and amoxicillin were the antibiotics most commonly recommended for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) (up to 76%), cephalosporin for UTI (up to 50%) and for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and bone infection (20% and 30%, respectively). Antistaphylococcal penicillins were recommended for SSTIs and bone infections in 43% and 36%, respectively. Recommendations for neonatal sepsis included 20 different antibiotic combinations. Duration of therapy guidelines was mostly available for RTI and UTI (82%). A third of hospitals with guidelines for sepsis provided recommendations for length of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive antibiotic guideline recommendations are generally lacking from European paediatric hospitals. We documented multiple antibiotics and combinations for most infections. Considerable improvement in the quality of guidelines and their evidence base is required, linking empirical therapy to resistance rates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Hospitais Pediátricos/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Esquema de Medicação , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 19(12): 1463-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26614187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10) as a diagnostic marker for tuberculous infection in children, particularly in relation to its differential diagnostic performance in young children. DESIGN AND RESULTS: A case-control study was conducted among 161 children and adolescents (mean age 6.3 years ± standard deviation 1.7; males n = 79, 49%). Fifty-four (33.5%) had active TB, 53 (33%) had latent tuberculous infection (LTBI), and 54 (33.5%) were non-LTBI controls. Unstimulated IP-10 levels did not differ between groups (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). TB-specific antigen stimulated IP-10 levels were more profoundly increased in infected groups than in controls (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). None of the IP-10-based diagnostic indexes demonstrated the ability to discriminate active disease from LTBI. A value of IP-10 ⩾ 1222 pg/ml had 83.3% sensitivity, 79.6% specificity, 80.4% positive predictive value and 82.7% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of LTBI. IP-10 based indexes demonstrated a trend towards better performance in the population group aged <5 years. CONCLUSION: The IP-10 assay could be useful in improving the diagnosis of LTBI in patients aged <5 years in combination with existing interferon-gamma release assays.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Teste Tuberculínico
7.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 16(6): 749-55, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22507870

RESUMO

SETTING: A hospital referral center for childhood tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological and clinical features of childhood TB in the Greater Athens area in the last decade. DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients aged <14 years treated for active TB between January 2000 and December 2009 at our pediatric TB clinic and compared the results with the patient turnover during the previous decade (1990-1999). Data concerning demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 321 children (median age 5.57 years, 157 males) with active TB were identified. About one third originated from areas where TB was previously recognized to be highly endemic. Twenty-three children (7%) had extra-pulmonary TB, and 61% of them originated from TB-endemic areas. Bacteriological confirmation was obtained in 40% of patients from whom specimens were obtained: 1 of 26 (3.8%) strains was multidrug-resistant. Most cases with drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis were noted among immigrant children. The average annual TB incidence was estimated at 5.37 per 100 000 for children aged <14 years in the Greater Athens area. Time trend analysis for the 20-year period revealed a significant reduction in the total number of TB cases (P = 0.002) and in TB among children from low-incidence countries (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In our settings, active TB is decreasing among children of Greek origin; disease epidemiology and drug resistance is influenced by the increasing influx of immigrants from areas where the disease is highly prevalent.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/etnologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
8.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 16(3): 384-90, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22230051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of the Gen-Probe Amplified MTD® Test (AMTD) for childhood tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis compared to conventional culture. DESIGN: We retrospectively studied 121 childhood cases (73 males; median age 7 years, range 1-16). Pulmonary samples (104/152, 68%) included gastric aspirates (n = 53), induced sputum samples (n = 43), bronchial aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage (n = 8). Extra-pulmonary samples (48/152, 32%) included lymph nodes (n = 34) and other sterile fluids (n = 14). Specimens were examined using acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy, AMTD and bacterial culture using BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 and Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media. RESULTS: A clinical diagnosis of TB was made in 50/121 (41%) children (43/50 pulmonary disease). AFB microscopy was positive in 6%; Mycobacterium tuberculosis was recovered by culture from 16/50 (32%) and AMTD was positive in 29/50 (58%). AMTD sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value compared to culture were respectively 100%, 85%, 50% and 100%. For pulmonary vs. extra-pulmonary disease, the performance of AMTD compared to culture was respectively 100%, 77%, 46% and 100% vs. 100%, 97.5%, 75% and 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Nucleic acid amplification tests are more sensitive and very specific methods for the rapid detection of M. tuberculosis. The AMTD technique increases TB detection in children compared to conventional culture.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
9.
Arch Dis Child ; 94(5): 337-40, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19066174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse changes in clinical indications for community antibiotic prescribing for children in the UK between 1996 and 2006 and relate these findings to the new NICE guidelines for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in children. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHOD: The IMS Health Mediplus database was used to obtain annual antibiotic prescribing rates and associated clinical indications in 0-18-year-old patients between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2006 in the UK. RESULTS: Antibiotic prescribing declined by 24% between 1996 and 2000 but increased again by 10% during 2003-2006. Respiratory tract infection was the most common indication for which an antibiotic was prescribed, followed by "abnormal signs and symptoms", ear and skin infections. Antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory tract infections have decreased by 31% (p<0.01) mainly because of reduced prescribing for lower respiratory tract infections (56% decline, p<0.001) and specific upper respiratory tract infections including tonsillitis/pharyngitis (48% decline, p<0.001) and otitis (46% decline, p<0.001). Prescribing for non-specific upper respiratory tract infection increased fourfold (p<0.001). Prescribing for "abnormal signs and symptoms" increased significantly since 2001 (40% increase, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: There has been a marked decrease in community antibiotic prescribing linked to lower respiratory tract infection, tonsillitis, pharyngitis and otitis. Overall prescribing is now increasing again but is associated with non-specific upper respiratory tract infection diagnoses. General practitioners may be avoiding using diagnoses where formal guidance suggests antibiotic prescribing is not indicated. The new NICE guidance on upper respiratory tract infections is at risk of being ignored.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Otite/tratamento farmacológico , Faringite/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tonsilite/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Vaccine ; 24(33-34): 5970-6, 2006 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16759761

RESUMO

Decisions regarding the introduction of influenza immunization in healthy children require an accurate evaluation of influenza disease burden not only in the inpatient but also in the outpatient setting. We prospectively examined the impact of virologically confirmed influenza in 1462 outpatient children (> or = 6 months to < 14 years) and their families, during two consecutive influenza seasons. Influenza was documented in 573/1462 (39%) outpatients with febrile respiratory illness and accounted for 13.5% of all outpatient visits during the 14 weeks of each season. Acute otitis media (AOM) was the most common complication (18.5%) and about 40% of influenza positive patients received antibiotics. AOM and antibiotic use were more common in children younger than 5 years of age who accounted for 58% of all patients. For each child sick with influenza a mean of 1.34 workdays were lost by the parents. Family members of influenza positive children were more likely to develop a secondary respiratory illness and to require medical visits and antibiotic prescriptions. Influenza is associated with a heavy morbidity burden in the community that may be reduced considerably with the implementation of immunization in children younger than 5 years of age.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/complicações , Masculino , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Otite Média/etiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 7(3): 248-53, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12661839

RESUMO

SETTING: A hospital referral centre for childhood tuberculosis in Athens. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the screening programme implemented for childhood tuberculosis, through its impact on the epidemiological index. DESIGN: In Greece, tuberculosis has been systematically screened for in children since 1991 using the tuberculin skin test. The epidemiological and clinical profiles of all tuberculous children who attended the TB clinic were compared. The children were divided into those who attended in 1982-1990 and those who did so in 1991-1999. RESULTS: A total of 1122 TB patients were screened. In the second period there was an increase in numbers of immigrant children (3% vs. 28%, P = 0.0001), the rate of extra-pulmonary TB decreased (16% vs. 7.6%, P = 0.0001), patients identified by the screening programme increased (19% vs. 57%, P = 0.0001) and the number of symptomatic children fell (51% vs. 16%, P = 0.0001). The proportion of children who failed to attend for regular follow-up was lower during the second period (20% vs. 7%, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the screening programme applied in Greece during the last decade has contributed to the early identification of tuberculosis, and the limitation of symptomatic patients and extrapulmonary TB cases.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose/terapia
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